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WORKINGMEN'S PARTIES IN NEW YORK .
SPEED OF THE MOVEMENT
NEW ENGLAND ASSOCIATION OF FARMERS,
MECHANICS AND OTHER WORKINGMEN
RESULTS OF THE AWAKENING
THE CITY TRADES' UNION .
TRADE UNIONISM IN ACTION.
THE NATIONAL TRADES' UNION.
PREMATURE NATIONAL TRADE UNIONS.
PART III. TRADE UNIONISM (1833-1839)
BY EDWARD B. MITTELMAN
THE TURN TO TRADE UNIONISM
I FIRST DATES ON WHICH TRADE SOCIE-
TIES APPEARED IN NEW YORK, BAL-
TIMORE, PHILADELPHIA, AND BOS-
STRIKES, 1833-1837 .
PART IV. HUMANITARIANISM (1840-1860) BY HENRY E. HOAGLAND
PART V. NATIONALISATION (1860-1877)
BY JOHN B. ANDREWS
New Conditions. Railway construction, 3. Through-freight lines, 4.
Railway consolidations, 4. Appearance of the wholesale jobber, 5. The
first national trade unions, 5.
The Moulders. William H. Sylvis, 6. The effect of the extension of the
market on the moulder's trade, 6. The national union, 7. Its weakness, 7.
The Machinists and Blacksmiths. Evils in the trade, 8. The national
union, 9. Strike against the Baldwin Locomotive Works, 9. Outbreak
of the War depression, 9. Other national unions, 10.
Unemployment and Impending War. The workingmen's opposition to
war, 10. Louisville and Philadelphia, 10. Fort Sumter and labour's
change of attitude, 11.
THE WAR PERIOD, 1861-1865 .
War and Prices. The lethargy of the trade unions, 13. Legal ten-
der acts, 14. War prosperity and its beneficiaries, 14. Cost of living and
The Labour Press. Fincher's Trades Review, 15. The Workingman's
Advocate, 16. The Daily Evening Voice, 16. Other papers, 17.
Local Unions. The incentive for organisation, 17. The wave of or-
ganisation during the war, 18.
The Trades' Assemblies. Progress of the trades' assemblies, 22. Strikes,
23. Functions of the trades' assemblies, 23. The Philadelphia trades'
assembly, a typical assembly, 24.
Employers' Associations. Local and national associations, 26. The
Employers' General Association of Michigan, 26. The reply of the trade
unions, 29. Richard F. Trevellick, 29. New York Masters Builders' Asso-
ciation, 29. Master Mechanics of Boston, 30. The associated employers
and the eight-hour movement of 1872, 31. The attempted "exclusive agree-
ment," 32. Attitude towards trade agreements, 33.
International Industrial Assembly of North America. The national
trade unions and federation, 33. The trades' assemblies and federation,
34. The Louisville call, 34. The convention in Louisville, 35. Assistance
during strikes, 36. Attitude towards co-operation and legislation, 37.
The constitution and the national trade unions, 37. Politics, 38. Causes
of failure, 38.
Distributive Co-operation. Cost of living, 39. Thomas Phillips, 39.
The Rochdale plan, 40. The turn towards productive co-operation, 41.
THE NATIONAL TRADE UNIONS, 1864-1873 .
Causes and General Progress. Effect of the nationalisation of the mar-
ket, 43. National trade unions in thirties, 43. The effect of national
labour competition, 44. Effect of employers' associations, 44. Effect of
machinery and the division of labour, 44. Organisation of national trade
unions, 1861-1873, 45. Growth of their membership, 47. The national
trade union the paramount aspect of nationalisation, 48.
The Moulders. Epitomise the labour movement, 48. Activities during
the war, 48. Beginning of employers' associations, 49. Lull in the organ-
isation of employers during the period of prosperity, 49. West and
East, 50. American National Stove Manufacturers' and Iron Founders'
Association, 50. Apprenticeship question, 50. The strike in Albany and
Troy, 51. Withdrawal of the Buffalo and St. Louis foundrymen from
the Association, 51. The general strike against wage reductions, 51.
