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New York Tribune, daily, 1842-1857.

New York Weekly Tribune, 1845-1853.

Voice of Industry (Fitchburg and Lowell, Mass.), weekly, 18451847.

Volks-Tribun (New York), weekly, 1846.

Working Man's Advocate (New York), weekly, 1844–1848.
Young America (New York), weekly, 1845-1848.

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The secondary sources are George E. McNeill, The Labor Movement The Problem of Today, especially chapter V. "The Progress of the Movement From 1861-1886 "; also T. V. Powderly in Thirty Years of Labor (Columbus, Ohio, 1889), 18-130. Excellent accounts are found also in R. T. Ely, The Labor Movement in America, 69-91, and in a series of articles by F. A. Sorge, in the Neue Zeit (Stuttgart), 1890-1891, II, 397, 438; 1891-1892, I, 69, 110, 172, 206, 651.

This period witnessed the establishment of a labour press upon a lasting foundation. No less than one hundred and twenty daily, weekly and monthly journals of labour reform appeared during the decade 1863-1873.1 Fincher's Trades' Review, Philadelphia, 1863-1866, was the paramount trade union paper and perhaps the most influential paper of the entire period. The labour organ of the West, the Chicago Workingman's Advocate, 1864–1876, laid particular stress on labour politics. The Boston Daily Evening Voice, 1864–1867, was the organ of the New England labour movement with its emphasis on shorter hours. The files of the Workingman's Advocate contain the proceedings of all the annual conventions of the National Labor Union, which are reproduced in Vol. IX of the Documentary History of American Industrial Society.2


Chinese Immigration. An address to the people of the United States on the social, moral and political effect of Chinese immigration. Prepared by a committee of the Senate of California. 45th Congress, 1st sess., House Miscellaneous Document, No. 9.

Doc. Hist., X, 142.

2 A more comprehensive description of

the labour press is to be found in Chapter II of Part V, II, 15 et seq.

California Laws, 1865-1866, 1868.

Commonwealth v. John Kehoe et al. (Pottsville, 1876).

Connecticut Laws, 1867.

First Annual Report of the Bureau of Labor Statistics (Columbus,

Ohio, 1878).

House Journal, 29th Cong., 1st sess.; 39th Cong., 1st sess.

Illinois Public Laws, 1867.

Industrial Commission Report (Washington, 1901), VII and XVII. In Matter Jacobs, 98 New York 98 (1895).

Massachusetts Acts and Resolves, 1866.

Massachusetts House Documents, 1865, No. 259; 1866, No. 98;

1867, No. 44.

Missouri Laws, 1867.

Ninetieth General Assembly of the State of New Jersey, Minutes of Votes and Proceedings (1866).

New York Laws, 1867.

Ohio House Journal, 1866.

Pennsylvania Report (Harrisburg, 1878), of the Joint Special Committee of the Legislature of Pennsylvania on Contract Convict Labor, with accompanying Testimony. January 16,


Pennsylvania House Journal, 1866.

Report (Harrisburg, 1878) of Committee appointed by the Pennsylvania General Assembly to investigate the Railroad Riots in July, 1877.

Senate Committee on Education and Labor, Report on Relations between Capital and Labor (Washington, 1885), I.

United States Bureau of Education Circulars of Information (Washington, 1872), "Relation of Education to Labor."

United States Session Laws, 38th Cong., 1st sess.; 41st Cong., 1st


United States Session Laws, 41st Cong., 1st sess., Appendix.
United States Statutes at Large, 37th Cong., 2d sess.
United States Statutes at Large, 38th Cong., 1st sess.
United States Statutes at Large, 40th Cong., 2d sess.
United States Statutes at Large, 42d Cong., 2d sess., Appendix.
Wisconsin Laws, 1867.

Wholesale Prices, 1890-1912, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bulletin,
No. 114 (Washington, 1913).

Wright, Carroll D. Apprenticeship System in its Relation to Industrial Education, United States Bulletin of Education, No. 6 (Washington, 1908).

Young, Edward. Labor in Europe and America: a special report on the Rates of Wages, the Cost of Subsistence, and the Condition of the Working Classes (Washington, 1875). United States Treasury Department, Bureau of Statistics.


Archcroft's Railway Directory (New York, 1865). Bemis, E. W. "Co-operation in New England," in American Economic Association, Publications (Baltimore, 1886-1887), I, 335-464. Also in Johns Hopkins University Studies (Baltimore, 1888), VI. Campbell, Alexander C. The True American System of Finance (Chicago, 1864).

The True Greenback, or the Way to Pay the National Debt without Taxes and Emancipate Labor (Chicago, 1868). Chamberlain, E. M. Sovereigns of Industry (Boston, 1875). Cigar Makers' International Union, Proceedings, 1864, 1865, 1866, 1867. Typewritten Record at Johns Hopkins University Library.

Cooper, Peter. "Autobiography," in Old South Leaflets (Boston, 1904). General Series, VI, No. 147. Coopers' International Union, Proceedings, 1871 (Cleveland, 1871).

Coulter, J. L. "Organizations among the Farmers of the United States," in Yale Review, 1909, XVIII, 277–298.

Crowe, Robert. The Reminiscences of R. Crowe, the Octogenarian Tailor (New York, 1903).

Dacus, J. A. Annals of the Great Strikes in the United States (Chicago, 1877).

