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quarters, and there they were with a man who will not sign furiously assailed with stioks, & pledge against treason and stones, and pistols. The Loyal- murder ? ists retaliated, and 80 for The fact, of course, is that several days something very the Ulster opposition to like civil war convalsed the Nationalism, whether right working-olass distriots of Bel- or wrong, is essentially & fast.

working-olass opposition. If, The Liberal and Labour as I have before written, it papers have been at some pains bad depended on the landlords to explain these proceedings to and employers, it would have the satisfaction of their readers. broken down long before this. Some of the bolder of them In the South and West of Irestand firmly by their old theory, land there is no Protestant that they, like every other working-class worth mentionopposition to Nationalism, were ing. The Protestants there the work of the capitalists and are composed practioally only employers. I suppose it was of landlords and employers. a further development of their The result is, we have them devilish astuteness which led constantly calling out for a them to start the thing among settlement, now of one kind men employed by a Radioal and now of another, which the and Home Ruler. Others weep Protestants of the North will over them as the manifestation not look at. In the same way of that religious intoleranoe Catholio landlords and emwhich is supposed to be obarao, ployers are very moderato in teristio of Ulster Protestants. their Nationalism: it is the This is hardly consistent with labourers and small farmers the faot that some of the men who are, and have always first ejeoted from the shipyards been, oalling out for separawere not Catholios. It is still tion. The hopelessness of the less consistent with the pledge situation in Ireland is that which the Loyalists insist that both in the South and the all their fellow-workers must North it is the working people sign. That pledge makes no who diotate policy, and that reference to religion. All that the policy in each case is the the pledge requires is a declara- offspring of their racial, relition of loyalty to the King, and gious, and traditional batreds of abhorrence of politioal mur- and affeotions. ders and politioal strikes. What And, if rationally considered, state of mind -must an editor the late disturbanoes in Ulster be in who deolares it is a work will prove what & service to man's natural right to refuse law and order was rendered to work on the same job with by those who, when the third a man who is not registered Home Rule Bill was before as a trade unionist, and who Parliament, organised the denounoes as brutal tyranny Ulster Volunteers. That serthe conduot of a Loyalist who vice consisted in patting the deolines to work side by side Protestant youth of Ulster under disoi pline. That youth anoe was to be made was to be were filled with the most pas- deoided by their leaders, and sionate hatred of the Bill, by them alone. As a result whiob in their view was to the Home Rule Bill was dishand them over, bound hand cussed again and again, and and foot, to the meroy of their finally passed ; and yet not a hereditary enemies. Those stone was thrown by a Loyalenemies were openly and ist from one corner of Ulster loadly exulting over the pro- to the other. spoot of any opposition to I myself was an eye-witness their rule being put down in to how that discipline operblood by the British army. If ated. I was staying in the things had been left to them- most Soottish part of County selves, this state of feeling Antrim, with a relative who would have resulted in spor- is a oounty magistrate. At adio outbursts of violence all breakfast one Sunday morning over the province, to which the my relative received a police recent disturbances would be message to come at once to a ohild's play. Something like certain village, as there was this happened when the first likely to be trouble there. I Home Rale Bill was under oon- accompanied him in his oar to sideration, although every body the village. We found that was then pretty confident that during Saturday to Sunday it would not pass. What night a band of Nationalists would have happened if Ulster had come down from their opposition had been anorgan- oabins in the mountains, and ised when the third Home Rule had broken every pane and Bill did pass is too terrible to every sash in the windows of oontemplate. And it was from the Presbyterian Churob. this that the organisation of When the farmers and their the Ulster Volunteers saved families arrived for morning the oountry.

service, & ory went ap among It saved it by putting the the young men to follow the resistanoe to the Bill under the desecraters to their homes and direotion of cool - headed and exterminate them. The young responsible mon. Instead of men all belonged, however, to leaving tens of thousands of the Volunteers, and several of exoited youths to aot as their their offioers were present; feelings moved them, they were and these peremptorily forbrought together and placed bade any attempt at revenge. under military disoipline. That Their orders were implioitly disoipline forbade any of them obeyed; and the farmers and to aot on his own initiative, their families proceeded peaceand it was striotly epforoed. fully to perform their services They were all pledged to resist to God, with the winds of the putting into operation of winter blowing about their the Home Rule Aot, if neces- heads through the paneless sary at the cost of their lives. and sashless windows of their But how and when that resist- ohurob.

them fromonalista

Just after the Ulster Volun- same lines : it begins as a teers had accomplished their moderate olaim led by moderpurpose, and Mr Asquith had ate men, and it ends in a deolared, what he might with demand for independence led advantage have announced by armed extremists. Such sooner, that the cooroion of was the first volunteer moveUlster by force was unthink- ment. At first its olaim was • able — good many people for freedom of legislation and about him had been thinking trade, and its leaders were Gratof it once and talking of it too tan and Charlemont; in the end

-the great war broke out, its claim was independence and the Volanteers joined up secured by rebellion, and its and formed the famous Ulster leaders were Lord Edward Division. Many of them never Fitzgerald and Theobald Wolfe oame back, many came back Tone O'Connell's constitu-. orippled for life, and many tional olaim for Repeal of the oame baok to find that in their Union in the same way ohanged absence their jobs had been into the Young Ireland move. taken by Sinn Feiners. The ment and another rising. The last was a grievance dwelt on Pope's Brass Band, with its bitterly by the shipbuilders who leaders on the Treasury Benoh, ejected the Sinn Feiners from developed in time into the the shipyards. They had Fenian conspiraoy with its ceased to be the thoroughly leaders in Richmond Prison. organised and disciplined body Mr Parnell kept the physical they were in 1914. If they force party ander oontrollonger had been what they then were, than any other leader. That there would have been no riots was due partly to his marveleither at Derry or at Belfast. lous strength of character, and

