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the fluctuation of membership, 350. Political faction, 350. Nonpartisan
politics, 351. Partiality of the general officers for co-operation, 351. Inde-
pendent politics in the West, 352. Co-operative beginnings, 352. Atti-
tude of the trade unions towards the Knights, 352. Their endeavour to
turn the Knights back to "First Principles," 352. General summary,
The New Economic Conditions. The difference between the labour move-
ments in the early and the middle eighties, 357. The unskilled, 357.
Extension of the railways into outlying districts, 358. Resultant inten-
sification of competition among mechanics, 358. The industrial expan-
sion, 358. Growth of cities, 359. Extension of the market and the su-
premacy of the wholesale_jobber, 359. The impossibility of trade agree-
ments, 359. Pools, 360. Immigration, 360. Exhaustion of the public do-
main, 360. Peculiarities of the depression, 1883-1885, 361. Reduc-
tions in wages, 361. The effect of the depression on the other economic
classes, 362. Anti-monopoly slogan, 362.
Strikes and Boycotts, 1884-1885. Fall River spinners' strike, 362.
Troy stove mounters' strike, 363. Cincinnati cigar makers' strike, 363.
Hocking Valley coal miners' strike, 363. Vogue of the boycott, 364. Ex-
tremes in boycotting, 365. Boycott statistics. 1884-1885, 365. Resump-
tion of the strike movement, 366. Saginaw Valley, Michigan strike, 366.
Quarrymen's strike in Illinois, 367. Other strikes, 367. Shopmen's strikes
on the Union Pacific in 1884, and the Knights of Labor, 367. Joseph
R. Buchanan, 367. The Gould railway strike in 1885, 368. Gould's
surrender, 369. Its enormous moral effect, 370. The general press and
Order, 370. Keen public interest in the Order, 370. The New York Sun
"story," 371. Effect on Congress, 372. The contract immigrant labour evil,
372. Situation in the glass-blowing industry, 372. The Knights and the
anti-contract labour law, 372. The Knights of Labor the liberator
of the oppressed," 373. Beginning of the upheaval, 373. Unrestrained
class hatred, 374. Labour's refusal to arbitrate disputes, 374. Readiness
The Eight-Hour Issue and the Strike. Growth of trade unions, 375.
New trade unions formed, 1884-1885, 375. Convention of the Federa-
tion of Organised Trades and Labor Unions in 1884, 376. Eight-
hour issue, 376. Invitation to the Knights to co-operate, 377. Referen-
dum vote by the affiliated organisations, 377. Advantage to the trade
unions from the eight-hour issue, 378. Lukewarmness of the national
leaders of the Knights, 378. Powderly's attitude, 378. Enthusiasm
of the rank and file, 379. Pecuniary interest of the Order's organisers in
furthering the eight-hour agitation, 379. Marvellous increase in the mem-
bership of the Knights, 381. Membership statistics for various States,
381. Racial composition, 382. Composition by trades, 382. The pace
of organisation in Illinois by months, 382. The Southwest railway strike,
383. Its cause, 383. Its unusual violence, 383. Its failure, 384. The
eight-hour strike, 385. Degree of its immediate success, 385. Its ultimate
failure, 385. Unequal prestige of the Knights and the trade unions as a
The Chicago Catastrophe. Effect of the Haymarket bomb on the eight-
hour strike, 386. Spread of the " syndicalists" influence among the Ger-
man trade unions in 1884, 386. Formation of the Central Labor
Union, 387. Its relation to the "syndicalists," 387. Its declaration of
principles, 388. Relation of individual trade unions to the "syndicalists"
in Chicago and St. Louis, 388. Agitation among the English speaking
element, 389. The Alarm, 389. Strength of the Black International in
Chicago and elsewhere, 390. Attitude of the Chicago Central Labour Union
towards the eight-hour movement, 391. Eight-Hour Association of Chicago,
391. The McCormick Reaper Company lockout, 392. Beginning of the
eight-hour strike in Chicago, 392. Riot near the McCormick works, 392.
Square, 393. The bomb, 393. The trial, 394. Attitude of labour organ-
isations, 394. Governor Altgeld's Reasons for Pardoning Fielden, etc.,
The Knights and the Federation. New National trade unions, 396.