Defeat of the union, 52. Restriction on strikes by the national union,
52. Turn to co-operation, 53. Sylvis' view on the solution of the labour
question, 53. Co-operative shops, 53. The Troy shops, 54. Their busi-
ness success but failure as co-operative enterprises, 54. Disintegration
of the employers' association, 55. Revival of trade unionism, 55.
Machinists and Blacksmiths. The intellectual ascendency in the labour
movement, 56. Employers' associations, 56. Effect of the depression, 57.
Effect of the eight-hour agitation on the union, 57. Revival in 1870,
Printers. The National Typographical Union, 58. "Conditional mem-
bership," 58. The national strike fund, 59. The persistent localist ten-
dency, 59. Northwestern Publishers' Association, 61.
Locomotive Engineers. The cause of nationalisation, 61. Piece work,
62. Brotherhood of the Footboard, 62. Brotherhood of Locomotive En-
gineers, 62. Charles Wilson and his attitude towards public opinion, 63.
Strike on the Michigan Southern, 64. The railway's blacklist, 64. The
brotherhood's attitude towards incorporation, 65. The brotherhood con-
servatism, 65. Discontent of the local branches, 66. Wilson's incorpora-
tion move, 66. Failure in Congress, 67. Growth of the opposition to
Wilson, 67. His removal from office, 67. P. M. Arthur, 67. The benefit
Cigar Makers. Effect of the war revenue law, 69. Growth of the
international union, 1864-1869, 70. The introduction of the mould, 71.
The strike against the mould, 72. The attitude towards the mould of the
conventions of 1867 and 1872, 72. Failure of the anti-mould policy, 73.
Coopers. Effect of the machine, 74. Martin A. Foran, 75. Career of the
International Coopers' Union, 75. Robert Schilling, 76. Co-operative at-
Knights of St. Crispin. The factory system, 76. "Green hands," 77.
Aim of the Crispins, 77. Crispin strikes, 78. Their principal causes, 78.
Attitude towards co-operation, 79.
Sons of Vulcan. The puddler's bargaining advantage, 80. The sliding
scale agreement, 80.
Restrictive Policies Apprenticeship. Beginning of restrictive policies, 81.
Effect of the wider market on apprenticeship, 81. Effect of the increased
scale of production, 81. "Botches," 82. Sylvis' view, 82. Limitation of
numbers, 82. Policies of the national trade unions, 83. Regulation of
apprenticeship in the printer's trade, 83.
THE NATIONAL LABOR UNION, 1866-1872. II, 85
The Labour Movement in Europe and America. Eight-hour ques-
tion, 87. Ira Steward and his wage theory, 87. Stewardism contrasted
with socialism, 90. Stewardism and trade-unionism, 91. Stewardism and
political action, 91. Boston Labor Reform Association, 91. Grand
Eight-Hour League of Massachusetts, 92. Massachusetts labour politics,
Labour politics in Philadelphia, 93. Fincher's opposition to politics,
93. Return of the soldiers - -a stimulus to the eight-hour movement, 94.
The question of national federation, 94. The move by trades' assemblies,
94. New York State Workingmen's Assembly, 95. The move by the na-
tional trade unions, 96. The compromise, 96.
Labour Congress of 1866. Representation, 96. Attitude toward trade
unionism and legislation, 98. The eight-hour question at the congress,
98. Resolution in political action, 99. The land question, 100. Co-
operation, 101. Form of organisation, 101.
Eight Hours and Politics. Congressional election of 1866, 102. In-
dependent politics outside Massachusetts, 103. Eight-hours before Con-
gress, 104. Eight-hours before President Johnson, 104. Eight-hours be-
fore the General Court of Massachusetts, 105. The special commission of
1865, 106. The commission of 1866, 107. E. H. Rogers, 107. Eight-hour
bills in other States, 108. Causes of the failure, 109.
