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able for the crime of conspiracy, if such act committed by one person would not be punishable as a crime, nor shall such agreement, combination, or contract be considered as in restraint of trade or commerce, nor shall any restraining order or injunction be issued with relation thereto. Nothing in this act shall exempt from punishment, otherwise than as herein excepted, any persons guilty of conspiracy, for which punishment is not provided by any act of the legislature, but such act of the legislature shall, as to the agreements, combinations, and contracts hereinbefore referred to be construed as if this act were therein contained; provided, that nothing in this act shall be construed to authorize force or violence, or threats thereof.

Sec. 2. This act shall take effect immediately.

ARTICLE XII.

CO-OPERATIVE ASSOCIATIONS, An act to provide for incorporation, operation, and management of

co-operative associations.

[Approved March 27, 1895; Stats. 1895, 221.]

§ 1. How formed.
8 2. Rights and liabilities of members.
$ 3. Articles of association,
§ 4. By-laws, meetings, elections.
§ 5. By-laws to be recorded.
8 6. Property is subject to execution.
$ 7. Business may be changed.
§ 8. Profits, how divided.
§ 9. Powers of associations.
§ 10. Associations may be consolidated.
§ 11. Associations may be dissolved.
$ 12. Rights of attorney general to bring suit.
§ 13. Act to be liberally construed.

Section 1. It shall be lawful for five or more persons to form a co-operative association for the purpose of transacting any lawful business. Such associations shall not have or issue any capital stock, but shall issue membership certificates to each member thereof, and such membership certificates cannot be as

above the age

signed so that the transferee thereof can by such transfer become a member of the association except by the resolution of the board of directors of the association. But by the resolution of consent of the board of directors, such certificates may be transferred, so that the transferee may become a member in lieu of the last former holder thereof.

Sec. 2. In such association the rights and interest of all members shall be equal, and no member can have or acquire a greater interest therein than any other member has. At every election held pursuant to the by-laws each member shall be entitled to cast one vote and no more.

All

persons of eighteen years, regardless of sex, shall be eligible to membership, if otherwise qualified and elected as the by-laws may provide. The by-laws shall provide for the amount of the indebtedness which such association may incur. And no member shall be responsible individually, or personally liable, for any of the debts or liabilities of the association in excess of his proportion of such indebtedness; but in case of the failure and insolvency of such association, may be required to pay any unpaid dues or installments which have, before such insolvency, become due from such member to the association, pursuant to its bylaws.

Sec. 3. Every association formed under this act shall prepare articles of association, in writing, which shall set forth : The name of the association, the purpose for which it is formed, the place where its principal business is to be transacted, the term for which it is to exist (not to exceed fifty years), the number of the directors thereof, and the names and residences of those selected for the first year, the amount which each member is to pay upon admission as membership fee, and that each member signing the articles has actually paid in such sum, and that the interest and right of each member therein is to be equal. Such articles of association must be subscribed by the original associates or members, and acknowledged by each before some person competent to take an acknowledgment of a deed in this state. Such articles so subscribed and acknowledged shall be filed in the office of the Secretary of State, who shall furnish a certified copy thereof, which shall be filed in the office of the county clerk of the county where the principal business of such association is to be transacted; and from the time of such filing in the office of said county clerk the association shall be complete, and shall have and exercise all the powers for which it was formed.

Sec. 4. Every association formed under this act must, within forty days after it shall so become an association, adopt a code of by-laws for the government and management of the association, not inconsistent with this act. A majority of all the associates shall be necessary to the adoption of such by-laws, and the same must be written in a book, and subscribed by the members adopting the same; and the same cannot be amended or modified except by the vote of a majority of all the members, after notice of the proposed amendment shall be given, as the by-laws may provide. Such association may, by its code of brlaws, provide for the time, place, and manner of calling and conducting its meetings; the number of directors, the time of their election, their term of office, the mode and manner of their removal, the mode and manner of filling vacancies in the board caused by death, resignation, removal, or otherwise, and the power and authority of such directors, and how many there of shall be necessary to the exercise of the powers of such directors, which must be at least a majority; the compensation of any of the directors, or of any officer; the number of the officers, if any, other than the directors, and their term of office: the mode of removal, and the method of filling a vacancy; the mode and manner of conducting business; the mode and manner of conducting elections, and may provide for voting by ballots forwarded by mail or otherwise; provided, the method shall secure the secrecy of the ballot; the mode and manner of succession of membership, and the qualifications for membership, and on what conditions, and when membership shall cease, and the mode and manner of expulsion of a member subject to the Tight that an expelled member shall have a right to have the board of directors appraise his interest in the association in either money, property, or labor, as the directors shall deem best, and to have the money, property, or labor so awarded him paid or delivered, or performed within forty days after expulsion; the amount of membership fee, and the dues, installments, or labor which each member shall be required to pay or perform, if any, and the manner of collection or enforcement, and for forfeiting or selling of membership interest for nonpayment or nonperformance; the method, time, and manner of permitting the withdrawal of a member, if at all, and how his interest shall be ascertained, either in money or property, and within what time the same shall be paid or delivered to such member; the mode and manner of ascertaining the interest of a member at his death, if his legal representatives or none of them desire to succeed to the membership, and whether the same shall be paid to his legal representatives in money, or property, or labor, and within what time the same shall be paid, or delivered, or performed; such other things as may be proper to carry out the purpose for which the association was formed.

