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Union, Cleveland
convention, II, 326; established,
II, 313; Terre Haute Confer-
ence, II, 318.

See also, Powers, Richard.
Land Policy, Bovay's, I, 549; class
struggle, I, 4; free land, I, 4,
526; II, 360; government, I,
562; Hine, II, 128; homestead
law, 1862, I, 562; immigration,
I, 489; Industrial Congresses, I,
550, 551, 557, 558, 561; II, 100,
101; Kriege, I, 534, 535; manu-
facturers, I, 562; rents, limita-
tion of, I, 558; single-tax reso-
lution, II, 327; slave holders, I,
563; Trades' Union, I, 428, 433;
western ideas, I, 563.
See also, Agrarianism.
Lassalle, Ferdinand, II, 205–207.
Lassalleanism, Campbell's money re-

form, II, 121; Chicago, II, 272,
273; depression, II, 227, 228;
German, II, 207; German
Workingmen's Union, General,
II, 207; Marxism, II, 270,
271; political action, II, 206,
271; trade unionism, II, 271-
274.

See also, Klinge, Karl; Labor
Party of Illinois; Lyser, Gus-
tav; McGuire, P. J.; Schlägel,
E.; Social Democratic Party of
North America; Strasser,
Adolph.

Layton, R. D., and Knights of La-
bor, II, 321n.

Leader, The, George-Hewitt cam-
paign, II, 451; socialism, II,
451, 459.

Leagu of Deliverance, boycott of
Chinese goods, II, 267.
Leffingwell, Samuel L., Cleveland
convention, 1882, II, 321; Pitts-
burgh convention, 1881, II, 322;
Terre Haute convention, II, 319.
Legal tender acts, see Financial sys-
tem.

Lehr and Wehr Verein, militarism,
II, 280, 387.

Liebknecht, Wilhelm, German corre-
spondent of Arbeiter Zeitung,
II, 221.

Litchman, Charles H., II, 79, 250,
408n, 468.

Lloyd, Henry D., I, 19; warns
against monopoly, II, 360.
Lockouts, Boston printers, II, 17;
Boston ship-carpenters, II, 312;
brewery workers, II, 488;
Champion Reaper Company, II,
415; Chicago brick layers, II,
423-425; Chicago packing in-
dustry, II, 385n, 418, 419; in
1886, II, 417n; Jamestown, II,
414; knit goods, II, 418; Mc-
Cormick Reaper Company, II,
392; Moberly, Missouri, II, 368,
369; Philadelphia cordwainers,
I, 122; policy, II, 195; Troy, II,

418.

Locomotive Engineers, Brotherhood
of, Arthur, P. M., II, 67, 68;
benefit system, II, 68; Brother-
hood of the Footboard, II, 62;
growth, II, 47; incorporation,
II, 66; organised, II, 62; piece
work, II, 62; railway consolida-
tion, II, 61, 62; strike on Mich-
igan Southern, II, 64, 65; Wil-
son, II, 63, 67.
Lottery System, demand for aboli-
tion, I, 223.
Lowell, factory system, I, 429; poli-

tics, I, 316.

Lowell Female Labor Reform Asso-

ciation, hours of labour, I, 539.
Lucker, Labor Congress, 1868, II,
126; on conspiracy, II, 133.
Luther, Seth, I, 312, 319, 325, 380,
422n.

Lynn, shoemakers of, I, 102, 105;
women organise, I, 355.

Lyser, Gustav, II, 232, 233, 272, 281.

M

MacFarlane, Robert, and prison la-
bour, I, 492.

McBride, John, II, 199, 364, 513.
McCormick Harvester

Company,

lockout, II, 392.

McDonald, Mary, II, 127, 129.
McDonnell, J. P., II, 222, 226, 271,
274, 280, 288, 302, 304, 306, 308.
McGlynn, Father, II, 453-461.
McGuire, P. J., II, 231n, 232, 235,
270, 271, 275, 279, 286, 302,
308n, 314n, 319, 325, 403, 404,
412, 418, 428, 442, 510n.
McLaughlin, William J., II, 138,
140, 142.

