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The cities receive virtually all of the new citizens, from foreign countries, virtually all of the people coming from the South, the nonwhites coming from the South into our great cities and giving us tremendous problems.
Now we must assimilate those people and we are working as hard as we know how to do so. We are confident that we will succeed. But it gives us tremendous problems for the police department, the fire department, health and welfare departments, and everything that goes with the problems of low-income groups coming into the cities.
In the older eastern cities you have the situation of the city becoming more and more a sort of ghetto. The wealthy, and young families beginning to make more money, move out to the suburbs. These are entirely white families. Legislative barriers are set up, with the help of State legislatures, whereby our surrounding suburbs are becoming a sort of belt and the cities are becoming more and more limited to the very-low-income groups and nonwhite groups.
At the same time the suburbs, of course, are dependent on the cities for their own wealth and prosperity. They want the cities maintained, but they don't want to pay any part of the share of doing it.
We cannot continue to set up one class against another. That is being done today with the cities against the suburbs. We have to work out some program for the proper allocation of our industry, and as I think Mayor Zeidler said, every mayor of a big city would feel that actually there should be one government-one local governmentfor every great metropolitan area and that this hodgepodge of governments creates conflicts, creates an enormous manner of additional problems, and leads to the inefficient, terrible tax burdens and makes it difficult to have any proper development in the area to meet the problems of democracy or the problems of the cold war. We think it is leaving us in a very vulnerable position in the tremendous competition in which we are going to be engaged, not only with the Communist world, but the free world in the years to come.
We think that it is time for the Congress to make an overall study of our urban civilization and what is required to see that our urban civilization works, and that democracy works in an urban civilization, and that we continue to be strong and ever stronger. That is what it boils down to, Mr. Chairman.
Senator HUMPHREY. Thank you.
Senator GRUENING. I feel this legislation is imperative and I hope we can proceed with it. I think that this eastern seaboard area is the most critical area.
Mr. DILWORTII. It is.
Senator GRUENING. The great population extending from Philadelphia to Boston on down the eastern seaboard--something has to be done about the special problems that have arisen there. They have to be faced. I know they are extremely complex. It is not going to be simple to find adequate solutions.
As you point out, these rivalries and conflicts of interest militate against any solution which will not be as beneficial to some groups as to others. They are raising serious problems and we must face them.
Senator HUMPHREY. Mayor Dilworth, I want to thank you for your presentation. The subject matter is one that is long overdue for congressional attention. I am confident that Congress will take some action.
We will expedite the work on this bill in this particular committee and hope to report it favorably on the calendar and if we can get similar action in the other body which I think we can, we will be on
One of the things that has disturbed me is that the American Farm Bureau Federation, in their weekly newsletter recently, saw fit to criticize certain comments that were made by Mayor Poulson on farm price supports at the U.S. conference of mayors in Los Angeles.
Now, the farm bureau members of my State are very fine, decent, intelligent, and enlightened members.
For some reason or another, however, that enlightenment seems to have difficulty working itself up to some of its members here in Washington. They decided to pick out of context contents of some of Mayor Poulson's remarks about farm price supports.
As I recall the mayor's statement, it was that he was not opposing those as such. He was only pointing out that here was one area of the economy that was receiving Federal attention. What about our cities? He was pleading for his own.
My comment at the meeting was to the effect that we need a strong and prosperous farm economy, but there is a need, also, for Federal action in the urban areas.
Now I mention this because it seems to me that one of the areas that we are going to need cooperation from is the area of our farm groups.
I have a feeling that the grain industry, the National Milk Producers and others will be interested in this kind of legislation. I am going to ask for their comments.
I might say that since the American Farm Bureau's Washington lobbyists have seen fit to interest themselves in the U.S. conference of mayors that I will have them testify as to how they view this proposal.
Most of the sons of our farm families have moved to the city and I am of the opinion that they are entitled to the same wholesome clean living in the city that they had in their country home.
Mr. DILWORTH. I think what you say is absolutely true, sir. Every U.S. mayor is both a good enough citizen and a good enough politician to realize you never further your own cause by running down somebody else.
Every mayor heard out there very wholeheartedly said that they knew we had to aid the farms, that a farm program was essential. The foreign aid programs are essential too, but they thought due to historical reason and what-have-you, that the Nation as a whole was as yet unaware of the enormous problem created by our urban civilization and that it had been somewhat neglected.
Senator HUMPHREY. Thank you very much, Mayor Dilworth.
I will now ask to be placed in the record the communication of county officials addressed to Senator McClellan, the chairman of the Government Operations Committee.
The letter indicates the desire or the disappointment of the National Association of County Officials on S. 1431.