Some fair-minded persons, partly to his constantly assurwhile admitting the service ing the party that he did not, the organisers of the Ulster whatever he said in Parliament, Volunteers rendered in this mean that Home Rule was to way, may still think that be the boundaries of the nation's they rendered a' greater dis- progress. When he went, it service by their arming the was only a matter of time and people to resist the law by opportunity when the pbysical foroe. It was this, they argue, foroe party would tire of the whioh led the Nationalists also talkers and resort to action, to organise and arm their The time, to sensible observers, volunteers, which was the was pretty near before the war cause of the subsequent rebel- broke out; the outbreak of the lion and the present state of war supplied the opportunity. war in the South and West of This, then, is the state of Ireland. Such a view indi. affairs in Ireland as they stand oates either ignorance or dis- revealed by the Ulster riots. regard of Irish history. Every There are a populace in the Nationalist movement for oen. South and West wbo are returies past has followed the solved to have separation, and

are ready to kill right and left counsels, England will stand to secure it. There are a popu. by them. lace in the North who are re. Those Englishmen who wish solved not to have separation, to salve their consciences for and are ready to die to prevent not standing by them always it. This seems & situation insist that the so-called loyalty which does not lend itself to of Ulstermen is oonditional loyeasy solation, Not so, thinks alty-that is, loyalty on their the Labour Party, a deputation own terms. That may be so. of wbiob went over to the dis- There are few things, if any, tressful oountry lately to find a absolute in this world, not even, remedy for all her woes and as we have been discovering this remody, whioh the states- lately, those very real things, men of Great Britain have been time and space. It would be vainly soeking for seven hun- strange then if the Ulstermen's dred years, it discovered in loyalty were absolute; but, 80 seven days—and yet Mr Win- far as my experience has gone, ston Churohill says the Labour the only oondition they attaoh Party is not fit to govern! to it is that if they are loyal The remedy was simplioity to Englishmen, Englishmen itself, in faot as simple as the must be loyal to them. It deputation : it was just to dig. does not seem on the face of arm the police and withdraw it an altogether anreasonable the soldiers and let the people condition, and certainly it is Bottle their troubles themselves. one the breach of which will Before this remedy was well be bitterly resented: there is announoed the leading men of no resentment so passionate as both the Loyalists and Nation that of a betrayed friend. And alists were denounoing the it so happens that once upon a English Government for not time the Ulsterman thought he providing sufficient foroes to had been betrayed by England. prevent their followers killing That was in the middle of the one another!

eighteenth century, when he It is always an honest and was being evioted from the usually a wise polioy for a na- farms which his fathers had tion to stand by its friends. In won from the wilderness, and the case of Ireland it seems also was being persecuted for beto be England's only possible longing to that religion which polioy. All sane Englishmen his fathers had died to proteot. see that separation is impos- The effoot of that betrayal on sible: goography, which no big loyalty was afterwards polioy oan alter, prevents it. shown in the Irish Rebellion The Irishmen opposed to separ- and the Amerioan Rovolution. ation are the Protestant popu. In the Irish Rebellion of 1798, lace of the North, who are the the Ulstermen for the first time only friends in Ireland of Eng. joined the Southerners in a land and the Empire. If there farious insurrection against be any wisdom, not to mention England. It will be England's honesty, still left in English fault if it is not the last time.

Just after the Ulster Volun- game lines : it begins as a teers had accomplished their moderate claim led by moderpurpose, and Mr Asquith had ate men, and it ends in a deolared, what he might with demand for independenoe led advantage have announced by armed extremists. Such sooner, that the operoion of was the first volunteer moveUlster by force was unthink- ment. At first its olaim was. able — good many people for freedom of legislation and about him had been thinking trade, and its leaders were Gratof it once and talking of it too tan and Charlemont; in the end

-the great war broke out, its claim was independence and the Volanteers joined up secured by rebellion, and its and formed the famous Ulster leaders were Lord Edward Division. Many of them never Fitzgerald and Theobald Wolfe oame back, many came back Tone O'Connell's constitu-. orippled for life, and many tional olaim for Repeal of the oame baok to find that in their Union in the same way ohanged absence their jobs had been into the Young Ireland move. taken by Sinn Feiners. The ment and another rising. The last was a grievance dwelt on Pope's Brass Band, with its bitterly by the shipbuilders who leaders on the Treasury Benoh, ejeoted the Sinn Feiners from developed in time into the the shipyards. They had Fenian conspiracy with its ceased to be the thoroughly leaders in Riobmond Prison. organised and disoiplined body Mr Parnell kept the physical they were in 1914. If they force party ander oontrollonger had been what they then were, than any other leader. That there would have been no riots was due partly to bis marveleither at Derry or at Belfast. lous strength of oharaoter, and

Some fair-minded persons, partly to his constantly assurwhile admitting the service ing the party that he did not, the organisers of the Ulster whatever he said in Parliament, Volunteers rendered in this mean that Home Rule was to way, may still think that be the boundaries of the nation's they rendered a greater dis. progress. When he went, it service by their arming the was only a matter of time and people to resist the law by opportunity when the pbysical foroe. It was this, they argue, foroe party would tire of tbe whioh led the Nationalists also talkers and resort to action, to organise and arm their The time, to sensible observers, volunteers, which was the was pretty near before the war oause of the subsequent rebel- broke out; the outbreak of the lion and the present state of war supplied the opportunity. war in the South and West of This, then, is the state of Ireland. Such a view indi. affairs in Ireland as they stand bates either ignorance or dig. revealed by the Ulster riots. regard of Irish history. Every There are & populace in the Nationalist movement for oen. South and West wbo are returies past has followed the solved to have separation, and

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