Dewees, F. P. The Molly Maguires (Philadelphia, 1877).
Farnam, H. W. "Die Amerikanischen Gewerkvereine," in Schrif-
ten des Vereins für Socialpolitik (Leipzig, 1879), XVIII.
Fitch, J. A. "Unionism in the Iron and Steel Industry," in Po-

litical Science Quarterly, 1909, XXIV, 57–79.

Gladden, Washington. Working people and their employers (Bos

ton, 1876).

Greene, William B. Mutual Banking: Showing the Radical Deficiency of the Present Circulating Medium (Boston, 1870). Socialistic, Communistic, Materialistic and Financial Fragments (Boston, 1875).

Harper, Ida Husted. Life and Work of Susan B. Anthony (2

vols., Indianapolis and Kansas City, 1898-1899).

Heywood, Ezra Hoar. The Great Strike (Princeton, Mass., 1878).
Yours or Mine (Princeton, Mass., 1876).
International Iron Molders' Union, Proceedings, 1864, 1865, 1867,

1868 (Philadelphia).

Kelley, Oliver Hudson. Origin and Progress of the order of the Patrons of Husbandry in the United States; a history from 1866 to 1873 (Philadelphia, 1875).

Kennedy, J. B. "Beneficiary Features of American Trade Un

ions," in Johns Hopkins University Studies (Baltimore, 1908), XXVI.

Knox, J. J. United States Notes (New York, 1888).

Grand International Division of the Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers, Proceedings, 1864 (Indianapolis, 1864).

Grand International Division of the Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers, Minutes (Rochester, N. Y., 1866), Special Session, Rochester, June, 1866.

Grand International Division of the Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers, Minutes (Fort Wayne, Ind., 1867), Cincinnati, October, 1867.

Grand International Division of the Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers, Minutes (Fort Wayne, 1868), Chicago, October, 1868.

McCabe, James. History of the Grange Movement (Chicago, 1874).

National Union of Machinists and Blacksmiths of the United States of America, Proceedings (New York, 1868), Baltimore, November, 1860.

International Union of Machinists and Blacksmiths of the United States of America, Proceedings (Philadelphia, 1862), Pittsburgh, 1861.

McNeill, George E. Factory Children (Boston, 1875).
Martin, E. W. History of the Great Riots (Philadelphia, 1877).
Mitchell, W. C. "Gold, Prices and Wages under the Greenback
Standard," in University of California Publications (Berkeley,

Motley, J. M. "Apprenticeship in American Trade Unions,"
Johns Hopkins University Studies
University Studies (Baltimore, 1907),

National Labor Union, Proceedings (Philadelphia, 1868), New
York, 1868.

New York Chamber of Commerce, Special Reports, 1864-1865. Orvis, John. A plan for the Organization and Management of Co-operative Stores and Boards of Trade under the Auspices of the Order of Sovereigns of Industry (Worcester, Mass., 1876).

Penny, Virginia. Five hundred Employments adapted to Women, Married or Single with the Average Rate of Pay in each (Philadelphia, n. d.).

Phillips, Wendell. The Foundation of the Labor Movement. The Labor Inertia (Boston, 1871).

Labor Question (Boston, 1884).

Speech to the working men of Boston and Vicinity (Nov. 2, 1885).

Speeches, Lectures and Letters (2d ser., Boston, 1891).

Pinkerton, A. Strikes, Communists, Tramps and Detectives (New York, 1900).

Rhodes, J. F. History of the United States (New York, 1895), III.

"Molly Maguires in the Anthracite Region of Pennsylvania," in American Historical Review, 1909-1910, XV, 547561.

Rogers, Edward H. Autobiography. Manuscript in possession of the American Bureau of Industrial Research, Madison, Wis. Eight Hours a Day's Work (Boston, 1872).

Roy, A. History of the Coal Miners of the United States (Colum

bus, Ohio, 1902).

Shaw, Albert. "Co-operation in a Western City," in American Economic Association, Publications (Baltimore, 1886-1887); also in Johns Hopkins University Studies (Baltimore, 1888), VI.

Spencer, E. E. Address before Prospect Union (n. p., 1895).
Steward, Ira. The Eight-Hour Movement (Boston, 1865).
Poverty (Boston, 1873).

Sylvis, J. C. The Life, Speeches, Labors and Essays of William
H. Sylvis (Philadelphia, 1872).

International Typographical Union, Proceedings (Detroit, 1864), of the tenth, eleventh and twelfth sessions, held at New York, Cleveland, and Louisville, Kentucky, May 5, 1862, May 4, 1863, and May 2, 1864, respectively.

National Typographical Union, Proceedings (Detroit, 1865), Philadelphia, June, 1865.

National Typographical Union, Proceedings (Boston, 1866), fourteenth session, Chicago, June, 1866.


Washington Daily Chronicle, 1869.
Philadelphia Enquirer, daily, 1861-1862.
New York Herald, daily, 1865-1869.
New York Times, daily, 1874-1876.
Chicago Tribune, daily, 1876-1879.
Detroit Tribune, daily, 1864.
New York Tribune, daily, 1861-1866.


American Workman (Boston), 1868-1872.

Cooper's Monthly Journal (Cleveland, Ohio), 1870-1874.
Daily Evening Voice (Boston), 1864-1867.
Fincher's Trades' Review, (Philadelphia), 1863-1866,
Engineer's Journal (Cleveland), 1869-1871,

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