Senator Clark has already indicated that that omission was inadvertent and that he wishes to modify the bill to provide for inclusion of their membership. (The letter referred to follows:)
NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF COUNTY OFFICIALS,
Washington, D.C., July 22, 1959. Re hearings before Subcommittee on Reorganization and International Organ
izations on S. 1431.
DEAB SENATOR MCCLELLAN: The convening of the 23d annual conference of the National Association of County Officials (NACO), in Detroit, Mich., makes it impossible for a representative of this association to appear before a subcommittee of your Committee on Government Operations for the purpose of testifying on S. 1431, a bill to provide for the establishment of a Commission on Metropolitan Problems. However, Mr. Chairman, we are vitally interested in the subject legislation and respectfully request that the following brief statement be received and printed with the record of the hearings on S. 1431.
While this association, representing nearly 6,000 elected and appointed county officials in 47 States, believes that the greatest immediate need of local govern. ments is for the creation of a permanent Advisory Commission on Intergovern. mental Relations with all levels of government fairly and adequately represented (and NACO has so testified on bills in this Congress which would create such an advisory body), we nevertheless feel that the creation of a metropolitan study commission would assist greatly in meeting and overcoming many vexatious metropolitan problems. There is certainly a desperate and seemingly insatiable need for research and study in coming to grips with the problems of the exploding metropolis.
However, if this Congress does establish a Commission on Metropolitan Problems we seriously urge that all levels of government affected by the metropolitan problem have adequate representation. Surely, counties are greatly affected by the problems of the sprawling, growing metropolis. Therefore, any solution to metropolitan area problems must depend on county action. For this reason, Mr. Chairman, we are disappointed to note an omission in S. 1431 fatal to the achievement of its avowed objectives—the failure to provide for county repre sentation.
Federal, State, and municipal governments are afforded adequate representation on the Commission which would be established under S. 1431, but county government, without whose interest and action broad metropolitan area problems can never be solved, is unwisely and unfairly ignored.
NACO feels that it is imperative that the Commission succeed in its objectives. For that reason, Mr. Chairman, we respectfully urge that county government have at least two representatives on the Commission. In this regard, it should be noted that on the House side, Congressman Bentley has introduced H.R. 7282, a bill likewise creating a Commission on Metropolitan Problems. Mr. Bentley's bill wisely recognized the indispensable role of counties in any study group of this kind by providing for representation of counties by two county legislative officials and two county administrative officials. Your consideration of the foregoing recommendation is sincerely appreciated. Sincerely,
BERNARD F. HILLEN BRAND,
Executive Director. Senator HUMPHREY. Thank you very much, Mayor Dilworth.
It has been nice having you here and we want to congratulate you on a good job.
The next witness is Mayor Ben West, of Nashville, Tenn.
STATEMENT OF HON. BEN WEST, MAYOR, NASHVILLE, TENN.
Mr. WEST. Mr. Chairman, I have filed a statement here for the consideration of the committee and because of the lateness of the hour, I will not read it.
Senator HUMPHREY. It will be put into the record at this point. (The statement referred to follows:)
STATEMENT OF BEN WEST, MAYOR OF NASHVILLE, TENN., ON BEHALF OF THE
AMERICAN MUNICIPAL ASSOCIATION
Mr. Chairman, members of the subcommittee, my name is Ben West. I an the mayor of Nashville, Tenn. I am appearing before you today, both for my own city of Nashville and on behalf of the American Municipal Association. I had the honor of serving as president of the American Municipal Association during 1957, on the executive committee in 1958, and this year I am chairman of the association's resolutions committee.
At the association's most recent American Municipal Congress, held in Boston last December, the membership approved a policy statement relating to metropolitan problems--parts of which I should like to read to you now, as I believe them to be pertinent to these hearings.
"METROPOLITAN PROBLEMS "Approximately three-fifths of our expanding population is concentrated in 173 metropolitan areas. These include territory in 42 States and the District of Columbia. In these areas people constantly are migrating across the core city boundaries into the suburbs. At the same time, newcomers are establishing homes, businesses, and factories just beyond the boundaries of the central cities. Both types of movement have brought with them a demand for a high level of municipal-type services. The overall result is commonly referred to as the metropolitan problem. Actually, this is a series and combination of major problems. These include (1) jurisdictional limitations or other inadequacies of existing governmental organizations, (2) area-wide service and control deficiencies, (3) financial inequities, inequalities, and weaknesses, and (4) difficulties in or lack of popular control of governments in the area.
"Local government in many such areas has responded to the challenge with bold new experiments. Special districts, cooperative metropolitan planning, intergovernmental contracting for services, consolidated city-county government, and other devices are being tried. Currently under study are several proposals to create general metropolitan units or federations of existing local governments.
