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Phillips, Wendell, II, 88n, 102, 138,
140, 142, 143, 144n, 155.
Pinkerton detectives, strike breakers,
II, 186, 366, 415, 496, 497.
Pittsburgh, conventions, II, 292,
321-326, 333; labour party, II,
277.
Pittsburgh and Vicinity Manufac
turing Association, co-operative
marketing, 1, 95; dividends, I,
99; sales, I, 98.

See also, Cordwainers of Pitts-
burgh.
Pittsburgh Manifesto of Interna-
tional Working People's Associ-
ation, II, 295.

Political Commonwealth, see New

Democracy.

Political Action, Beginning, I, 18.
Elections: 1830, I, 262-268,
287-289, 290–294; 1832, I. 269;
1836, 1837, I, 465, 466; 1866,
II, 102; 1876, II, 171; 1877, II,
273, 277, 279; 1878, II, 245,
246; 1879, II, 282-284; 1880,
II, 290; 1886, II, 462, 463;
1887, II, 466-470.

Issues: agrarianism, I, 531; anti-
monopoly, II, 168; Chinese, II,
260-262; class antagonism, I,
192, 193; eight-hour day, I,
103-109; financial reform, II,
142; greenbackism, II, 242, 243,
250; in 1828, I, 216; in 1830,
I, 217, 221–229; in 1877, I, 274–
284; in 1892, II, 518; land re-
form, I, 535; Lassalleanism, II,
227-234; religion, I, 272, 273;

Stewardism, II, 91; ten-hour
day, I, 537-539.
Massachusetts: 1833, 1834, I,
315-317; 1865, II, 92; 1869, II,
141, 142; 1876, II, 143, 144.
New Jersey, I, 287.

New York: 1829, I, 238-240;
1830, I, 232; 1835, I, 461-465;
1877, II, 242.

Ohio: II, 248.
Opinions: farmers' alliance, II,
489; Lassalle, II, 206; news-
papers, I, 144; Schilling, Rob-
ert, II, 163; socialist, II, 278,
279, 449; Walsh, I, 528.
Organised Labour: American Fed-
eration of Labor, II, 509, 529;
Central Labor Union, II, 444,
446; convention action, I, 558-
560; II, 99, 100, 129, 130, 153,
154, 155, 161, 238, 324, 327;
Crispins, II, 140, 153; Federa-
tion of Organised Trades, II,
463, 464; International Work-
ingmen's Association, II, 218,
219, 250; Knights of Labor, II,
341, 350-352, 488, 492-493; Me-
chanics' Union of Trade Associ-
ations, I, 191; Molly Maguires,
II, 183; National Labor Union,
II, 114; trade union, II, 152,
158, 317; trades' assemblies, II,
23, 38; trades' union, I, 361,
410, 411, 426.
Pennsylvania: 1828, I, 195, 459-
461; II, 247.
Philadelphia, II, 93.
Political Parties, anti-monopoly, II,

264; Equal Rights, I, 463-465;
Erie People's, I, 207, 208; Fe-
male Labor Reform Association,
I, 533; Independent Party,
Massachusetts, II, 141; Loco-
Foco Party, I, 462; National
Party of California, II, 255-
261; National Party of Ohio,
II, 241.

See also, Association of Working
People of New Castle County;
Citizens' Alliance; Greenback
Labor Party, National; Green-
back Party; Labor Party of
Illinois; Labor Party of New-
ark; League of Deliverance;
National Party; National Re-
form Association; National
Union Labor Party; New
Democracy; New England Asso-

ciation of Farmers, Mechanics,
and Other Workingmen; New
England Working Men's Asso-
ciation; People's Party; Peo-
ple's Party of Erie, Pennsylva-
nia; People's Party of Wiscon-
sin; Progressive Democracy;
Progressive Labor Party; Rad-
ical Labor Party; Revolution-
ary Socialist Party; Social
Democratic Party; Social Dem-
ocratic Party of North Amer-
ica; Social Party; Socialist
Labor Party; United Labor
Party; Working Men's Party;
Workingmen's Party of Califor-
nia; Workingmen's Party of the
United States.

