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organisation by States as its basis, 167. End of the Industrial Brother-
Greenback Party, 1874-1877. Patrons of Husbandry, 168. Anti-mo-
nopoly political movement, 168. The Indianapolis convention, 168. The
Cleveland convention of farmers and mechanics, 169. The " Independent"
or Greenback party, 169. The anti-monopoly convention, 169. National
conference in Cincinnati, 169. Fusion with the Greenback party, 170.
The nominating convention of 1876, 170. Representation, 170. Green-
backism- -a remedy against depression, 170. Peter Cooper's candidacy,
171. The campaign, 171. Results, 171.
Sovereigns of Industry. Co-operation, East and West, 171. Wil-
liam H. Earle, 172. Elimination of the middleman, 172. Constitution
of the Sovereigns of Industry, 173. Membership, 1874-1877, 173. Ac-
tivities, 174. Relation to trade unions, 174. Relation to the Industrial
Congress, 175. Failure of the Sovereigns of Industry, 175.
National and Local Unions. The weak points in the trade unions of
the sixties, 175. The depression, 175. Labour leaders and politics, 175.
The westward migration, 176. Decrease in membership, 1873-1874, 176.
The trades' assembly, 177. The cigar makers' strike against the tenement
house system, 177. Strikes in the textile industry, 178. The Amalga-
mated Association of Iron and Steel Workers, 179. The trade agreement,
179. Bituminous coal miners' organisation, 179. John Siney, 179. Mark
Hanna, 180. The trade agreement, 180. The umpire's decision in 1874,
under the trade agreement, 180. Failure of the agreement, 180.
The Molly Maguires. Trade unionism versus violence, 181. The Ancient
Order of Hibernians, 182. Influence over local politics. 182. Crimes of
the Mollies, 183. James McParlan, 184. The "long strike," 184. The
wrecking of the union, 185. Growth of the influence of the Mollies, 185.
Arrest and trial of the Mollies, 185.
The Great Strikes of 1877. Reduction in wages of the railway men,
185. The Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers, 185. The Trainmen's
Union, 186. Robert H. Ammon, 186. The plan for a strike, 187. Fail-
ure, 187. The unorganised outbreak, 187. The Martinsburg and Balti-
more riots, 187. Pittsburgh riots, 188. State militia, 189. Federal
troops, 190. Effect of the strikes on public opinion, 190. Effect on sub-
sequent court decisions in labour cases, 191.
SECRET BEGINNINGS .
. II, 195
Employers' opposition to trade unions during the period of depression,
195. Necessity for secrecy, 195. Beginning of the Knights of Labor,
196. Uriah S. Stephens, 197. Assembly 1 of Philadelphia, 197. "So-
journers," 198. Ritual and principles, 198. Additional assembles, 199.
District Assembly 1 of Philadelphia, 199. District Assembly 2 of Cam-
den, New Jersey, 199. District Assembly 3 of Pittsburgh, 199. Recruit-
ing ground of the Knights, 200. Strikes and strike funds, 200. Rivalry
between District Assembly 1 and District Assembly 3, 200. The issue of
secrecy, 201. Attitude of the Catholic Church, 201. Junior Sons of '76
and their call for a national convention, 201.
REVOLUTIONARY BEGINNINGS .
The International Workingmen's Association. Its emphasis on trade
unionism, 204. Its attitude towards political action, 205. Lassalle's
programme and the emphasis on political action, 206. Forerunners of the
International in America, 208. The Communist Club, 206. F. A. Sorge,
207. The General German Workingmen's Union and its Lassallean pro-
gramme, 207. The Social party of New York and vicinity, 208. Failure
and reorganisation, 209. Union 5 of the National Labor Union and Sec-
tion 1 of the International, 209. New Sections of the International, 209.
