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121; Douai, II, 224; Kellogg-
ism, II, 120; Proudhonism, II,
139; socialism versus, II, 196,
237-239, 285-290; trade union-
ism versus, II, 223.
Greenback Labor Party, National,
Butler campaign, II, 440; fail-
ure, II, 251; in 1882, II, 439,
440; in Pennsylvania, II, 242,
243; national convention, II,
285; organised, IT, 241-247.
Greenback Party, 1874-1877, con-
ventions, II, 168-170; Peter
Cooper, II, 171; depression, II,
170; power, II, 196, 197.
Grottkau, Paul, II, 281, 287, 296,
387, 516.

tional Workingmen's Associa-
tion, II, 213, 215.

Hales, John, London General Coun-
cil, II, 212, 213.
Hanna, Mark, trade agreement, II,
180.

Guilds, breaking up, I, 8; char-
ters, I, 46, 48; European, I, 77;
organisation, I, 7; revival of
principle, I, 492.

Gunton, George, II, 302n, 304.

H

Hague, The, Congress of Interna-

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Hine, Lucius A., I, 533; II, 128.
Hinton, Richard. II, 314n, 455.
Historical periods, characterised. I,
11-13; philosophies, I, 13, 14.
Hobson, J. A., production theory, I.

28.
Hogan. Thomas, I, 360, 425, 434,
461.
Horseshoers' Union, established, II,
313.

Homestead movement, see Land Pol-
icy.
Homework. Bücher's use of the
term, I, 33; merchant-capitalist
stage, I, 103.

Hours of Labour, bakers', I. 162;
Boston ship carpenters, I, 311,
312, 325: building trades, I,
188; carpenters, I, 69; in 1839,
I. 172; labour parties, T. 331;
National Trades' Union. I, 433,
536; New England Working
Men's Association. I, 537, 539;
printers, I, 118; public employ-
ment, I, 192, 393-395; public
opinion, I, 174, 175; strikes for
shorter, I, 158-162, 183, 186-

189, 386-392; II, 367; sunrise
to sunset system, I, 158, 171,
174, 186, 189n, 544; ten-hour
movement, I, 110, 159n, 235,
303, 307, 324, 366n, 384.
Legislation, legislative investiga-
tion, I, 436, 437, 540; ten-hour
law in New Hampshire, I, 541,
542; in New York, I, 542, 543;
in Pennsylvania, I, 543; in
other states, I, 543-545.
Theories: citizenship, I, 170-172,
384, 385; make-work, I, 545,
546.

See also, Eight-Hour Day.
Housewrights of Boston, promote
inventions, I, 76.

Howard, Robert, II, 321, 322, 328,
331, 463.
Humanitarianism, anti-Chinise agi-
tation, II, 267; apprenticeship,
I, 595; co-operation, I, 565;
high-water mark, I, 564; hours
of labour, I, 536, 541; in 1837,
I, 12; in forties, I, 14; union-
ism, I, 576.

See also, Agrarianism; Associa-
tion; Co-operation; Land Pol-
icy; Transcendentalism.
Hungary, Bureau for recruiting
contract labourers, II, 372.

I

Illinois, eight hour day, II, 108;
Knights of Labor, II, 381, 382;
unions, 1863, 1864, II, 19.
Immigration, decrease, 1855, 1856,

I, 616; increase, I, 413, 488,
489.
Character: change, I, 489, 490;
Chinese, II, 149, 150; contract,
II, 117, 118, 131, 324, 372, 373,
413, 414; German forty-eight-
ers, II, 204; in eighties, II,
360, 523.
Effects: competition, I, 9, 10; II,
86, 149, 150; hours of labour, I,
544; riots, I, 412, 415; strikes,
I, 597; II, 117, 179; trade union
membership, II, 315.
Imprisonment for Debt, abolition,
I, 221, 281, 296-298, 318;
wage-earner, I, 177-180, 221n.
Incorporation of unions, before Con-
gress, II, 328; early attitude
toward, II, 314; Farmers' Alli-
ance, II, 489n; law, II, 409;

labour conventions, II, 165, 324,
325, 330; Charles Wilson's plan,
II, 66, 67.
Industrialism, first move, II, 312;
forms, II, 534, 535.
Industrialists, in Columbia Typo-
graphical Society, I, 137.
Industrial Brotherhood, beginning,
II, 196.