Pomeroy, Mark, editor Pomeroy's
Democrat, II, 246.

Pools, in eighties, II, 360.
Populist movement, see People's
Party.

Portsmouth, trade society, I, 72.
Post, Louis F., II, 451, 459.
Powderly, Terence V., II, 56, 163n,

166, 345n, 347, 351, 352, 370,
372, 374, 378, 379, 384, 408n,
412, 419, 427, 430, 431, 452, 464,
469, 483n, 491, 494.

Powers, Richard, II, 318, 321, 322,
323, 327, 328.

Prices, bread assize, I, 52, 53; build-

ing associations, I, 574; Civil
War, II, 5; conflict, I, 49; com-
petition, I, 63, 64; co-operation,
II, 37; coopers, I, 56; employ.
ers' associations, II, 27; fluctu-
ating, I, 11; II, 6; greenback-
ism, II, 121; in 1835, I, 348,
349; in 1836, I, 396, 397, 398,
435; in 1853, I, 488; labour
cost theory of exchange, I, 510;
legal tender acts, 1862, II, 14,
15; merchant-capitalist, I, 102,
106; merchants' associations, I,
133; price bargain dominates
wage bargain, I, 70; regulation,
I, 7, 50-52, 58-61, 68, 69; rents,
I, 491; term, I, 50; unionism,
I, 488; wages, I, 150, 396, 415,
416, 435, 582, 600; II, 15, 110;
Warren's time stores, I, 511;
Weitling's bank of exchange, I,

514.

Price-wage bargain, I, 22-36.
Printers, collective bargaining, I,
122; employer membership, I,

118; grievances, I, 114; locals,
I, 112, 113, 135, 136; organise,
I, 109; prices, I, 112.

See also, Typographical Societies.
Prison Labour, see Convict La-
bour.

Prison Reform, Auburn model, I,
346; in twenties, I, 345.
Producers' Exchange Association, I,
96.

Production, Brisbane, I, 499; cheap
methods, I, 154, 155; Engels'
theory, I, 27-29; foreign com-
petition, I, 72; Hobson's the-
ory, I, 28; inventions, I, 76, 77;
market theory, I, 26-29; mar-
kets, I, 6, 71; Marxian theory,
I, 26-29; merchant-capitalist,
I, 338-340; methods improved,
I, 76; sweat shop, I, 102-104;
Vandervelde's theory, I, 26-

29.

Progressive Democracy, established,
II, 454; named United Labor
Party, II, 455.
Progressive Labor Party, platform,
II, 460; nominate Swinton, II,
461.

Property, in business, II, 505, 506;
factor in industrial evolution,
I, 28, 29.
Property rights against personal
rights, I, 12.

Property values, influenced by immi-
gration, I, 10.

Prosperity, see Industrial Cycles.
Protectionism, I, 10, 17; apprentice-
ship, I, 56; arguments, I, 42;
bounties, I, 37, 38; capitalistic
system, I, 44; courts favour
manufacturers, I, 149; domestic
and Tradesmen, I, 72, 81;
General Society of Mechanics
and Tradesmen, I, 72, 81;
guilds, I, 46-48; Homestead
strike, II, 497n; limited, I, 43,
44; manufacturers' monopolies,
I, 40; non-importation agree-
ments, I, 40, 41, 72; Pennsylva-
nia Society to Encourage Manu-
factures, I, 74; producers re-
volt, I, 49, 50; tariff, I, 41–44,
74, 104; II, 220, 237, 294, 295,
298, 324, 327, 329; tariff and
ehild labour, I, 319; tariff and
factory system, I, 429; tariff
and wages, I, 443; tariff war,
II, 14.