McMakin, John, II, 446, 454, 455,
457.

McNamara, dynamite case, II, 528.
McNeill, George E., I, 19; II, 92n,
138-142, 163, 165, 184.
Machinery, introduction, II, 44, 75,
358; in shoe industry, II, 76,
77.

See also, Bargaining Power; Com-
petition.

Machinists and Blacksmiths, Na-
tional Union of, apprenticeship,
II, 84; co-operation, II, 112;
depression, II, 9, 10; eight-hour
movement, II, 57, 58, 89, 95;
federation, II, 157; grievances,
II, 8; growth, II, 9, 20, 45, 47,
176; intellectual ascendency, II,
56; Knights of Labor, II, 200;
Labor Congress, 1866, II, 13;
national trades' assembly, II,
39; New York picketing bill, II,
23n; organised, II, 6, 9; Pitts-
burgh convention, 1861, II, 13;
revival, 1870, II, 58; strike
against Baldwin Locomotive
Works, II, 9.

Macune, Dr. C. W., II, 489, 491.
Maine, Charitable Mechanics Asso-
ciation, I, 79; Greenbackism, II,
245; monopoly grants, I, 40;
subsidised steel industry, I, 37;
ten-hour law, I, 54; unions,
1863-1864, II, 19.
Market, theories of Schmoller and
Bücher, I, 26, 27; versus pro-
duction theories, I, 26-29.
Markets, Extension of, Development:
causes, I, 6; canals, I, 438, 439;

Civil War, II, 22; colonial
period, I, 5, 6, 28; domestic
market propaganda, I, 73, 89,
91, 92; historical view, I, 6;
itinerant to custom-order stage,
I, 36, 37; railroads, I, 8,
154, 439; II, 3-5, 61, 148, 358;
retail shop to wholesale-order
period, I, 61-63.
Influence: agriculture, I, 32, 33;
apprenticeship, II, 81; Califor-
nia industries, II, 148; class
antagonism, I, 26–28, 106; com-
petition, commodity, I, 440;
competition, labour, I, 440, 441;
II, 43, 44; contracts, I, 29; co-
operation, I, 95-100; export
trade, I, 149; locomotive engi-
neers, II, 61; merchant capital-
ist, I, 101-104, 338; moulders'
trade, II, 6; national trade
union, I, 441; production, I, 71;
typographical union, II, 58;
wholesale jobber, II, 359.
Marx, Karl, I, 20, 26-29, 44; II,
204, 205, 207, 214, 215.
Maryland, trade regulations, I, 4;
unions, 1863, 1864, II, 19.
Massachusetts, bread assize, I, 52,

55; bounties granted, I, 37, 38,
39, 43; child labour investiga-
tion, I, 331; Chinese labour, II,
149; Greenbackism, II, 246; lot-
tery conducted, I, 93; Mechan-
ics' Association, I, 73; monopo-
lies granted, I, 40; politics, I,
315-318; II, 92, 102, 138-144;
price regulation, I, 50-52; qual-
ity regulation, I, 47; ten-hour
movement, I, 546; unemploy-
ment, 1837, I, 457; unions, 1863,
1864, I, 19, 20; women cigar
makers, 43.
See also, Boston.

Masquerier, Lewis, I, 523, 531, 532,

547.

Master Mechanics' Benevolent Soci-
ety, benefits, I, 85.
Mazzini, Joseph, harmony of capital
and labour, II, 205.
Mechanics of Boston, Associated, I,
74.

Mechanics and Manufacturers, Asso-
ciation of, Providence, promote
inventions, I, 76, 77.
Mechanics and Tradesmen, General
Society of, I, 72; activities, I,
81; credit facilities, I, 89; in-

corporated, I, 84; letter to As-
sociated Mechanics of Boston,
I, 74.