Industrial Congresses, 1845-1856,
aims, I, 558; bargain for votes,
I, 559; city, I, 551, 552, 557;
land reformers control, I, 550,
551; organised, I, 548; Owen's
world convention, I, 549.
Cleveland, 1873: call, II, 159;
constitution, II, 160; co-opera-
tion, II, 161; panic, II, 161;
political action, II, 161; trade
unionism, II, 160; representa-
tion, II, 159.
Indianapolis: constitution, II,

167: trade unions, II, 166.
New York, 1850: bargain for
votes, I, 559; control, I, 555,
561, 562; organised, I, 552;
purpose, I, 554; representation,
İ, 553; trade unionism, I, 557.
Rochester, 1874: arbitration, II,

165; constitution, II, 162;
greenbackism, II, 164, 165; In-
dustrial Brotherhood, II, 63,
164; political action, II, 166;
representation, II, 162.
Industrial Cycles, Depression: ap-
prenticeship, II, 84; bank fail-
ures, 1837, I, 454, 455; causes,
II, 283; food riots, 1837, I, 12,
463, 464; greenbackism, II, 122,
168, 170, 245, 248, 249; in Cali-
fornia, II, 147, 148, 253, 267;
in 1829, I, 170; in 1833, I, 351;
in 1837-1852, I, 488, 489, 492;
in 1847, I, 564; in 1854, 1855,
I, 613-615; in 1857, II, 5; in
1861, II, 9, 10; in 1866-1868,
II, 115, 123, 124; in 1873-1879,
II, 195, 219, 220; in 1877, II,
185; in 1883-1885, II, 361, 362;
in 1893, II, 501; influence, I,
10; II, 472; Lassalleanism, II,
227, 228; prison labour, I, 369;
Sovereigns of Industry, II, 175;
strikes, I, 381, 382; unionism, I,
134-138, 456, 469, 614, 615; II,
46, 47, 161, 166, 175.
Prosperity: apprenticeship, II, 84;
in 1835, I, 348, 351; in 1862, II,

14, 15; in 1869, II, 55; in 1898,
II, 521; influence, I, 10; II,
472; political action, I, 326; II,
143; socialism, II, 284; strikes,
I, 381, 382.

Industrial Education, apprentice-
ship, I, 77, 78; demand, I, 284,
300, 301, 322; funds, I, 84, 85;
labour, I, 226, 228, 328.
Industrial Workers of the World, I,
17; industrialism, II, 533, 534;
organised, II, 523; trade agree-
ment, II, 527.

Infidelity, workingman accused, I,
211-213, 254, 272, 273, 290, 293.
Ingersoll, Jared, in Philadelphia
conspiracy case, I, 139.
Injunctions, see Conspiracy.
Intellectuals, term explained, I, 19,
20; welcome International, II,
210.

See also, Andrews, Stephen Pearl;
Brisbane; Cooper, Peter; Day,
H. H.; Foran, Martin A.;
George, Henry; Greeley, H.;
Hinchcliffe; Kellogg, Edward;
Lloyd, Henry D.; McNeill,
George E.; Moore, Ely; Owen,
Robert; Owen, Robert Dale;
Sorge, F. A.; Steward, Ira;
Swinton, John; Warren, Josiah;
Wright, Frances.
International, Black, Central Labor
Union, II, 387; Chicago, II,
390; collapse, II, 394; Haymar-
ket Square bomb, II, 393, 394;
information bureau, II, 296; or-
ganised, II, 291; Pittsburgh
Convention, II, 293–296.
International, Bohemian Section,
formed, II, 209, 390.
International, French Section,
formed, II, 209.

International, Red, established, II,
298-299; Socialist Labor Party,
II, 300n.
International Working People's As-
sociation, see International,
Black.

Confederation, II, 213; Ameri-
can forerunners, II, 206, 207;
Bakunin and Marx, II, 214, 215;
central committee, II, 210, 211;
councils, II, 212, 213, 215; Euro-
pean federations, II, 216, 269,
270, 271; nationalisation, II,
231, 269-271; National Labor
Union, II, 131; North American
Federation, II, 214; organs, II,
221, 222, 230, 390n; sections, II,
209, 210, 216, 217; secessionists,
II, 217, 233; unemployed, II,
219, 220; Union Congress, II,
270; United Workers of Amer-
ica affiliate, II, 222.
Theories: II, 86, 87, 302, 303;
immigration, II, 131, 132; Las-
salleanisation, II, 228, 229; po-
litical action, II, 205, 218, 219;
trade unionism, II, 205, 223-
226, 233, 234.

Interstate Commerce Act, injunc
tions, II, 505.

International Labor Union, conven-
tion, II, 305; failure, II, 306;
organised, II, 302; programme,
II, 303, 304; textile workers,
II, 304; unskilled, II, 280.
International Workingmen's Associ
ation, Organisation: American

See also, Bakunin, Michael; Carl,
Conrad; Claflin, Tennessee;
Hales, John; Marx, Karl;
Sorge, F. A.; Stiebling, George
C.; Woodhull, Victoria; Work-
ingmen's Party of United States.
Iowa, Greenbackism, II, 244, 248.
Irish World, The, supports Henry
George, II, 451.