The Central Committee, 210. The native American forerunner of the
International, 210. Section 12, and its peculiar propaganda, 211. Rup-
ture between foreigners and Americans in the International, 211. The
Provisional Federal Council, 212. Two rival Councils, 212. Decision of
General Council in London, 213. The American Confederation of the In-
ternational and its attitude on the question of the powers of the Gen-
eral Council, 213. The North American Federation of the International,
214. The Internationalist Congress at The Hague and the defeat of
Bakunin by Marx, 214. Transfer of the General Council to New York,
215. Secession of a majority of the European national federations, 215.
Section 1 of New York and the Local Council, 216. Abolition of the
Local Council, 216. Secession of six sections, 217. The national conven-
tion of 1874 and the resolution on politics, 218. Adolph Strasser, 218.
The panic and unemployment, 219. Organisation of the unemployed, 219.
The riot on Tompkins Square, 220. John Swinton, 220. Organisation
among the unemployed in Chicago, 220. Section 1 of New York and the
struggle for the control _of_the_Arbeiter-Zeitung, 221. The United
Workers of America, 222. P. J. McDonnell, 222.
The International and the Trade Union Movement. Lack of response
among the native American workingmen, 223. Success among the Ger-
mans, 223. Die Arbeiter-Union, 223 Adolph Douai, 224. Temporary
sway of greenbackism among the Germans, 224. Victory of the ideas of
the International, 225. The Franco-Prussian War and the discontinuance
of Die Arbeiter-Union, 225. Organisation of the furniture workers, 225.
The German American Typographia, 226. The Amalgamated Trades and
Labour Council of New York, 226.
Lassalleanism and Politics. The effect of the industrial depression
on the spread of Lassalleanism, 227. The Labor party of Illinois and its
form of organisation, 228. Its attitude toward trade unionism and poli-
tics, 228. Temporary Lassalleanisation of the sections of the International
in Chicago, 229. The Labor party of Illinois in politics, 229. Overtures
to farmers, 230. The return to the principles of the International, 230.
The Lassallean movement in the East - The Social Democratic party of
North America, 230. The first national convention, 231. Peter J.
McGuire, 231. Reasons for Strasser's joining the Lassalleans, 231. The
Sozial-Demokrat, 232. The change of sentiment in favour of trade union-
ism, 232. The second convention of the Social Democratic party and the
partial return to the tenets of the International, 233. Attempts towards
unification, 233. The remaining divergence of ideas, 233. Preparations for
the national labour convention in Pittsburgh, 234.
The change in labour's attitude towards politics produced by the great
strikes of 1877, 240. Organisation of the National party, 241. Fusion
with the greenbackers, 241. State labour ticket in New York, 242. The
"Greenback and Labor" combination in Pennsylvania, 242. Success of
the Greenback party in the West, 244. The "national convention of
labour and currency reformers" and the formation of the National party,
244. Predominance of the farmers, business men, and lawyers, 244. Plat-
form, 245. Further Greenback successes, 245. T. V. Powderly, 245. Con-
gressional election of 1878, 245. Obstacles to a unified movement in New
York City, 246. 'Pomeroy Clubs," 246. The organisation of the Na-
tional Greenback Labor Reform party, 246. State election in Pennsyl-
vania, 247. Analysis of the vote, 247. State election in Ohio, 248. Suc-
cesses elsewhere, 248. Effect of the returning industrial prosperity, 249.
