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Citizens' Protective Union, San
Francisco, II, 263.

Citizenship, education, I, 181-184,
223-229, 283; Mechanics' Union
of Trade Associations, I, 190,
299, 300; progress, I, 331, 332;
representation, I, 232, 233;
suffrage, I, 175-178; theories,
I, 13, 14, 170-172, 300-303, 324,
382-385.

Civil War, depression, II, 9, 10;
labour, I, 4; II, 10-12; unions,
II, 13.
Claflin, Tennessee, suffragist, II,

211.

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Competition, Conditions: control, I,
57-61, 68; cut-throat, II, 359;
equalised, I, 112; evils, I, 45,
46; immigration, I, 9, 10; inter-
national labour, II, 86; machia-
ery, I, 491; markets, extension
of, I, 41, 440, 441; II, 5, 6, 44,
148; mechanics, II, 358; mer-
chant-capitalist system, I, 102,
104, 339; monopoly, I, 219;
pools, II, 360; shoe industry, II,
76, 77; wage, I, 621.
Kinds: Chinese, II, 149, 264, 265;
convict labour, I, 155, 443, 492;
foreign, I, 72, 154; inferior
workers, I, 114; Negro, II, 113.
Opinions: Andrews, S. P., I, 518;
Brisbane, I, 499; Greeley, I,
548.
Connecticut, greenbackism, II, 245;
hours of labour, I, 543; II, 108;.
price regulation, I, 50; unions,
II, 19; wage regulation, I, 51.
Conservation, natural resources, I,
4; raw materials, I, 39.
See also, Land Policy.
Conspiracy, Administrative Prob-
fems: commercial appeals, I,
149-152; employers aided, II,
503; judges antagonistic to
labour, I, 152; jurors, occupa-
tions of, I, 147; political issues,
I, 146-149; power, II, 473.
Cases: Arthur v. Oakes, II, 507;
Baltimore weavers, I, 419;
Barr, II, 506; Brace Brothers
v. Evans, II, 506; Buck's Stove
and Range, II, 531; Buffalo
tailors, I, 164, 165; Common-
wealth v. Carlisle, I, 163; Com-
monwealth v. Hunt, I, 411, 412;
II, 504; cordwainers, I, 138-
146; Danbury hatters, II, 530;
Debs, II, 502, 503, 508; Gaul,
II, 123; Geneva shoemakers, I,
406, 407; in 1829-1842, I, 405;
in 1835, I, 372, 373; in 1853-
1854, I, 611, 612; in 1859, I,
612; Kingston, II, 70; Lennon,
II, 508; New York hatters', I,
164; New York tailors', I, 337,
408; Siney and Parks, II, 180,
181n; Thompsonville, I, 313,
314; Walker v. Cronin, II, 506;
weavers, I, 314n.
Judicial Theory: business is prop-
erty, II, 505, 506; combination
to improve conditions, I, 140,

141, 144; common law, I, 139,
146-149; injunctions, II, 502,
503, 505-509; legal issues, I,
139, 146; II, 504; public injury,
I, 146; unlawful means, I, 143–
145.

Legislation: II, 324; Clayton Act,
II, 532; in 1877, II, 191; incor-
poration of unions, II, 314; In-
terstate Commerce Act, II, 505;
New York law, II, 23n, 443;
Sherman Anti-trust Act, II,
505, 508, 509, 530.
Opinions: employers', I, 405; la-
bours', I, 162, 299, 409, 410,
443; II, 276.
Constitution, federal, I, 4, 74, 75;
incorporation, II, 326; of 1787,
II, 7.

Contract nmigrant labour, legisla-
tion, II, 373; protested, II, 372.
Convict labour, abolition demanded,

I, 282, 369n, 370n; competition,
I, 155, 339, 344-347, 443, 460,
491; introduction, I, 103; in-
vestigation, I, 369; labour, I,
432; II, 37.

Conzett, Conrad, II, 230, 230n, 270,
271, 281.