Mechanics and Tradesmen of the
County of Kings, incorporation,
I, 86, 87.

Mechanics of Massachusetts, Asso-
ciation of, I, 73, 77.
Mechanics' Free Press, circulation,
I, 205; election results, I, 204,
213, 215; influence, I, 207, 210;
mechanics' lien law, I, 220, 280;
political action, I, 239; Work-
ingmen's Measures, I, 217, 218.
Mechanics' liens, I, 12; II, 324; agi-
tation, I, 220, 221, 279, 296, 297,
318; Knights of Labor, II, 336;
labour parties, I, 329.
Mechanics' Union of Trade Associa-
tions, I, 15; decline, I, 191, 192;
politics, I, 191; purposes, I, 190.
Merchants' Associations, and em-
ployers' associations, I, 132, 133.
Merchant-capitalist, apprenticeship,

I, 339-341; ascendency, I, 104,
154; coming, I, 101, 102; con-
vict labour, I, 344-347; cord-
wainers, I. 441; labour-cost the-
ory of exchange, I, 510; master
and journeymen unite against,
I, 379; production, I, 338, 339;
retailer, I, 17; ship-building in-
dustry, I. 309, 310; shoe in-
dustry, II, 78; sweating intro-
duced, I, 102, 103; Weitling, I,
543.

Metal Workers' Federation Union of
America, model syndicalist
union, II, 297, 298.

Metal Workers Union, Armed Sec-
tion of, II, 388.

Meyer, Siegfried, II, 207, 209.
Micalonda, J., and Black Interna-
tional, II, 296.

Militarism, socialist, II, 280, 281,
284.

Militia system, abolition demanded,
I, 281, 282, 296, 298, 318; bur-
den. I, 180; in Pennsylvania,
1822, 1, 221, 222.

Miller, Joseph D., I, 434, 470.
Milwaukee, Knights of St. Crispin
organised. II, 77; socialism, II,
273, 274, 277, 533.
Milwaukee, Sozialist, II, 233.
Mine Workers of America, United,

organisation, II, 487, 500.
Miners and Mine Laborers of United

States, National Federation of,
interstate agreement, II, 426;
organised, II, 425.
Miners' Benevolent and Protective
Association, II, 211.

Miners' National Association, and
Knights of Labor, II, 200.
Ming, Alexander, Sr., I, 240, 245.
Minimum Wage, demanded, I, 104,
117, 118; first strike for, I,
25.

Missouri, Greenbackism, II, 248;
unions, 1863, 1864, II, 19.
Mitchell, John, and education, I,
226.
Molders' International Union, Iron,
apprenticeship, II, 50, 84; bene-
fits, II, 175n; co-operation, I,
53-56; employers' associations,
II, 49; epitomizes labour move-
ment, II, 48; growth, II, 45,
46; Knights of Labor, II, 352n;
Labor Congress, 1866, II, 96;
lethargy of 1861, 1862, II, 14;
locals, II, 120; New York pick-
eting bill, II, 23n; organised,
II, 5, 7, 313; strikes, II, 51, 52,
56; war activities, II, 49; weak-
ness, II, 7.

Molly Maguires, Ancient Order of
Hibernians, II, 181, 187; "long
strike," II, 184, 185; McParlan,
James, II, 184; organised, II,
196; politics, II, 183; secrecy,
II, 201; trial, II, 185; violence,
II, 181, 183, 184n.
Monopoly, abolition demanded, I,

218, 219, 296, 298, 318, 458,
459; corporations, I, 458, 459;
grants, I, 40, 43, 44.
Moore, Ely, I, 20, 360, 367, 369-
371, 394, 425, 461, 463.

Morgan, Thomas J., II, 279, 282,
283, 289, 387, 509.
Most, Johann, 293n, 294.
Muhlenberg, Henry A., I, 459, 460,

461.

Mule Spinners' Association, Na-
tional, at Cleveland convention,
1882, II, 326.
Murch, Thompson, II, 245, 249, 327,
329.