See also, Closed shop; Conspir-
acy; Employers' association.
Providence, Association of Mechan-
ics and Manufacturers, I, 72,
76.

Provident Society of House Carpen-
ters', I, 85.

Pullman Company, strike, II, 502.
Putnam, Mary Kellogg, II, 126,
127.

R

Race problem, I, 10; versus class
problem, II, 252-257, 259.
See also, anti-Chinese Agitation;
Negro.

Radical Labor Party, Chicago, II,
467.

Railroad Brotherhood, II, 309;
Adamson Act, II, 530n; Loco-
motive Engineers, II, 313; Loco-
motive Firemen, II, 313; Rail-
road Conductors, II, 186, 187,
313; theories, II, 309, 310.
Railways, see Markets, Extension of.
Railway Union, American, organ-
ised, II, 500, 501; Pullman
strike, II, 502, 503, 508.
Rand School of Social Sciences, II,
207, 209.

Redpath, James, establishes Pro-
gressive Democracy, II, 454.
Referendum, advocated, 1850, II,
210.

Reid, Whitelaw, Tribune boycott, II,
317.
Representative Assembly of Trades
and Labor Unions, organised in
California, II, 266.
Republik der Arbeiter, on co-opera-
tion, I, 567.

Retail merchant, advantage, I, 102.
Retail-shop stage, competition, I,

57; co-operation, I, 96; jour-
neymen, I, 56-60; price-main-
tenance, I, 60, 61; transition to
wholesale order period, I, 61, 62.
Revolutionary Socialist Party, or-
ganised, II, 292.
Revolutionary War, depression fol-
lowing, I, 83; improvements
following, I, 61; industry pro-
tected, I, 41, 42; Non-Importa-
tion Act, I, 72.

Rhode Island, protective tariff, I,
42; subsidised cloth industry, I,
37; suffrage, I, 319; ten-hour

law, I, 543; unions, 1863-1864,
II, 19.

Riots, anti-Catholic, I, 415; anti-
Chinese, II, 253; dock hands, I,
417; food, 1837, I, 463, 464;
gag law, II, 257, 258; Haymar-
ket Square, II, 392-394; Mar-
tinsburg, II, 187, 188; Milwau-
kee, II, 296; of 1877, II, 276;
Philadelphia coal heavers, I,
377; Pittsburgh, 1877, II, 188-

190; railway construction
hands, I, 416; Tompkins Square,
II, 220.

Robinson, William D., and locomo-
tive engineers, II, 63, 67.
Rochdale plan of co-operation, II,
205; in America, II, 40; Sover-
eigns of Industry, II, 173.
Roney, Frank, II, 258, 258n, 259,
266.

Roosevelt, Clinton, I, 463, 549.
Root, General Erastus, in New York
politics, I, 264-266.

Rosenberg, V. L., socialist leader,
II, 515, 516.

Roy, Andrew, miner, II, 248.
Ryckman, Lewis W., I, 537, 538,
548, 549.

S

Sabotage, early syndicalism, II, 298.
Saffin, William, II, 152, 157.
Sailors, strikes, I, 110, 111.
Samuel, John, co-operationist, II,
25, 25n, 435.

Sand-lot meetings, California, II,
253, 255, 256.
San Francisco Chronicle, organ of
Workingmen's Party of Califor-
nia, II, 256; opposes Working-
men's Party of California, II,

251.

San Francisco, Citizens' Protective
Union, II, 263; municipal elec-
tion, II, 261. 262.
Sanial, Lucien, II, 455, 515, 517,

519.

Sayward, William H., II, 424, 479.
Schäfer, John, political socialist, II,
274.