Efforts of the Knights to annex the skilled unions to strengthen the
bargaining power of the unskilled, 397. Resistance of the skilled, 397.
Situation in the early eighties, 397. Beginning of aggression, 398. Dis-
trict Assembly 49, of New York, 399. Conflict with the International Cigar
Makers' Union, 399. The split in the latter, 399. Support of the seceders
by District Assembly 49, 400. The strike in New York in January,
1886, 400. The settlement with District Assembly 49, 400. The fusion
of the secessionists from the International Cigar Makers' Union with
District Assembly 49, 401. Widening of the struggle, 401. Gompers'
leadership, 402. General appeal to the trade unions, 402. Conflicts be-
tween the Knights and other trade unions, 402. Trade union conference
in Philadelphia, 403. The "address," 404. The proposed treaty, 405.
Reply of the Knights, 406. Refusal of the skilled trades to be used as a
lever by the unskilled, 407. Further negotiations, 408. Declaration of
war by the Knights, 408. Impetus for the omplete unification of the
trade unions, 409. Convention of the Federation of Organised Trades and
Labor Unions in 1886, 410. The American Federation of Labor, 410.
Its paramount activity - economic, 410. Another effort for a settlement,
411. The outcome, 411. Arbitrary action of District Assembly 49 of
New York, 412. Return of the secessionist cigar makers to the Interna-
tional Union, 412. The Order's new conciliatory attitude, 412. Non-
conciliatory attitude of the unions, 413.
The Subsidence of the Knights. Beginning of the backward tide in
the Order, 413. The employers' reaction, 414. Forms of employers' asso-
ciations, 414. Their aim, 414. Their refusal to arbitrate, 415. The means
for the suppression of the Order, 415, The Knights' and the employers'
attitude towards trade agreements, 416. The control over strikes in the
Order, 416. The control over boycotts, 417. The strikes during the second
half of 1886, 417. The Troy laundry workers' lockout, 418. The
knit-goods industry lockout, 418. The Chicago packing industry lockout,
418. Powderly's weakness, 420. The 'longshoremen's strike in New York
in 1887, 420. Its spread, 420. Its consequences, 421. The falling off in
the Order's membership, 422. The recession of the wave of the unskilled,
422. Growing predominance of the middle-class element in the Order, 423.
Success of the trade unions, 423. Chicago bricklayers' strike, 423. The
employers' association and the trade agreement, 424. The situation in
the bituminous coal industry, 425. The National Federation of Miners
and Mine Laborers, 425. Relations with the Order, 425. The "interstate "
trade agreement, 426. Drift towards trade union organisation within the
Order, 427. History of the national trade assemblies, 1880-1885, 427.
Fluctuation of the Order's policy, 427. Its cause, 427. Victory of the
THE FAILURE OF CO-OPERATION, 1884-1887. II, 430
The attitude towards co-operation of the several component elements
of the Knights of Labor, 430. The inheritance from the sixties, 430.
Powderly's attitude, 431. Co-operation in the early eighties, 431. Cen-
tralised co-operation, 432. The change to decentralised co-operation, 432.
Statistics and nature of the co-operative enterprises, 433. Sectional dis-
tribution, 434. Co-operation among the coopers in Minneapolis, 434. The
General Co-operative Board, 435. John Samuel, 435. Difficulties of the
Board, 435. Participation by the Order, 436. Failure of the movement,
THE POLITICAL UPHEAVAL, 1886–1887
The Greenback Labor party, 439. The Butler campaign. 440.