Musicians' Union, I, 8; similarity to
guilds, I, 55.

Mutual loans, by early protective
organisations, I, 81, 82.
Myers, Isaac I., Negro labour move-
ment, II, 137, 144, 145.

N

Napoleonic wars, depression follow
ing, I, 134-138.

National economy, I, 26, 27.
National Labor Congress, of 1874,
II, 196.

National Laborer, cited, I, 99; on
co-operation, I, 468.
National Labor Union, after 1870,
II, 153; Die Arbeiter Union af-
filiates, II, 223; Chinese ques-
tion, II, 149, 150; conventions,
II, 142, 153-155, 227; disinte-
gration, II, 155, 157; eight-
hour day, II, 87, 94, 142; green-
backism, II, 123, 224; immigra-
tion, II, 116-118; in 1867, II,
112; International Working-
men's Association, II, 86, 87,
131, 132, 206, 208, 209; labour
congresses, II, 96-102, 115-118,
125-130, 133, 134, 144-147;
Negro, II, 137; New England
Labour Reform League, II, 139;
organised, II, 86; political ac-
tion, II, 141, 145, 146; trade
unionism, II, 152; Sylvis, II,
130, 131; Trevellick, II, 137,
138.

National Party, demands, II, 245;
Greenback platform, II, 241;
organised, II, 244, 245.
National Reform Association, need
for organisation, I, 547.
See also, Industrial Congress.
National Socialist, policy, II, 280;
publication suspended, II, 281.
National Union Labor Party, order

of the Videttes, II, 469, 470;
organised, II, 465; political re-
sults, II, 466-470.
Neebe, Oscar, pardoned, II, 393.
Negro, anti-slavery agitation, I, 4,

12; labour problem, II, 114, 116,
118, 135, 619; organisation, II,
135, 136, 137, 145, 312; Repub-
lican party, II, 136, 145, 146.
Newark, Workingmen's Party Con-
vention, II, 277, 278.

New Democracy, platform, II, 210;
failure and reorganisation, II,
210, 211.

New England, banks, I, 348; child
labour, I, 320, 321; education,
I, 300, 321-324; greenbackism,
II, 245; ship-building, I, 309,
310; ten-hour movement, I, 325;

women in factories, I, 422;
workingmen's movement, I, 290-
203, 298, 299.

See also, Boston; Connecticut;
Massachusetts; New Hamp-
shire; Rhode Island; Vermont.
New England Association of Farm-
ers, Mechanics, and Other
Workingmen, aims, I, 306, 307,
318, 319; banking system, I,
319, 320; child labour, I, 320,
321; class lines, I, 304; conven-
tions, I, 308, 309, 312-315; edu-
cation, I, 183, 184, 321-324;
factory conditions, I, 305, 306,
320, 321, 331; organised, I, 302,
306, 314, 315; political action,
I, 309, 315; Thompsonville case,
I, 313; trades' unions, I, 314.
New England Boot and Shoe Last-

ers, established, II, 313.
New England Labour Reform

League, convention, 1869, II,
138; eight-hour day, II, 139;
Proudhonism and the Intellec-
tuals, II, 139.

New England Society for the Pro-
motion of Manufactures and
Mechanic Arts, sales, I, 98.
New England Working Men's Asso-

ciation, 1844-1849, association-
ists control, I, 538; conventions,
I, 537-540; co-operation, I, 539;
political action, I, 539; ten-hour
day, I, 537-540.

New Hampshire, Greenbackism, II,
244; ten-hour law, I, 541; trade
restrictions, I, 39; unions, 1863,
1864, II, 19.

New Haven, labour party, II, 277;
trade restrictions, I, 39.

New Jersey, bounties, I, 39, 92; edu-

cation, 1835, I, 182; eight-hour
law, II, 107; lotteries, I, 93;
political action, I, 286; unions,
1863, 1864, II, 19.