Co-operation. Co-operative workshops, 111. Productive co-operation in
various trades, 111.
Labour Congress of 1867. Activity of the National Labor Union dur-
ing the year, 112. Address to the Workingmen of the United States, 113.
Viewpoint of the "producing classes," 114. Representation at the Con-
gress of 1867, 115. The constitution, 116. The immigrant question and
the American Emigrant Company, 117. The question of the Negro, 118.
Greenbackism. The popularity of greenbackism among the various ele-
ments at Labour Congress, 119. A. C. Cameron, 119. Alexander Camp-
bell, 120. The new Kelloggism," 121. Greenbackism contrasted with
socialism and anarchism, 121. Greenbackism as a remedy against de-
pressions, 122. "Declaration of Principles," 122. The depression, 1866-
1868, 123. Progress of co-operation, 124.
Eight Hours. Government employés and the eight-hour day, 124. The
Labour Congress of 1868, 125. The conference on the presidential elec-
tion, 125. Representation at the congress, 126. Women delegates, 127.
Discussion on greenbackism, 128. Discussion on strikes, 129. The first
lobbying committee, 130. Sylvis' presidency, 130.
The International Workingmen's Association. International regulation
of immigration, 131. Sylvis' attitude towards the International, 132.
Sylvis' death, 132. Cameron's mission to Basle, 132.
Labour Congress of 1869. Representation, 133. Effect of Sylvis' death,
The Negroes. Invasion of industries, 134. Causes of their separate or-
ganisation, 135. Maryland State Coloured Labour Convention of 1869, 136.
Supremacy of the politicians, 137.
Politics in Massachusetts. New England Labour Reform League, 138.
American proudhonism and the intellectuals, 139. The Crispins and poli-
tics, 140. The State Labour Reform Convention, 140. The Crispins and
incorporation, 140. The State campaign of 1869, 141. Boston municipal
election, 142. Wendell Phillips and the State election of 1870, 143. The
end of labour politics in Massachusetts, 144.
Labour Congress of 1870. The Negro question, 144. Decision to call a
political convention, 145. Changes in the constitution, 146.
Chinese Exclusion. The industrial situation in California during the
sixties, 147. Early anti-Chinese movement in California, 147. The Me-
chanics' State Council, 148. The effect of the transcontinental railway on
the California industries, 148. The National Labor Union and the Chinese
question in 1869, 149. The North Adams, Mass., incident, 149. The Bur-
lingame treaty with China, 149. The National Labor Union and the Chi-
nese question in 1870, 150.
Revival of Trade Unionism. Stopping the contraction of the currency,
151. Eight-hour strike movements in 1872, 151. New and aggressive lead-
ers, 152. Abandonment of the National Labor Union by the national trade
unions, 152. The Crispins the exception, 152.
Politics and Dissolution. Horace H. Day, 153. The "industrial" con-
vention of 1871, 153. The political convention, 154. Nomination for
President, 154. Failure and dissolution, 155.
Industrial Congress and Industrial Brotherhood, 1873-1875. The fresh
impulse towards national federation, 157. Joint call by the national
trade unions, 157. Guarantee against politics, 158. The circular, 158.
The Cleveland Congress, 159. Representation, 159. The trade union na-
ture of the proceedings, 159. The constitution, 160. Attitude towards co-
operation, 161. Attitude towards politics, 161. Effect of the financial
panic on the new federation, 181. Congress in Rochester, 161. Represen-
tation and the secret orders, 162. Debate on the constitution, 162. The
minority recommendation of secret organisation, 163. Defeat of secrecy,
163. The Industrial Brotherhood, 163. The Preamble, 164. Robert
Schilling, 164. The money question, 164. Arbitration, 165. Other de-
mands, 165. Politics, 165. The Congress in Indianapolis, 166. The
dropping out of the national trade unions, 166. The new constitution with