Iron and Steel Workers, Amalga-
mated Association of, and A.
F. of L., II, 329; established, II,
313; Homestead strike, II, 495,
497; long strike, II, 181, 184,
185; organised, II, 179; trade
agreement, II, 179–181.
Iron Moulders, see Molders Interna-
tional Union.

Irons, Martin, Southwest strike, II,
383.

Italy, contract labourers, II, 372.
Itinerancy, Bücher's use of the term,
I, 33; competition, I, 45, 48, 49,
67; wages, I, 51, 52.
Inventions, encouraged, I, 76, 77.

J

Jackson, Alexander, J. W., I, 430,
434.
Jackson, Andrew, I, 269, 270, 347,
348.

Jarrett, John, II, 321-325, 329, 468.
Jessup, William J., II, 108, 113, 115,
116, 123, 124, 126, 133, 211.

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Jonas, Alexander, II, 278, 300.
Journeyman, Conditions: bricklay-
ers, I, 405; class conflict, I, 64;
competition, control, I, 57; com.
petition, convicts, I, 155, 344-
347; competition, women, I,
342-344; merchant-capitalist
system, I, 339, 379; politics, I,
234; printing trade, I, 446, 447,
448; Weitling, I, 514.
Demands: apprenticeship, I, 339,
340-342, 590-595; ten-hour day,
I, 159-162, 234, 310.
Junior Sons of '76, call national la-
bour convention, II, 201, 202,
235; organised, II, 196, 201;
platform, II, 202n.
Jurassian Federation,
stronghold, II, 215.

Bakunin's

K

Kalloch, I. S. Reverend, mayor of
San Francisco, II, 261, 262.
Kearney, Denis, II, 249, 250, 254-
264.

Kellogg, Edward, I, 20, 519, 556;
II, 119-121, 225.

Kelley, O. H., and Patrons of Hus-
bandry, II, 172.
Kennady, A. M., II, 113, 147, 147n,
148.

Kentucky, unions, 1863, 1864, II, 19.
Klinge, Karl, socialist, II, 228, 230,
273.

Knight, H. L., II, 255, 259, 261.
Knights of Labor, Conventions:

Cincinnati, 1891, II, 494; Cleve-
land, 1882, II, 326; District As-
sembly 1 at Philadelphia, 1876,
II, 333; District Assembly 3 at
Pittsburgh, II, 333; Minneapolis
General Assembly, II, 412, 413;
Omaha, 1892, II, 494; Pitts-
burgh, 1876, II, 236, 239; Pitts-
burgh, 1881, II, 321, 322: Read-
ing, II, 335; Richmond, II, 408;
Terre Haute, II, 318-320.
Organisation: assemblies, II, 197,
199-201; beginnings, II, 196,

197; centralisation, II, 334; ele-
ments, II, 344, 345, 382, 482,
488, 492; form, II, 339; growth,
II, 339, 344, 350, 381, 396, 413,
414, 422, 423, 482; Ocean Asso-
ciation, II, 420; resistance fund,
II, 340, 341; sojourners, II,
198; Southern Farmers' Alli-
ance, II, 489, 491.
Policies: arbitration, 11, 374;
boycott, II, 317, 364, 365, 419,
444; Catholic Church, II, 339;
co-operation, I, 18; II, 351, 352,
430-438; eight-hour movement,
II, 378, 379, 392, 485; immigra-
tion, II, 372, 373; monopoly, II,
362; political action, II, 243,
351, 462, 463, 488, 493; princi-
ples, II, 198, 335, 495; secrecy,
II, 201, 232, 338, 339; socialism,
II, 519; strikes, II, 200, 334,
347-350, 367-369, 383, 384, 394,
416, 417, 419, 420-422, 483,
483n, 498, 499.

Trade Unions: American Fed-
eration of Labor, II, 484, 488;
attitude, II, 352; brewery work-
ers, II, 488; conflict, II, 397-
399, 402, 405, 406, 409, 484; fed-
eration, II, 328, 329; machinists,
II, 486; miners, II, 425, 426,
487; moulders, II, 344n, 401n;
movement within, II, 342, 346,
427; trade assemblies, II, 428,
486; trade councils, II, 311n.
See also, Powderly, Terence V.;
Sovereign, James R.
Knights of Saint Crispin, aims, II,

77; apprenticeship, II, 84; Chi-
nese labour, II, 141, 149; co-
operation, II, 79, 140, 141, 152;
eight-hour day, II, 140; factory
system, II, 76, 77; green hands,
II, 77; in seventies, II, 152,
153; Knights of Labor, II, 200,
345; membership, II, 177; or-
ganised, II, 77; Phillips,
Thomas, II, 39, 40n; political
action, II, 140; strikes, II, 77,
78.

Kommunistischen Klub in New
York, II, 207n.