Schewitsch, Sergius E., socialist, II,

300, 446, 454, 456, 458, 459, 515.
Schilling, George, supports political-
socialists, II, 279, 289.
Schilling, Robert, II, 76, 161, 163,

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532, 533; strikes, II, 253, 276,
277.
Connection with: American Fed-
eration of Labor, II, 512; Com-
munist Club, II, 206, 207; Gen-
eral German Workingmen's
Union, II, 207, 208; Knights of
Labor, II, 519; New York cen-
tral labour bodies, II, 517;
Pittsburgh convention, 1881, II,
322; Progressive Labor Party,
II, 460; Radical Labor Party,
II, 467, 468; Red Interna-
tional, II, 300n; Strasser, II,
309n; trade unions, II, 202,
225, 226, 279n, 281, 308n,
514;
United Hebrew Trades,
II, 518; Weydemeyer, I, 617,
618.

Theories: anarchism, II, 290-300;
eight-hour movement, II, 391;
evolution, I, 14, 21; II, 196,
204, 354; German forty-eight-
ers, II, 204; greenbackism, II,
237, 239, 286-289; Henry George
movement, II, 454-457; Las-
salle, II, 205, 206; Marx, II,
205, 214, 215; militarism, II,
280, 281; political action versus
trade union action, II, 218, 219,
271, 272-275, 278–280, 283, 284,
287n, 301-309; voluntary, II,
210.

See also, Becker, Johann; Berger,
Victor; Carl, Conrad; Commu-
nist Club; De Leon, Daniel;
Douai, Adolph; Eberhardt,
Karl; German Workingmen's
Union, General; German So-
cial Democratic Workingmen's
Union; Grottkau, Paul; Las-
salle, Ferdinand; Lassallean-
ism; Marx, Karl; Meyer, Sieg-
fried; National Labor Union;
Rosenberg, V. L.; Social Party;
Sorge, F. A.; Strasser, Adolph;
Weydemeyer, Joseph.
Socialist, established in Chicago, II,

282.

Socialist Labor Party, convention,
II, 284, 285; De Leon, II, 517,
518; ebb, II, 300; factions, II,
291, 450, 516; greenbackism,
II, 286-288; New York Central
labour bodies, II, 517; organ-
ised, II, 278, 519; political ac-
tion, II, 277-290, 401; princi-
ples, II, 278, 279, 446; Red In-

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Sovereigns of Industry, activities,
II, 173, 174; constitution, II,
173; co-operation, II, 171, 172;
failure, II, 175; Industrial Con-
gresses, II, 163, 175; member-
ship, 1874-1877, II, 173; origin,
II, 172, 196; purposes, II, 172;
trade unions, II, 174.
Sozial-Demokrat, advocates Lassel-
lean platform, II, 234; becomes
Arbeiterstimme, II, 271; Otto
Walster editor, II, 233; party
organ, II, 232.

See also, Arbeiterstimme.
Sozialist, Der, advocates political ac-
tion, II, 449; eight-hour move-
ment, II, 515.
Speyer, Carl, and International La-
bor Union, II, 302.

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149; funds, I, 123, 124, 442; II,
59, 70, 311; immigration, I,
488, 597; injunction, II, 505-
508; markets, I, 440, 441;
store-order payment, I, 488;
violence, I, 412; walking dele-
gates, I, 126.

List: Baldwin Locomotive Works,
II, 9; bakers, 1741, I, 53, 54;
bookbinders, I, 399; bricklayers,
II, 33, 123, 152, 312; Burling-
ton, II, 474, 475, 507; carpen-
ters, I, 69, 127, 128, 158-162,
186-189, 388, 389, 430, 466; II,
476, 477; cartmen, I, 55; cigar
makers, II, 71, 72, 177, 178, 306,
363, 400; closed shop, I, 412;
coal heavers, I, 417; collateral,
I, 126; cordwainers, I, 105, 109,
128, 140, 144, 398, 399; during
Civil War, II, 23; early, I, 25,
109, 111; eight-hour, II, 156,
385, 476-478; factory opera-
tives, I, 419, 420; freight
handlers, II, 349; general, I,

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