New political outlook, 441. New York Central Labor Union, 441. Its
radical declaration of principles, 442. Early activities, 442. The con-
spiracy law. 443. Campaign of 1882. 444. The Theiss boycott case,
444. Decision to go into politics, 445. Henry George's life and philosophy,
446. Comparison with John Swinton, 447. California experiences, 447.
The new agrarianism," 448. Availability as a candidate, 448. The
platform, 449. Attitude of the socialists, 449. The Democratic nomina-
tion, 450. George Hewitt campaign, 450. The Leader, 451. The gen-
eral press, 451. Hewitt's view of the struggle, 452. George's view of the
struggle, 452. Reverend Dr. McGlynn, 453. Attitude of the Catholic
Church, 453. Powderly's attitude, 453. The vote, 453. Effect on the
old parties, 454. Beginning of friction with the socialists. 454. Choice
of a name for the party, 455. The "land and labour" clubs, 455. The
county convention and the party constitution, 455. The call for a state
convention. 456. Opposition of the socialists, 456. Their capture of the
Leader, 456. The Standard and the attack upon the Catholic hierarchy,
456. The Anti-poverty society. 456. George's attitude towards the purely
labour demands, 457. McMackin's ruling on the eligibility of socialists
to membership, 457. The struggle in the assembly districts, 458. Atti-
tude of the trade unions, 458. Gompers' attitude, 458. Unseating of
the socialist delegates at the state convention, 459. The new platform,
460. The revolt of the socialists, 460. The Progressive Labor party,
460. Swinton's nomination, 461. The vote, 461. Causes of the failure
of the movement, 461. The political movement outside New York, 461.
The labour tickets, 462. The labour platforms, 462. Success in the elec-
tions, 462. Attitude of the Federation. 463. Powderly's attitude, 464.
Efforts for national organisations, 464. The national convention in Cin-
cinnati, 465. National Union Labor party. 465. Labour's attitude to
wards the new party. 465. Spring elections of 1887, 466. Autumn
elections of 1887, 466. Spring elections of 1888, 467. Chicago so-
cialists, 467. The Union Labor party presidential nomination, 468. United
Labor party, 468. Predominance of the farmers in the Union Labor party,
468. Apostasy of many labour leaders, 469. Powderly's secret circular,
The Progress of the Trade Unions. New unions, 473. The increase in
membership, 474. Strikes during 1888, 474. The Burlington strike,
474. Resumption of the eight-hour struggle, 475. Action of the con-
vention of the Federation in 1888, 475. The agitational campaign, 476.
Selection of the carpenters as the entering wedge, 476. Their success,
477. The unwise selection of the miners to follow the carpenters, 477.
End of the eight-hour movement, 478. General appraisal of the move-
ment, 478. Backwardness of the bricklayers on the shorter hours ques-
tion, 478. The trade-agreement idea in the building trades, 479. The
closed shop, 479. The stove moulders' agreement, 480. Peculiarity of
the industry from the marketing standpoint, 480. Stove Founders' Na-
tional Defense Association, 480. The St. Louis strike, 481. Further
strikes, 481. The national trade agreement of 1890, 481.
The Liquidation of the Knights of Labor. The decrease in member-
ship, 1886-1890, 482. Relative increase in importance of the rural
membership, 482. Increasing aversion to strikes, 483. Relation to the
Federation, 483. Grievances of the trade unions, 483. Rival local trade
organisations, 483. Mutual scabbing," 484. Refusal of the Order to
participate in the eight-hour movement of 1890, 485. Final efforts for
a reconciliation, 486. Their failure, 486. Withdrawal from the Order
of the national trade assemblies, 486. The shoemakers, 486. The ma-
chinists, 486. The spinners, 486. Situation in the coal mining industry,
487. United Mine Workers of America, 487. Situation in the beer
brewing industry, 488. Increasing predominance of politics and of the
farmer element in the Order, 488. The Southern Farmers' Alliance, 488.
The pivotal role of the merchants in the southern economy, 488. The
Northern Farmers' Alliance, 489. The Shreveport session of the South-
ern Alliance, 1887, 490. The Agricultural Wheel, 490. The session
of the Southern Alliance in 1889 and the abandonment of co-operation
for legislative reform, 490. Alliance with the Knights of Labor, 491.
The common programme, 491. The middle-class character of the Knights,
492. Political successes in 1890, 492. The Knights and an independent
reform party. 493. The Cincinnati convention in 1891 and the People's
party, 494. The Omaha convention in 1892, 494. The election of J. R.