"As the national organization representing nearly 13,000 municipal governments, the American Municipal Association encourages these experiments in the belief that the solution to metropolitan problems requires new concepts in local government organization, functions, and finances. At the same time it believes that, although this may not be feasible for some cities, intelligent and timely use of the annexation device, State laws permitting, coupled with some realinement of functions between cities and counties and with proper safeguards against unsound incorporation of new cities, may yet prove the best solution in many, perhaps most, metropolitan areas. In any event, such an approach can be developed into an effective preventative."
As it now becoming widely recognized, in part evidenced by the hearings being conducted by you gentlemen today, metropolitan area problems are also the concern of State and Federal Government.
State government, with its constitutional and statutory responsibility for distribution of functions and powers to various units, has a vital stake.
The American Municipal Association welcomes the interest of the Congress as evidenced by the measures now being considered concerning the Nation's urban areas. One reason is because we believe the existence of a study commission on metropolitan areas will contribute materially to the development of a long-needed Federal urban policy that spells out in broad terms the manner in which the programs of the Federal Government affecting the Nation's urban areas can be related and coordinated so as to further promote the sound, orderly, and economic growth of those areas.
Federal concern for the future growth and development of metropolitan areas is warranted by their very size and scope and their impact on the Nation.. It is within the metropolitan areas that most of the Nation's productive capacity is located. I believe it is an inescapable conclusion that the manner in which the metropolitan areas continue to grow and the pattern of their growth will have a critical bearing on the Nation's future economic growth.
Metropolitan areas frequently transcend State boundaries and continue to grow in total disregard of all corporate limits. Many of the most pressing problems attendant to this growth are beyond the power of local governments to solve alone, and are also well beyond the demonstrated capacity of the State to deal with effectively.
Also such a study commission could encourage the development of additional ways and means of handling such problems as water pollution, air pollution, land use control, housing, urban renewal, and transportation—either individually or as a group on a metropolitan area basis. I would like to emphasize here that by handling I mean the study and analysis of the specific needs, the cost to each community involved and the kind of organization by which each problem might be most effectively solved.
The Federal Government could, on the basis of the studies proposed to be conducted by the metropolitan study commission, devise positive ways and means of encouraging local governments to work together effectively toward the solution of their common and pressing problems without sacrificing their sense of community responsibility or their ability to control their own affairs.
As some of you may know, the city of Nashville has had some experience in attempting to create one government for the Nashville Davidson County metropolitan area. Our effort to create metro for the area proved, unfortunately I think, a failure. However, it did make very clear to me and I believe to most of the other individuals who were involved in the effort that metro government can only be developed successfully on the basis of an intimate knowledge of the unique conditions, both social and economic, that exist in that particular
I don't believe you can generalize about how one area can best achieve metro government nor do I believe it is true that one form of metro government which has proved successful in one area is necessarily good for another area.
What happened in Nashville was briefly as follows:
The proposed metropolitan charter for Nashville and Davidson County was drafted by a charter commission, appointed pursuant to the provisions of the enabling act. A preliminary draft was formulated and presented to the public in one of the most intense publicity campaigns ever witnessed locally.
Practically every civic organization endorsed it, all the newspapers were enthusiastically in favor of it. The chamber of commerce, trades and labor council, radio and TV stations wrote about it and plugged it at every opportunity.
Public hearings were held by the commission. Everyone who desired was given the chance to be heard. A speakers’ bureau was formed and speakers furnished to all organizations requesting information on the subject.
Those suggestions raised which were deemed meritorious were incorporated in the revised and final version of the charter as submitted to referendum.
Opposition was spearheaded by rural groups, and their campaign was centered principally in the very late stages just before the referendum.
The referendum vote was held on June 17, 1958. The voters of both city and county must favor before adoption. The people of Nashville voted in favor of the adoption by a substantial majority. The county residents defeated it overwhelmingly. Sic semper metro.
Finally, the Federal Government could, through the vehicle of such a study commission, bring a degree of objectivity into the problem of metropolitan government and metropolitan problems which has heretofore been for the most part absent. It could also make a great and lasting contribution to solution of many urban problems by promoting the coordination between Federal agencies whose programs affect local governments.
Also, the time has come for the Federal Government to start considering the metropolitan area as an entity in its handling of its grant-in-aid programs. For example, many city-based institutions such as hospitals and airports serve large population groups in wide geographic areas, and the fact certainly ought to be recognized in establishing allocation formulas for Federal grants-in-aid for these programs.
Our future as a Nation and as a world leader will depend to a large extent on our ability to handle the tremendous problems of domestic growth and de velopment now facing us. Most of our population growth, and hence our eco