Cook, Noah, I, 243, 248, 260n.
Cooper, Peter, I, 19; II, 240, 271,
271n.
Co-operation, Endorsed: Cleveland
Congress, II, 161; Illinois La-
bor Party, II, 228, 230; Labor
Congress, 1866, II, 107; Labor
Congress, 1867, II, 118, 119;
New England Working Men's
Association, I, 539; New York
Industrial Congress, I, 555,
556; socialists, I, 14; II, 231,
237; Sovereigns of Industry,
II, 171-175; syndicalism, II,
297, 298; trades' assembly, II,
23, 37; trades' union, I, 378,
436.

Theories: Andrews, S. P., I,
518; banking reform, I, 510;
collective bargaining, II, 326;
Greeley's profit-sharing, I, 507;
Lassalle, II, 206; Owen, I, 549;
profit-sharing, I, 508; retalia-
tory, I, 127, 128; Rochdale plan,
II, 40, 110, 205; Schulze-De-
litzsch's system, II, 206, 223;
self employment, I, 128-130;
substitute for strikes, I, 466,
565, 566; voluntary, II, 302;

Weitling's bank of exchange, I,
18, 513, 514, 566.
Ventures: building associations,
I, 519-521, 574; coopers, II, 76,
435, 437n; credit, I, 97, 98;
Crispins, II, 79, 140, 141, 152,
153; distributive, I, 95-100,
508, 509, 571-573; II, 39; Euro-
pean, I, 99, 100; failure, I, 570,
573; II, 151, 437, 438; farmers,
II, 489-491; furniture company,
II, 438n; German, I, 567, 568;
II, 223n; in 1836, I, 467-469;
in 1868, II, 124; in eighties, II,
431, 433n; in New England, I,
573; iron workers, I, 565, 569;
II, 53-56; Knights of Labor, II,
335, 351, 352, 430-438; news-
paper publication, I, 371; need,

10; II, 113; productive, I,
57, 58-60, 75, 76, 85, 98, 568;
II, 41, 53-56, 110-112; sec-
tional distribution, II, 434; sta-
tistics, II, 433; tailors, I, 353,
569.

Coopers' Union, International, ap-
prenticeship, II, 84; co-opera-
tion, II, 76; federation, II, 157;
Foran, II, 75; growth, II, 75,
176; machinery, II, 74; organ-
ised, II, 46, 75, 313; Schilling,
II, 76.
Cordwainers, apprenticeship, I, 341;
collective bargaining, II, 121,
122; closed shop, I, 130-132,
411, 598; competition, I, 58-60;
conspiracy, I, 65, 131, 138-152;
co-operation, I, 97, 99, 441-443,
467; courts, I, 134; employer
membership, I, 118, 120; mini-
mum wage demands, I, 117; or-
ganise, I, 109, 114; prices, I,

64.

Cordwainers of Baltimore, conspir-
acy case, I, 138, 139; union,
I, 114.
Cordwainers, New York Journey-
men, closed shop theory, I, 131,
132; conspiracy cases, I, 138,
140, 143, 144; employer mem-
bers expelled, I, 119, 120;
grievances, I, 352; members, I,
105; organise, I, 352; strikes,
I, 124, 126, 383; women shoe
binders, I, 383.
Cordwainers of Philadelphia, bene-

fits, I, 123, 125, 136; boycott, I,
130; collective bargaining, I,

121, 122, 133; conspiracy case,
I, 138-141; co-operation, I, 97,
99, 128-130; depression, I, 456;
organise, I, 58, 109, 114, 132,
357; prices reduced, I, 65;
strikes, I, 126, 376, 392, 398,
399.

Cordwainers,

Pittsburgh, appren-
ticeship, I, 117; benefits, I, 123,
125; collective bargaining, I,
121; conspiracy cases, I, 138,
144-146; minimum wage de-
mand, I, 117; prices regulated,
I, 60, 64.

condemns

Corrigan, Archbishop,
single-tax, II, 456.
Cotton Mill Spinners' Union, estab-
lished, II, 313.

Cox, Trench, cited, I, 91.
Credit Societies, I, 81, 82.
Credit System, see Financial Sys-
tem.
Crittenden Compromise, labour's
support, II, 11; provisions, II,

11n.

Cummings, Samuel P., II, 138, 140,
142, 145.