Sec. 5. The by-laws and all amendments must be recorded in a book and kept in the office of the association, and a copy, certified by the directors, must be filed in the office of the county clerk where the principal business is transacted.

Sec. 6. The property of such association shall be subject to judgment and execution for the lawful debts of the association. The interest of a member in such association, if sold upon execution or any judicial or governmental order whatever, cannot authorize the purchaser to have any right except to succeed, as a member in the association, with the consent of the directors, to the rights of the member whose interest is thus sold. li tle directors shall choose to pay or settle the inatter aiter such sale, they may either cancel the membership, and add the interest thus sold to the assets or common property of the association, or reissue the share or right to a new member upon proper payment therefor, as the directors may determine.

Sec. 7. The purpose of the business may be altered, changed, modified, enlarged, or diminished by a vote of two-thirds of all the members, at a special election to be called for sueh purpose, of which notice must be given the same as the by-laws shall provide for election of directors.

Sec. 8. The by-laws shall provide for the time and manner in which profits shall be divided between the members, and what proportion of the profits, if any, shall be added to the common property or funds of the association. But the by-laws may provide that the directors may suspend or pass the payment of any such profit, or installment of earnings, at their discretion.

Sec. 9. Every association formed under this act shall have power of succession by its associate name for fifty years; to, in such name, sue and be sued in any court; to make and use a common seal, and alter the same at pleasure; to receive by gift, devise, or purchase, hold, and convey real and personal property, as the purposes of the association may require; to appoint such subordinate agents or officers as the business may require; to admit associates or members, and to sell or forfeit their interest in the association for default of installments, or dues, or work, or labor required, as provided by the by-laws; to enter into any and all lawful contracts or obligations essential to the transaction of its affairs, for the purpose for which it was formed, and to borrow money, and issue all such notes, bills, or evidences of indebtedness or mortgage as its by-laws may provide for; to trade, barter, buy, sell, exchange, and to do all other things proper to be done for the purpose of carrying into effect the objects for which the association is formed.

Sec. 10. Two or more associations formed and existing under this act may be consolidated together, upon such terms and for such purposes, and by such name, as may be agreed upon, in writing, signed by two-thirds of the members of each such association. Such agreement must also state all the matters necessary to articles of association, and must be acknowledged by the signers before an officer competent to take an acknowledgment of deeds in this state, and be filed in the office of the Secretary of State, and a certified copy thereof be filed in the office of the county clerk of the county where its principal business is to be transacted; and from and after the filing of such certified copy, the former associations comprising the component parts shall cease to exist, and the consolidated association shall succeed to all the rights, duties, and powers of the component associations, and be possessed of all the rights, duties, and powers prescribed in the agreement of consolidated association not inconsistent with this act, and shall be subject to all the liabilities and obligations of the former component as. sociations, and succeed to all the property and interests thereof, and may make by-laws and do all things permitted by this act.

Sec. 11. Any association formed or consolidated under this act may be dissolved and its affairs wound up voluntarily by the written request of two-thirds of the members. Such request shall be addressed to the directors, and shall specify reasons why the winding up of the affairs of the association is deemed advisable, and shall name three persons who are members to act in liquidation and in winding up the affairs of the association, a majority of whom shall thereupon have full power to do all things necessary to liquidation; and upon the filing of such request with the directors, and a copy thereof in the office of the county clerk of the county where the principal business is transacted, all power of the directors shall cease and the persons appointed shall proceed to wind up the association, and realize upon its assets, and pay its debts, and divide the residue of its money among the members, share and share alike, within a time to be named in said written request, or such further time as may be granted them by two-thirds of the members, in writing, filed in the office of said county clerk; and upon the completion of such liquidation the said association shall be deemed dissolved. No receiver of any such association, or of any property thereof, or of any right therein, can be appointed by any court, upon the application of any member, save after judgment of dissolution for usurping franchises at the suit of the state of California by its attorney general.

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