Effect of the resumption of specie payment, 249. Tendency to fuse with
the Democrats, 249. National pre-nomination conference, 249. Denis
Kearney and Albert R. Parsons, 249. National nominating convention,
250. Labour demands, 250. Failure of the movement, 251.
THE ANTI-CHINESE AGITATION IN CALI-
Class struggle versus race struggle, 252. The depression in Cali-
fornia, 253. Socialists and the strike movement, 253. The anti-Chinese
riot, 253. Denis Kearney, 254. The Workingmen's party of California,
255. Its platform, 255. The sand-lot meetings, 253. Arrest of Kear-
ney, 256. Nomination of delegates for the State constitutional con-
vention, 256. Threats of riots and the Gag Law," 257. Kearney's ac-
quittal, 258. The state convention of the Workingmen's party, 258. First
successes in elections, 259. Election for the state constitutional con-
vention, 260. Alliance of the workingmen with the farmers, 260. The
anti-Chinese clause in the Constitution, 260. Adoption of the constitu-
tion by the people, 261. The workingmen's success in the state election,
261. Success in the San Francisco municipal election, 261. Movement
for the enforcement of the anti-Chinese clause in the state constitution,
262. Success in the state legislature but failure in the United States Cir-
cuit Court, 262. Second arrest of Kearney, 262. Beginning of the dis-
integration of the Workingmen's party, 263. Defeat in elections, 263.
Relation to the national Greenback movement, 263. The end of the party,
264. Spread of the anti-Chinese movement among small employers, 264.
The question before Congress, 265. The Congressional investigating com-
mittee, 265. Increase in the Chinese immigration during the early
eighties, 266. The Representative Assembly of Trade and Labor Unions,
266. The white label, 266. The state labour convention, the League of
Deliverance, and the boycott of Chinese made goods, 267. The Chinese
Exclusion Act, 267.
FROM SOCIALISM TO ANARCHISM AND SYN-
. II, 269
The Nationalised International. The preliminary union conference of
all socialist organisations, 269. The Union Congress, 270. The Work-
ingmen's party of the United States, 270. The resolution on political ac-
tion, 270. Plan of organisation, 270. "Trade union" and " political "
factions, 271. Phillip Van Patten, 272. The New Haven experiment
with politics, 272. The Chicago election, 273. Factional differences, 273.
Struggle for the Labour Standard, 274. Douai's effort of mediation, 275.
Effect of the great strike of 1877 on the factional struggle, 276. The
part played by the socialists in the strike movement, 277.
The Rush into Politics. Election results, 277. The Newark con-
vention, 277. Control by the political faction, 278. The Socialist La-
bor party, 278. Strength of the trade union faction in Chicago, 279.
Success in the Chicago election, 279. Failure in Cincinnati, 279. Van
Patten's attitude towards trade unions, 280. Workingmen's military
organisations, 280. Autumn election of 1870, 282. Chicago- the principal
socialist centre. 282. Influence in the state legislature. 283. Chicago
municipal election of 1879, 284. Persistent pro-trade union attitude of
the Chicago socialists, 284. Effect of prosperity, 284. The national con-
vention at Alleghany City, 284. Differences of opinion on a compromise
with the greenbackers, 285. National greenback convention, 285. The "s0-
cialist" plank in the platform, 286. The double revolt: the "trade
union" faction and the revolutionists in the East, 287. Attitude of the
New Yorker Volkszeitung, 287. Referendum vote, 288. The decrease in
the greenback vote, 289. Struggle between the compromisers and non-com-
promisers in the socialist ranks, 289.
The Evolution towards Anarchism and "Syndicalism." Chicago and
New York, 291. The national convention of revolutionary socialists, 291.
Affiliation with the International Working People's Association in Lon-
don, 291. Attitude towards politics and trade unionism. 292. August
Spies, 292. The proposed form of organisation, 292. Political action in
Chicago once more, 292. Reorganisation in Chicago along revolutionary
lines, 292. Johann Most and his philosophy, 293. The Pittsburgh
convention and Manifesto, 295. Crystallisation of a "syndicalist" phi-
losophy in Chicago, 296. Attitude towards the state, trade unionism
politics, and violence, 296. A model "syndicalist" trade union, 296. The
Red International, 298. Burnette G. Haskell and Joseph R. Buchanan,
298. Ebb of the Socialist Labor party, 300.
THE NEW TRADE UNIONISM, 1878-1884.