Curtis, Josiah, M.D., hours of la-
bour, I, 541.
Custom-order Stage, building trade,
I, 66; capital, I, 54; competi-
tion, I, 44, 45; protective legis-
lation, I, 46-48; transition
from itinerant, I, 34-36.

D

Daily Evening Voice, II, 17; eight-
hour day, II, 31; supported by
trades' assembly, II, 24.
Danbury Hatters, case, II, 530.
Daniels, Newell, organised Knights
of Saint Crispin, II, 77.
Davis, John M., II, 199, 200, 202,
235, 243, 246, 493.

Davis, William M., cited, II, 195.
Day, H. H., I, 19; II, 126, 153, 155,
169, 170.

Day, J. G., II, 254, 255n, 257.
Debs, Eugene V., II, 500-503, 508.
Delaware, militia law, I, 330, 331;

political action, I, 287-289; po-
litical demand, I, 299, 300;
unions, 1863-1864, II, 19.
Delaware Free Press, I, 288n.
De Leon, Daniel, II, 455, 517, 519.
Delnicke Listy, official labour organ,
II, 278.

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Education, children in factories, I,

182-184, 322; compulsory, II,
228, 229, 323, 324; Knights of
Labor, II, 335, 441; labour de-
mands, I, 223, 224, 296, 299-
301, 313, 318, 321-324, 327, 328,
427, 432, 470; opposition, I,
229, 230; Owen's plan, I, 247,
248, 249, 252, 273; Philadel-
phia report, I, 226, 227, 228;
public, I, 12, 170, 181, 182, 224,
258, 274, 286.

See also, Industrial Education.
Eight-hour Day, Demanded: Amer-

ican Federation of Labor, II,
376, 377, 485; Boston Eight-
Hour League, II, 140; Boston
Labor Reform Association, I,
91; California labour, 1865, II,
147, 148; Central Labor Union,
II, 391; Chicago Eight-Hour
League, II, 250, 285, 286, 391,
392; Cleveland, convention, II,
324; eight-hour leagues, II, 95;
Greenback Party,
250;
Knights of Labor, II, 336,
378, 379, 485; Labor Congress,
1866, 1867, II, 95, 118; machin-
ists, II, 57, 58; Massachusetts

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Eight-Hour League, I, 92; Na-
tional Labor Party, II, 209;
National Labor Union, II, 113;
New York Assembly, II, 95;
New York convention, II, 330;
Pittsburgh convention, II, 238,
324; Rochester convention, II,
165; Social Party, II, 208; 80-
cialists, II, 276; Workingmen's
Party of California, II, 258.
Legislation: congress, II,

104,
105; government employés, II,
124; Massachusetts, II, 105-
107; President Johnson, II,
104; state, II, 105, 107-109.
Status: adoption, first instance
of, II, 87; bricklayers, II, 476,
478, 479n; brotherhoods win,
II, 528; cabinet makers, II,
225; carpenters, II, 424n, 477n;
failure, causes for, II, 109, 110;
gains, II, 378, 384; Haymarket
bomb, II, 386; in 1878, II, 177;
soldiers, return of, II, 94;
strikes, II, 385, 418, 475, 476,
477.

Theories: employers' associations,
II, 30, 31; greenbackism versus,
II, 139, 140; make work, II,
479; "Stewardism," II, 89-91,
303.

Emancipator, Milwaukee, socialist

organ, II, 275.

Emerson, Ralph W., individualism,
I, 494.

ex-

Employers' Associations, Attitude:
apprenticeship, II, 51; black-
list, I, 403; closed shop, I, 404;
conspiracy, I, 406-410; eight-
hour movement, II, 30, 31;
clusive " agreements, II, 32;
Knights of Labor, II, 414; ma-
chinists, II, 56, 57; merchants'
associations, I, 132, 133; mould-
ers, II, 49; trade agreements,
II, 33; unionism, I, 133, 134;
II, 26, 27, 28, 44.
Organisation: central bodies, I,
403, 404; Boston Master Me-
chanics, II, 30; builders, II,
424; disintegration, II, 55; in
Michigan, II, 26-29; New York
Master Builders' Association,
II, 29, 30; Northwestern Pub-
lishers' Association, II, 61;
packers, II, 418; spread, I, 401,
402; stove manufacturers, II,
50-55.

