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389-392; II, 298, 366; hatters,
I, 338; Homestead, II, 473, 495-
497; in 1833-1837, I, 478-484;
in 1850-1852, I, 576, 597; in
1853, 1854, I, 607n; in 1877, II,
276; in 1880, 1881, II, 316; in
1886, II, 417, 417n, 418; in
1888, II, 474; longshoremen, II,
420-422; miners, II, 184, 185,
334, 363, 478, 497, 498, 499, 501,
508, 525, 528; moulders, I, 565;
II, 7, 51, 52, 316; navy yards,
I, 394, 395; packing industry,
II, 419; printers, I, 136, 137,
412n, 450, 552, 612; quarrymen,
II, 367; railroad, I, 622; II, 64,
186-190, 196, 334, 367-369, 382-
384, 502, 503, 508, 528; stove
mounters, II, 363, 481; switch-
men, II, 498; sympathetic, I,
585;
tailors, I, 163, 164, 337,
368, 408, 409, 576; telegraphers,
II, 384; ten-hour, I, 386, 387;
textile, I, 183; II, 178, 304, 362,
363, 418, 420-423, 523, 524;
wage, I, 156, 157, 381-383, 395-
399; weavers, I, 313; women, I,
356, 418, 420-423.
Opinions: agrarianism, I, 522;
employers' associations, II, 31,
51, 52; Greeley, Horace, I, 576;
Knights of Labor, II, 347-350;
labour congresses, II, 98, 123,
129, 160; public, II, 190; St.
Crispin, II, 77-78; socialism,
II, 253, 276; trades' union, I,
363, 364, 371, 375, 377.
Suffrage, caucus system, I, 233;
democracy, I, 177, 178; exten-
sion, I, 175, 318, 319; man-
hood, I, 5, 20; personal rights
versus property rights, I, 12;
woman's, I, 297; II, 129, 211.
Sunday laws, repeal advocated, II,

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Tanners' and Curriers' Union, Na-
tional, II, 318.

Tariff, see Protectionism.
Tax Exemptions, stimulate business,
I, 37.

Taylor, Daniel B., at New York In-
dustrial congress, I, 554n.
Teamsters' Union, I, 8.
Telegraphers, aided by Knights of
Labor, II, 345.
Tenement House, cigar making, II,
178.
Tennessee, coal miners' strike, II,
498, 499; unions, in 1864, II, 19.
Terre Haute, conference, II, 318-
320.

Textile workers, organise, I, 111.
Thompsonville, conspiracy case, I,
313, 314.

Townsend, Robert, I, 411, 425, 427,
429, 463.

Trade agreements, anthracite min-

ers, II, 525; arbitration versus,
II, 527; bituminous miners, II,
179-181, 425; building trades,
II, 479, 480; employers, II, 33,
415, 416, 424; "exclusive," II,
32; impossibility, II, 359; Na-
tional Civic Federation, II, 528;
puddler's sliding scale, II, 80,
179; spread, II, 524; stove
moulders, II, 480, 481, 482;
theory, I, 14, 15; II, 520; trust,
II, 526; unions, II, 33, 36.
See also, Bargaining Power.
Trade Courts, early protective or-
ganisations, I, 80, 81.

Trade Societies, date of appearance,
1833-1837, I, 472–477.

Trades' and Labor Council of New
York, organised, II, 226.
Trades' Assemblies, boycott, II, 22,
23, 24; convention, II, 35, 36,
38, 95; co-operation, II, 23;
disappearance, II, 177; employ-
ers' associations, II, 26, 27;
federation, II, 34, 38, 39, 94, 96;
functions, II, 23, 311, 312; In-
ternational Industrial, II, 36-
39; multiplication, II, 310;
Philadelphia, II, 24-26, 39;
politics, II, 38.

Trades' Union, beginning, I, 12, 358,
365-368, 424; child labour, I,
428, 432; conspiracy, I, 408,
409; conventions, I, 424, 430-
437, 469-471; co-operation, I,
468; education, I, 427, 432;
employers, I, 368, 371, 372; fac-
tory workers, I, 374, 418, 428,
429; finances, I, 434; growth,
I, 358, 359, 379, 380; hours of
labour, I, 433, 536; influence, I,
438; jurisdictional disputes, I,
376, 377; land policy, I, 428;
labour press, I, 360; Mechanics'
Union, I, 375; membership, I,
424; need, I, 357; organisation,
I, 427, 431; politics, I, 361, 362,
426, 427; prison labour, I, 369-
371; riots, I, 377, 378; specu-
lation, I, 435; strikes, I, 363,
371, 390; Tammany, I, 461, 462;
term, I, 14; women's labour, I,
436, 437.

Trainmen's Union, organised, II,

186.

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Tucker, Gideon J., greenback candi-
date, II, 246, 247.

Typographia, German American,
Cleveland convention, 1882, II,
326; established, II, 313; 80-
cialism, II, 226.