Sovereign as Grand Master Workman of the Knights, 494. His farmer
The Reverses of the Trade Unions. Neglect of legislation by the Federa-
tion, 495. The Homestead strike, 495. Negotiations for a new scale of
wages, 496. Battle with the Pinkertons, 496. Defeat of the union and
the elimination of unionism, 497. The miners' strike at Coeur d'Alène,
497. Quelling the strike, 498. The switchmen's strike in Buffalo,
498. Its failure, 498. The coal miners' strike in Tennessee, 498. Its
failure, 499. The lesson, 499. Gompers' view, 499. The stimulus to in-
dustrial unionism, 500. Eugene V. Debs and the American Railway
Union, 500. The panic of 1893, 501. Gompers' hopeful view, 501.
Trade Unions and the Courts. The miners' strike, 501. The Pullman
strike, 502. The general managers' association, 502. Court injunctions,
502. Violence, 502. Arrests for contempt of court, 502. The Pullman
boycott, 503. Attitude of the Federation, 503. End of the strike, 503.
Court record of the labour unions during the eighties, 503. Evolution
of the doctrine conspiracy as applied to labour disputes, 504. The
real significance of Commonwealth v. Hunt (1842), 504. The first in-
junctions, 504. The legal justifications, 505. The Sherman law and the
Interstate Commerce Act, 505. Stages in the evolution of the doctrine
that the right to do business is property, 505. The part of the doctrine
of conspiracy in the theory of the injunction, 507. Injunction during the
eighties, 507. The "blanket injunction," 507. The Ann Arbor in-
junction, 507. The Debs case, 508. Statutes against "labour conspira-
The Latest Attempt Towards a Labour Party. Causes of the change
on the question of politics, 509. Convention of the Federation in 1892,
509. The "political programme," 509. Gompers' attitude in 1893, 510.
The disputed plank 10, 511. Referendum vote, 511. Sporadic political
efforts, 1894, 511. Their failure, 512. Gompers' attack on the political
programme," 512. The "legislative programme at the convention in
1894, 513. Attitude of the convention in 1895, 513. The Federation and
The Socialists and Labour Organisations. The factional struggle, 1887-
1889, 514. Final victory of the trade union faction, 515. Its hope of
winning the Federation over to socialism, 516. Relation to the New
York Central labour bodies, 516. Central Labor Federation, 516. The
socialist question at the convention of the Federation in 1890, 517.
Daniel De Leon and the new tactics, 517. The United Hebrew Trades,
518. Socialists and the Knights of Labor, 519. Socialist Trade and Labor
RECENT DEVELOPMENTS (FROM 1896)
Industrial Prosperity and the Growth of the Federation. The exten-
sion into new regions and into hitherto untouched trades, 522. Lack of
success among the unskilled, 523. Industrial Workers of the World,
523. The floaters and the non-English speaking workingmen, 523. The
success of the miners, 523. The garment workers' unions, 524. Progress
of the trade-agreement idea, 524. Its test during the anthracite miners'
strike in 1902. 525. The manufacturers' control over access to the
market, 525. The trust and its effect on unionism, 526. The " open shop
movement," 526. The structural iron industry, 526. The trade-agree-
ment outlook, 527. The awakening of the public to the existence of a
labour question, 527. The evolution of public opinion since the eighties,
528. The public and labour legislation, 528. Organised labour's luke-
warmness toward labour legislation, 529. Its cause, 529. Its effect on
the administration of labour laws. 530. The courts, 530. The Danbury
Hatters', the Adair, and the Buck's Stove and Range cases, 530. The
failure of lobbying. 531. "Reward your friends and punish your ene-
mies," 531. The alliance with the Democrats, 531. The socialists, 532.
The effect of the litigation and politics on economic organisation, 533.
Problem of the unskilled, 533. Three forms of industrialism, 533. The
"one big union," 533. Industrialism of the middle stratum, 534.
industrialism," 534. The National Building Trades' Council, 535. The
Structural Building Trades' Alliance and the theory of "basic" unions,
535. The Building Trades' Department, 536. Other departments, 536.
Forced amalgamations, 537. New conception of "craft autonomy," 537.
The probable future structure of American labour organisations, 537.
General Survey, 541. Colonial and Federal Beginnings, 548. Citizen-
ship, 555. Trade Unionism, 561. Humanitarianism, 566. Nationalisation,