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Factory System, Brownson, I, 495;

condition, I, 320, 544; in New
England, I, 305, 306; in Pater-
son, I, 420, 421; opposition, I,
320, 321, 331, 428, 429; shoe
makers, II, 37; strikes, I, 418,
419, 420, 422, 423; trades'
union, I, 374, 418; women, I,
422.
Farmers' Alliance, Northern: activi-
ties. II, 489; Southern: co-op-
eration for legislative reform,
II, 490, 491; join Knights of
Labor, II, 491; organised, II,
488-490; programme, II, 492.
Farmers' and Laborers' Union of
America, organised, II, 488.
Farmer-consumer,
favours protec-

tion, I, 41.
Faustus Association, fosters inven-
tions, I, 77.

Federalists, conspiracy laws, I, 139,

141.

Federation of Labor of New York,
organised, II, 517.

Federation of Organised Trades and

Labor Unions, conventions, II,
321-328, 376, 403; Knights

of Labor, II, 397; organised,
II, 309, 318; political action,
II, 463, 464; trade unions, II,
327.

Fehrenbatch, John, II, 157, 159, 175,
176.

Fellenberg, Emmanuel von, school at
Hofwyl, I, 247, 328.

Ferral, John, I, 312n, 390-392, 427,
429, 430, 531.

Ferrell, Frank, United Labor Party,
II, 459.

Fielden, Samuel, Chicago anarchist,
Haymarket Square, II, 393,
394.

Financial System, Conditions: con-
traction of currency, II, 151;
co-operation, I, 97, 98, 510; II,
112; extension, I, 7, 91, 92, 101,
102; failures of banks, I, 454;
Andrew Jackson, I, 347, 348;
legal tender acts, II, 14, 15;
politics, II, 142; "rag" money,
İ, 349.

Opinions: Junior Sons of '76, II,
201, 202; labour, I, 180, 181,
296, 297, 298, 318-320, 330,
459; opposition, I, 220, 276,
277; Trades' Union, I, 435.
Reforms: abolition of national
banks, II, 209, 236; Beck's
ticket exchange, I, 511; Kel-
logg's, I, 519; Muhlenberg, I,
460; Proudhonism, II, 139;
Weitling's bank of exchange, I,
514.
Finch, John,
union, I, 358.
Fincher, Jonathan C., II, 7, 8, 15,
24, 25, 39, 56, 93, 97, 126, 128.
Fincher's Trades' Review, circula-
tion, II, 16; established, II, 15;
on co-operation, II, 110, 111; on
local unions, II, 17-21;
moulder's organisation, II, 49;
on Rochdale plan, II, 40.
Fischer, Adolph, Chicago anarchist,
II, 393.

organises trades'

on

Fitzpatrick, P. F., II, 320, 412.
Foran, Martin A., cooper, I, 19; II,
75, 75n, 152, 157, 159, 176, 389,
463.

Ford, Ebenezer, and Working Men's
Party, I, 242, 255.
Foster, Frank, II, 327, 331.
Foster, W. A., II, 322, 324, 325,
328, 403, 406.

Fourierism, American, II, 204;

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Georgia, legal day, I, 544; regulates
profits, I, 51.

German Social Democratic Work-
ingmen's Union, joins Interna.
tional, II, 209, 210.
German Workingmen's Alliance,
programme, II, 204.
German Workingmen's Union, Gen-
eral, Lassallean programme, II,
207, 208; Social Party, II, 208,
209; Union in Germany, II, 208.
Germany, Franco-Prussian War and
socialism, II, 225; Interna-
tional Workingmen's Associa-
tion, II, 215.

Gibson, C. William, II, 102, 112, 115,
116, 126.

Gilchrist, Robert P., II, 10, 34, 145.
Gleicheit, Die, Austrian socialist's
organ, II, 221.

Gilmore, William, Trades' union
leader, I, 470.
Gold, discovery, I, 12.
Gompers, Samuel, II, 176, 306, 307,
321-329, 331, 347, 402, 409,
412, 458, 473, 478, 479, 485, 499,

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