Kriege, Herman, and land reform,
534, 535.

Krieg

L

Label, anti-Chinese, II, 266, 267,

401; cigar makers, II, 266n,
401n; endorsed,
Knights of Labor, II, 401n, 435.
II, 330;
Labour Congresses, 1866: co-opera-
tion, II, 101; eight-hour ques-
tion, II, 98; land question, II,
100, 101; organisation, II, 101,
102; political action, II, 99;
representation, II, 96, 97; trade
unionism, II, 98; women in in-
dustry, II, 101.

1867: constitution, II, 116; co-
operation, II, 118, 119; eight-
hour day, II, 118; greenbackism,
II, 119; immigration, II, 116-
118; Negro, II, 118; principles,
II, 122; representation, II, 115.
1868: greenbackism, 11, 128; po-
litical action, II, 125, 129;
representation, II, 126; strikes,
II, 129; women present, II, 127,
128.

1869: acts, II, 134, 135n; effect of
Sylvis' death, II, 134; repre-
sentation, II, 133.

1870: Chinese problem, II, 146;
constitution, II, 146; Negro
question, II, 144, 145; political
action, II, 145, 146; representa-
tion, II, 144.

Labour Conventions, National, Alle-
ghany City, 1879, II, 284, 285;
Baltimore Congress, 1866, II,
96; carpenters, 1836, I, 452;
cigar makers, 1864, 11, 69; Cin-
cinnati, 1887, II, 464, 465; Cin-
cinnati, 1891, II, 494; Cleve-
land, 1873, II, 159-161; Cleve-
land, 1875, II, 169; Cleveland,
1882, II, 326-328; Columbus,
1886, II, 409-412; combmakers,
1836, I, 452; currency reform-
ers, 1878, II, 244; Indianapolis,
1874, II, 166-168; industrial,
1870, II, 153; Knights of Labor,
II, 333, 334, 407, 493; Labor
Congress, 1867, II, 115-122;
1868, II, 125, 130; 1869, II,
133; 1870, II, 144-147; loom
weavers, 1836, I, 453; Louis-
ville, 1864, II, 35, 36; Machin-
ists and Blacksmiths, 1861, II,
13; National Trades' Union,
1834, I, 425-429;
Trades' Union, 1835, I, 430-
National
433; National Trades' Union,
1836, I, 433-436; Newark, 1877,
II, 277-279; New York, 1883,

605

II, 328; nominating, 1876, II,
170; Omaha, 1892, II, 494;
Philadelphia, 1861, II,
Philadelphia, 1886, II,
11;
403;
Pittsburgh, 1876, II, 236; Pitts-
burgh, 1881, II, 321-326; Pitts-
burgh, 1883, II, 293–296; Roch-
ester, 1874, II, 162-165; St.
Louis farmers, 1889, II, 490-
492; Terre Haute, 1881, II, 318-
320; Typographical Union, 1837,
I, 450, 453; Tyrone, 1875, II,
235.

Labour Papers, American Banker
and Workingmen's Leader, II,
16; Arbeiter, II, 16; Baltimore
Trades' Union, I, 360; Chicago,
II, 282; Chicagoer Arbeiter-
Zeitung, II, 282; Daily Press,
I, 617; II, 17, 23; depression,
I, 456; in 1863-1873, II, 15–17;
International Labor Union, II,
304; Journal, I, 248; Mechan-
ic's Own, II, 16; Miner and Ar-
tisan, II, 17; National La-
bourer, I, 360, 375; National
Trades' Union, I, 360; New Eng-
land Artisan, I, 360; New Eng-
land Mechanic, II, 16; official,
I, 360; II, 278, 281; People's
Rights, I, 527;
Trades' Union, I, 360; Portland
Philadelphia
Mechanic, I, 291; Practical Poli-
tician and Workingmen's Advo-
cate, I, 291; Reform, Die, I,
618; Republik der Arbeiter, I,
507; revolutionary, I, 564; Sen-
tinel, I, 248, 268; Soziale Repub-
lik, II, 16; Subterranean, I,
527; Washingtonian, I, 360;
Working Man's Advocate, II,
16; Working Man's National
Advocate, II, 618; Working
Man's Party, I, 268; Young
America, I, 530.

See also, Alarm, The; Arbeiter-
stimme; Arbeiterstimme
Westens;
des
Arbeiter-Zeitung;
Boycotter, The; Daily Evening
Voice; Delaware Free Press;
Delnicke Listy; Emancipator,
Milwaukee; Fincher's Trades'
Review; Gleicheit, Die; John
Swinton's Paper; Labor Stand-
ard; Leader, The; Mechanics'
Free Press; Milwaukee Sozial-
ist; National Socialist; New
Yorker Volkszeitung; Nye Tid;

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