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organisation by States as its basis, 167. End of the Industrial Brother-

hood, 167.

Greenback Party, 1874-1877. Patrons of Husbandry, 168. Anti-mo-

nopoly political movement, 168. The Indianapolis convention, 168. The

Cleveland convention of farmers and mechanics, 169. The " Independent"

or Greenback party, 169. The anti-monopoly convention, 169. National

conference in Cincinnati, 169. Fusion with the Greenback party, 170.

The nominating convention of 1876, 170. Representation, 170. Green-

backism- -a remedy against depression, 170. Peter Cooper's candidacy,

171. The campaign, 171. Results, 171.

Sovereigns of Industry. Co-operation, East and West, 171. Wil-

liam H. Earle, 172. Elimination of the middleman, 172. Constitution

of the Sovereigns of Industry, 173. Membership, 1874-1877, 173. Ac-

tivities, 174. Relation to trade unions, 174. Relation to the Industrial

Congress, 175. Failure of the Sovereigns of Industry, 175.

National and Local Unions. The weak points in the trade unions of

the sixties, 175. The depression, 175. Labour leaders and politics, 175.

The westward migration, 176. Decrease in membership, 1873-1874, 176.

The trades' assembly, 177. The cigar makers' strike against the tenement

house system, 177. Strikes in the textile industry, 178. The Amalga-

mated Association of Iron and Steel Workers, 179. The trade agreement,

179. Bituminous coal miners' organisation, 179. John Siney, 179. Mark

Hanna, 180. The trade agreement, 180. The umpire's decision in 1874,

under the trade agreement, 180. Failure of the agreement, 180.

The Molly Maguires. Trade unionism versus violence, 181. The Ancient

Order of Hibernians, 182. Influence over local politics. 182. Crimes of

the Mollies, 183. James McParlan, 184. The "long strike," 184. The

wrecking of the union, 185. Growth of the influence of the Mollies, 185.

Arrest and trial of the Mollies, 185.

The Great Strikes of 1877. Reduction in wages of the railway men,

185. The Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers, 185. The Trainmen's

Union, 186. Robert H. Ammon, 186. The plan for a strike, 187. Fail-

ure, 187. The unorganised outbreak, 187. The Martinsburg and Balti-

more riots, 187. Pittsburgh riots, 188. State militia, 189. Federal

troops, 190. Effect of the strikes on public opinion, 190. Effect on sub-

sequent court decisions in labour cases, 191.

CHAPTER II

REVOLUTIONARY BEGINNINGS .

II, 203

The International Workingmen's Association. Its emphasis on trade

unionism, 204. Its attitude towards political action, 205. Lassalle's

programme and the emphasis on political action, 206. Forerunners of the

International in America, 208. The Communist Club, 206. F. A. Sorge,

207. The General German Workingmen's Union and its Lassallean pro-

gramme, 207. The Social party of New York and vicinity, 208. Failure

and reorganisation, 209. Union 5 of the National Labor Union and Sec-

tion 1 of the International, 209. New Sections of the International, 209.

The Central Committee, 210. The native American forerunner of the

International, 210. Section 12, and its peculiar propaganda, 211. Rup-

ture between foreigners and Americans in the International, 211. The

Provisional Federal Council, 212. Two rival Councils, 212. Decision of

General Council in London, 213. The American Confederation of the In-

ternational and its attitude on the question of the powers of the Gen-

eral Council, 213. The North American Federation of the International,

214. The Internationalist Congress at The Hague and the defeat of

Bakunin by Marx, 214. Transfer of the General Council to New York,

215. Secession of a majority of the European national federations, 215.

Section 1 of New York and the Local Council, 216. Abolition of the

Local Council, 216. Secession of six sections, 217. The national conven-

tion of 1874 and the resolution on politics, 218. Adolph Strasser, 218.

The panic and unemployment, 219. Organisation of the unemployed, 219.

The riot on Tompkins Square, 220. John Swinton, 220. Organisation

among the unemployed in Chicago, 220. Section 1 of New York and the

struggle for the control _of_the_Arbeiter-Zeitung, 221. The United

Workers of America, 222. P. J. McDonnell, 222.

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II, 240

1880

The change in labour's attitude towards politics produced by the great

strikes of 1877, 240. Organisation of the National party, 241. Fusion

with the greenbackers, 241. State labour ticket in New York, 242. The

"Greenback and Labor" combination in Pennsylvania, 242. Success of

the Greenback party in the West, 244. The "national convention of

labour and currency reformers" and the formation of the National party,

244. Predominance of the farmers, business men, and lawyers, 244. Plat-

form, 245. Further Greenback successes, 245. T. V. Powderly, 245. Con-

gressional election of 1878, 245. Obstacles to a unified movement in New

York City, 246. 'Pomeroy Clubs," 246. The organisation of the Na-

tional Greenback Labor Reform party, 246. State election in Pennsyl-

vania, 247. Analysis of the vote, 247. State election in Ohio, 248. Suc-

cesses elsewhere, 248. Effect of the returning industrial prosperity, 249.