New York, apprenticeship, I, 77,
78; bread assize, I, 52-54; Cen-
tral Labor Union, II, 441; city
assembly, I, 456; city industrial
congresses, I, 552, 553; commis-
sion stores, I, 94; conspiracy
cases, I, 164, 409, 410; coopers,
I, 56; corporations, I, 458; edu-
cation, I, 328; eight-hour day,
II, 108; employers' associations,
I, 402, 404; General Society of
Mechanics and Tradesmen, I, 72,

81; greenbackism, II, 240, 242,
246, 248; housing conditions, I,
490, 491; labour party, II, 277;
mechanics' liens, I, 329; militia
law, I, 330; politics in 1835, I,
461-465; printers, I, 50, 109,
112, 113, 133, 134, 580, 581;
prison reform, I, 346; unem.
ployment, I, 135, 457; rag
money, I, 349; rents, I, 349;
riots, I, 415, 416, 417; social-
ism, II, 282; social party, II,
207-209; state Workingmen's
Assembly, II, 211; strikes, I, 53,
54, 55, 110, 111, 157, 365, 382,
383, 395-397, 478-484, 576; II,
151, 178, 367n; ten hour bill, I,
542, 543; Trades and Labour
Council, II, 226; Trades' Union
Convention, I, 425, 430; union-
ism, I, 109, 337, 358, 363, 364,
366; II, 19, 20; United Labor
Party, II, 455; women organise,
I, 356.

See also, Cordwainers; New York
Journeymen; Typographical So-
ciety; Working Men's Party.
New York Amalgamated Trades and
Labor Union, enforced boycotts,
II, 311.

New Yorker Volkszeitung, green-
backism, II, 286, 287, 288;
Henry George, II, 451; social
ism, II, 300, 449.

Nye Tid, Chicago socialist paper, II,
282; agitates against Green-
back compromise, II, 287.

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P

Panics, see Industrial Cycles.
Parsons, Albert R., anarchist, II,
250n, 273, 279, 282, 283, 284n,
289, 291, 296, 302, 389, 390, 392-
394.

Parsons, Lucy E., and tramps, II,

389.

Paterson, cotton operatives' strike,
I, 418.

Patrons of Husbandry, II, 196.
Pennsylvania, banking reform, I,

330; bounties granted, I, 37, 38,
39, 42; cabinet makers, I, 99,
336, 337, 467; child labour, I,
331; education, I, 223–229, 328;
eight-hour law, II, 108; factory
workers, II, 375, 419, 420;
Franklin Institute, I, 78; green-
backism, II, 242, 244, 245, 247;
militia law, I, 221, 222; Molly
Maguires, II, 181-185; politics,
I, 195, 459-461; price regula-
tion, I, 50; ten-hour legislation,
I, 543; unions, II, 19, 20.
See also, Philadelphia; Working
Men's Party.

Pennsylvania Society to Encourage
Manufactures, I, 74; extends
credit, I, 91, 92; opens ware-
house, I, 94.
Peoples' Party, organised, II, 494;
platform, II, 509; trade unions,
II, 512.

People's Party of Erie, Pennsylva-
nia, organised, I, 207.
People's Party of Wisconsin, plat-
form, II, 462.

Personal Rights, against property
rights, I, 12.
Phelps, Alfred W., II, 113, 115, 118,
126.
Philadelphia, banks, I, 219n; cabinet

makers, I, 336, 337; carpenters,
I, 68, 78, 80-82, 84, 97, 118, 127,
128; commission stores, I, 94;
conventions, I, 214, 333, 434, 470,
471; II, 11, 209, 270; co-opera-
tion, I, 96, 97, 467-469; educa-
tion, I, 226, 227, 469; employ.
ers' associations, I, 402, 403;
greenbackism, II, 247; lotteries,
I, 93; marketing agency, I, 100;
population, I, 176n, 490; riots,
I, 407; strikes, I, 25, 69, 186-
189, 383, 389-392, 397-399, 399-
401, 417, 478-484, 576; trade

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