See also, Fowitz, Gustav.
Typographical Association, National,
cause for organisation, I, 340.
Typographical Society, Albany, I,
113; Baltimore, I, 115.
Typographical Society, Franklin, I,
109; aided, I, 112; wage scale,
I, 126.
Typographical Society, National, ap-
prenticeship policy, I, 451;
book publisher, I, 447, 448; cap-
italism, political, I, 444-446;
conventions, I, 450, 452; lo-
cals, 1836, I, 443; organisation,
I, 620, 621; "two-thirders," I,
448, 449;
wage policy, I,
451.
Typographical Society, New York,
apprenticeship. I, 116; benefits,
I, 124, 125, 137; collective bar-
gaining, I, 603; depression, I,
136, 456; education, I, 249, 250;
employers, I, 119; evolution, I,
335, 336; grievances, I, 114,
115; incorporation, I, 86, 109;
minimum wage, I, 131; scabs, I,
131.

Truth, The, Haskell, II, 299.
Tucker, Benjamin R., individualistic
anarchist, I, 17.

See also, Strikes.
Typographical Society, Philadelphia,
apprenticeship, I, 116; benefits,
I, 85; collective bargaining, I,
120, 121; competition of women,
I. 343, 344; co-operation with
New York local, I, 113; evolu-
tion. I, 335; Franklin Society,
I, 112; organise, I, 109.
See also, Strikes.
Typographical Society, Washington,
apprenticeship, I, 342; Duff
Green, I, 450; economic purpose,
I. 137; strike, I, 451; women
labour, I, 344.
Typographical Union, International,
apprenticeship, II, 83; boycott,
II, 317, 365; conditional mem-
bership, II, 58; conventions, II,
97, 319, 326; established, II,
58, 313; federation, II, 60, 61,
157; growth, II, 45, 1.7, 308,
313;
Negro, II, 135, 311;
Northwestern Publishers' Asso-
ciation, II, 61; political action,

II, 318; strike fund, II, 59, 60.
See also, Strikes.

U

Unemployment, Chinese, II, 148,
262, 263; Civil War, II, 10, 13;
currency policies, II, 123;
hours of labour, I, 234; in 1829,
I, 170, 171; in 1837, I, 457, 458;
in 1857-1863, I, 488; II, 204;
in 1869, II, 123; in 1873,
II, 219; in 1877, II, 253, 257;
legal tender acts, 1862, II, 15;
organisation of Chicago unem-
ployed, II, 200; Parsons, A.
R., II, 389; riot of Tompkins
Square, II, 220; union employ-
ment offices, I, 587, 588; Weit-
ling's bank of exchange, I, 514.
Union Congress, Chicago as centre,
II, 272; Philadelphia, II, 270;
restrictions, II, 273, 278.
Union Society of Carpenters, I, 110.
Union Trade Society of Journeymen
Tailors, competition of women,
I, 344; organised, I, 337.
United Cabinet Makers, New York,
II, 208.

United German Benefit Society, I,
84.

United German Trades, type of city
federation, II, 313.
United Labor Party, conventions, II,
455, 456, 459; dwindles, II, 491;
in 1887 elections, II, 467; plat-
form, II, 460; single tax, II,
468; socialists, II, 457, 458;
Union Labor Party, II, 465.
United Workers of America, II, 222,
223, 234.

Universal Brotherhood, The, II, 196.
Unskilled, Condition, 1829, I, 171;

Conflict with skilled; cigar mak-
ers, II, 400, 401; District As-
sembly 49, II, 399; in shoe in-
dustry, II, 77; iron workers, II,
407; Knights and trade union-
ists, II, 396-398, 403, 404, 427.
Organisation: attitude, II, 323;

class hate, II, 374; failure, II,
427; Illinois quarrymen's
strike, II, 367; in 1884, 1885,
II, 357, 362; International La-
bor Union, II, 280, 302; unem-
ployed, II, 389, 390.
Riots: I, 412, 416, 417.
See also, Factory System; Indus-

trial Workers of the World;
Knights of Labor.

V

Van Buren, issues ten-hour order, I,
395.

Van Patten Phillip, II, 272–286.
Virginia, mechanics aided, I, 40, 43;

monopoly grants, I, 40, 43; tar-
iff, I, 42; unions, 1863, 1864, II,
19.

Vorbote, official organ, II, 228, 271;
on anarchism, II, 296; on co-
operation, II, 230; on green-
backism, II, 287; on Interna-
tional Labor Union, II, 280; on
militarism, II, 281; on trade
unionism, II, 230, 275, 283.