From Socialism to Pure and Simple Trade Unionism. Two lines of
trade union action. 302. The plan for the organisation of the un-
skilled The International Labor Union, 302. "Internationalism" and
stewardism, 302. Trade unionism and eight-hour legislative action, 303.
Programme of the International Labor Union, 303. Success among the
textile workers, 304. First convention, 305. Steps towards an interna-
tional trade union organisation, 305. Failure of the International La-
bor Union, 306. International Cigar Makers' Union - the new model
for the organisations of the skilled. 306. Strasser and Gompers, 307.
Crystallisation of the pure and simple trade union philosophy, 308. The
railway brotherhoods, 309.
The First Successes. Trades' assemblies and their functions: economic,
political, and legislative, 310. The building trades' councils, the first
move toward industrialism, 312. The federations of the water-
front trades in the South, 312. The Negro, 312. The formation of
new national trade unions, 313. Their increase in membership,
1879-1883, 313. The control over locals, 314. Their benefit features,
314. Their attitude towards legal incorporation, 314. Predominance
of the foreign-speaking element in the trade unions, 315. The charge
that the foreigners in the trade unions deprive the American boy of his
opportunity in industry, 315. Strikes in 1880 and 1881, 316. The iron
workers' strike in 1882, 316. The boycott, 316. The New York Tribune
Towards Federation. The attempts towards national federation since
1876, 318. The part played by the Knights of Labor in the last and
successful attempt, 318. The Terre Haute conference, 318. Call for a
convention, 320. Trade unions in the eighties and trade unions today,
320. The Pittsburgh convention of 1881, 321. The cause of the large repre-
sentation of the Knights of Labor, 321. The formation of the Federa
tion of Organised Trades and Labor Unions of the United States and
Canada, 322. Attitude toward organising the unskilled, 323. Subordina-
tion of the city trades assembly to the national trade union, 323. Legisla-
tive committee and the legislative programme, 324. The incorporation
plank, 325. The shift from the co-operation argument to the one of trade
agreements on the question of incorporation, 326. Second convention of
the Federation, 326. Absence of the Knights of Labor and the iron and
steel workers, 326. Lack of interest in the Federation on the part of the
trade unions, 327. Convention of 1883, 328. The first appearance of
friction with Knights of Labor, 329. Attitude towards a protective tariff
329. Miscellaneous resolutions, 330. Failure of the Federation as an
organisation for obtaining legislation, 331.
END OF SECRECY IN THE KNIGHTS AND
DEVIATION FROM FIRST PRINCIPLES,
Secrecy and the movement for centralisation, 332. District Assem-
bly 1 and the convention at Philadelphia, 1876, 333. The National
Labor League of North America, 333. District Assembly 3 and the
convention at Pittsburgh, 333. Lull in the movement for centralisation,
The Knights and the railway strikes of 1877, 334. Other strikes,
334. The General Assembly at Reading, Pennsylvania, January 1, 1878.
334. The Preamble, 335. First principles: education, organisation, and
co-operation, 335. Form of organisation, 337. Special convention on the
secrecy question, June, 1878. 338. Referendum vote, 338. The Catholic
Church and secrecy in the Knights. 339. The compromise in 1879, 339.
Final abolition of secrecy in 1881, 339. Growth and fluctuation in
membership, 1878-1880, 339. The resistance fund. 340. Claims of the
advocates of co-operation and education, 340. The compromise, 341.
Compromise on political action, 341. Demands of the trade union element
within the Knights, 342. National trade assembly, 343. Growth and
fluctuation of membership, 1880-1883, 344. Component elements of the
Knights, 344. Unattached local unions, 344. Weak national organisa-
tions, 345. Advantages to an incipient trade movement from affiliation
with the Knights, 346. T. V. Powderly - Grand Master Workman in 1881,
347. Enthusiasm for strikes, 347. The telegraphers' strike in 1883,
348. Unorganised strikes, 349. The freight handlers' strike in New York,
349. Failure of the strikes conducted by the Knights, 349. Its effect on