Effect of the resumption of specie payment, 249. Tendency to fuse with

the Democrats, 249. National pre-nomination conference, 249. Denis

Kearney and Albert R. Parsons, 249. National nominating convention,

250. Labour demands, 250. Failure of the movement, 251.

66

CHAPTER V

THE ANTI-CHINESE AGITATION IN CALI-

FORNIA

II, 252

66

Class struggle versus race struggle, 252. The depression in Cali-

fornia, 253. Socialists and the strike movement, 253. The anti-Chinese

riot, 253. Denis Kearney, 254. The Workingmen's party of California,

255. Its platform, 255. The sand-lot meetings, 253. Arrest of Kear-

ney, 256. Nomination of delegates for the State constitutional con-

vention, 256. Threats of riots and the Gag Law," 257. Kearney's ac-

quittal, 258. The state convention of the Workingmen's party, 258. First

successes in elections, 259. Election for the state constitutional con-

vention, 260. Alliance of the workingmen with the farmers, 260. The

anti-Chinese clause in the Constitution, 260. Adoption of the constitu-

tion by the people, 261. The workingmen's success in the state election,

261. Success in the San Francisco municipal election, 261. Movement

for the enforcement of the anti-Chinese clause in the state constitution,

262. Success in the state legislature but failure in the United States Cir-

cuit Court, 262. Second arrest of Kearney, 262. Beginning of the dis-

integration of the Workingmen's party, 263. Defeat in elections, 263.

Relation to the national Greenback movement, 263. The end of the party,

264. Spread of the anti-Chinese movement among small employers, 264.

The question before Congress, 265. The Congressional investigating com-

mittee, 265. Increase in the Chinese immigration during the early

eighties, 266. The Representative Assembly of Trade and Labor Unions,

266. The white label, 266. The state labour convention, the League of

Deliverance, and the boycott of Chinese made goods, 267. The Chinese

Exclusion Act, 267.

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FROM SOCIALISM TO ANARCHISM AND SYN-

DICALISM, 1876-1884

. II, 269

The Nationalised International. The preliminary union conference of

all socialist organisations, 269. The Union Congress, 270. The Work-

ingmen's party of the United States, 270. The resolution on political ac-

tion, 270. Plan of organisation, 270. "Trade union" and " political "

factions, 271. Phillip Van Patten, 272. The New Haven experiment

with politics, 272. The Chicago election, 273. Factional differences, 273.

Struggle for the Labour Standard, 274. Douai's effort of mediation, 275.

Effect of the great strike of 1877 on the factional struggle, 276. The

part played by the socialists in the strike movement, 277.

The Rush into Politics. Election results, 277. The Newark con-

vention, 277. Control by the political faction, 278. The Socialist La-

bor party, 278. Strength of the trade union faction in Chicago, 279.

Success in the Chicago election, 279. Failure in Cincinnati, 279. Van

Patten's attitude towards trade unions, 280. Workingmen's military

organisations, 280. Autumn election of 1870, 282. Chicago- the principal

socialist centre. 282. Influence in the state legislature. 283. Chicago

municipal election of 1879, 284. Persistent pro-trade union attitude of

the Chicago socialists, 284. Effect of prosperity, 284. The national con-

vention at Alleghany City, 284. Differences of opinion on a compromise

with the greenbackers, 285. National greenback convention, 285. The "s0-

cialist" plank in the platform, 286. The double revolt: the "trade

union" faction and the revolutionists in the East, 287. Attitude of the

New Yorker Volkszeitung, 287. Referendum vote, 288. The decrease in

the greenback vote, 289. Struggle between the compromisers and non-com-

promisers in the socialist ranks, 289.

The Evolution towards Anarchism and "Syndicalism." Chicago and

New York, 291. The national convention of revolutionary socialists, 291.

Affiliation with the International Working People's Association in Lon-

don, 291. Attitude towards politics and trade unionism. 292. August

Spies, 292. The proposed form of organisation, 292. Political action in

Chicago once more, 292. Reorganisation in Chicago along revolutionary

lines, 292. Johann Most and his philosophy, 293. The Pittsburgh

convention and Manifesto, 295. Crystallisation of a "syndicalist" phi-

losophy in Chicago, 296. Attitude towards the state, trade unionism

politics, and violence, 296. A model "syndicalist" trade union, 296. The

Red International, 298. Burnette G. Haskell and Joseph R. Buchanan,

298. Ebb of the Socialist Labor party, 300.

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CHAPTER VIII

END OF SECRECY IN THE KNIGHTS AND

DEVIATION FROM FIRST PRINCIPLES,

1876-1884

II, 332

334.

Secrecy and the movement for centralisation, 332. District Assem-

bly 1 and the convention at Philadelphia, 1876, 333. The National

Labor League of North America, 333. District Assembly 3 and the

convention at Pittsburgh, 333. Lull in the movement for centralisation,

The Knights and the railway strikes of 1877, 334. Other strikes,

334. The General Assembly at Reading, Pennsylvania, January 1, 1878.

334. The Preamble, 335. First principles: education, organisation, and

co-operation, 335. Form of organisation, 337. Special convention on the

secrecy question, June, 1878. 338. Referendum vote, 338. The Catholic

Church and secrecy in the Knights. 339. The compromise in 1879, 339.

Final abolition of secrecy in 1881, 339. Growth and fluctuation in

membership, 1878-1880, 339. The resistance fund. 340. Claims of the

advocates of co-operation and education, 340. The compromise, 341.

Compromise on political action, 341. Demands of the trade union element

within the Knights, 342. National trade assembly, 343. Growth and

fluctuation of membership, 1880-1883, 344. Component elements of the

Knights, 344. Unattached local unions, 344. Weak national organisa-

tions, 345. Advantages to an incipient trade movement from affiliation

with the Knights, 346. T. V. Powderly - Grand Master Workman in 1881,

347. Enthusiasm for strikes, 347. The telegraphers' strike in 1883,

348. Unorganised strikes, 349. The freight handlers' strike in New York,

349. Failure of the strikes conducted by the Knights, 349. Its effect on

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