W

611; merchant-capitalist,

Wages, Conditions: banks, I, 459;
bread assize, I, 52, 53; cheap
labour, I, 347; Chinese labour,
II, 264, 265; combination to
raise, I, 140-143; contract work,
I, 67, 68; co-operation, II, 53;
depression, I, 456, 457, 614, 615;
II, 185, 361; employers' associa-
tions, II, 27, 28; free land, I,
527; growth of cities, II, 359;
in 1850, I, 582; in 1854, I, 610,
I,
339; monopoly, I, 219; piece
work, I, 67, 583, 584; prices, I,
150, 396, 415, 435, 600; II, 15,
110; regulation, I, 7, 50-52, 85,
S6, 87, 126, 580, 583; scarcity
of labour, I, 128; strikes, I,
110, 111, 156, 363, 381-383, 395-
401, 418, 422, 432, 424n, 441,
599; II, 78, 178, 184, 186, 312,
362-364, 367, 368, 496; sunrise
to sunset day, I, 171, 172; tar-
iff, I, 443; ten-hour day, I, 311;
trade agreement, I, 607; trades'
union, I, 7, 358, 433; unionism,
modern, I, 575, 613; II, 18, 20,
177.

Occupations: apprentices, I, 592;
carpenters, I, 359; cigar mak-
ers, I, 621; cigar makers,
women, I, 343; construction
gangs, I, 415; cordwainers, I,
442; cotton operatives, I, 111;
engineers, locomotive, II, 62;
house painters, I, 608; labour-

ers, city, I, 415, 416; machin-
ists, II, 57; moulders, II, 49,
51, 52; printers, I, 448, 451,
580, 581; puddlers, I, 552;
women, I, 354, 355, 442, 443.
Theories: abolition, II, 295; An-
drews, S. P., I, 518; collective
bargaining, I, 603, 604; price-
bargain and wage-bargain, I,
70; Steward, II, 89, 90, 303.
Wage-work, Bücher's use of term,
I, 33.

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production, I, 71; retail-shop
period, I, 61, 62.

Wilson, Charles, locomotive engi-
neer, II, 63-68.

Window Glass Workers' Association,
protest against contract immi-
grant labour, II, 372.
Windt, John, and George Henry
Evans, I, 527.

Winn, A. M., II, 147, 148, 149,
162.

Wisconsin eight-hour law, II, 108;
greenbackism, II, 244, 248;
People's Party, II, 462, 463;
unions, 1864, II, 19.
Wolf, George, I, 459, 460.
Wollstonecraft, Mary, in Lowell
strike, I, 423.

Women in labour movement, at la-

bour conventions, I, 555; II,
101, 127, 133, 277, 328, 330;
competition, I, 339, 342, 343,
436, 437, 595; co-operation, I,
566; equal pay for equal work,
II, 114; hours, I, 540, 542, 543;
in factories, I, 156, 172-174,
422; organisation, I, 350, 351,
353, 355, 356, 443; II, 128, 328,
418; strikes, I, 418-423; trade
union regulation, I, 596; wages,
I, 344, 354.

See also, Anthony, Susan B.; Bag-
ley, Sarah G.; Claflin, Tennes-
see; McDonald, Mary; Parsons,
Lucy; Putnam, Mary Kellogg;
Stanton, Elizabeth Cady; Woll-
stonecraft, Mary; Woodhull,
Victoria; Wright, Frances.
Woodhull, Victoria, suffragist, II,
210, 211.

Woodhull and Claflin's Weekly, or-
gan American section of I. W.
A., II, 211, 212.

Workingmen's Advocate, The, char-

acter, II, 16; on education, I,
250-252; Tammany, I, 270;
trades' assembly supports, II,

24.

Working Men's Party, Issues: agra-
rianism, I, 211-213, 271-273;
banking system, I, 330; educa-
tion, I, 251, 252, 274, 299, 300,
327, 328; imprisonment for
debt, I, 328; in 1828, I, 216;
in 1829, 1830, I, 217, 218–229,
274-284, 295-299; mechanics'
liens, I, 329; tariff, I, 294, 295;
woman's suffrage, I, 297.

Organisation: candidates, I, 203,
208, 209, 210; class alignment,
I, 234; committee of fifty, I,
237, 238, 243, 244; conventions,
I, 196, 197, 201, 263-265, 266;
democracy, I, 331, 332; election
strength, I, 198, 199, 203-216,
239-241, 266-269; growth, I,
195, 205, 206, 207, 223, 244, 246,
255-262; old parties, I, 199-
202, 210, 211.

See also, New England Working
Men's Association.
Workingmen's Party of California,
conventions, II, 256, 257, 258;
election strength, II, 259-262;
end, II, 264; greenbackism, II,

263, 264; platform, II, 255;
sand-lot meetings, II, 255, 256;
split, II, 259, 260.
See also, Kearney, Denis.
Workingmen's Party of the United
States, factions, II, 271–274; or-
ganisation, II, 271; political ac-
tion, II, 270, 272, 277-290;
strikes, II, 276, 277.
See also, Socialist Labor Party.
Workingmen's Trade and Labor
Union of San Francisco, organ-
ised, II, 254.

Wright, Frances, I, 19, 213, 240,
240n, 250, 272, 284n, 293.
Wright, James L., II, 25, 25n, 236,
243, 247.

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