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the house terminate at the floor of the attic, and the rafters lie upon them. The angle of the roof is 60°, making the base and sides equal. At the end of the wing, by the chimney, is a recess, which must have been intended as a place of concealment. The interior wall has the appearance of touching the chimney, like the wall at the northwest end. But the removal of a board discovers two closets which project beyond the lower part of the building. I learn from Mr. Smith that at least three other stone houses were built at the first settlement of Guilford. WOL. II. 6
Whitefield was a man of good property; but it may be doubted whether his house is a specimen of the best that were erected at an early period. When Gorton and his company were conducted to Boston, in 1643, “the Governor [Winthrop] caused the prisoners to be brought before him in his hall, where was a great assembly.” (Winthrop, II. 142.) Gov. Coddington's house in Newport, believed to have been built about the year 1650, was standing till 1835. From a sketch made of it in that year, a photographic representation was taken, of which
men's convenient dwellings deficient in a corresponding luxury. To the marriage settlement of John Winthrop the elder, when he wedded a third time, there is attached an inventory of the property of his bride, which indicates a somewhat sumptuous domestic establishment. At Governor Eaton's death, when money was worth three times as much as now, his wearing-apparel was inventoried at fifty pounds sterling, and his plate at a hundred and fifty pounds; and “Turkey carpet,” “tapestry coverings,” and “cushions of Turkey work,” were among the articles of show which helped him to maintain “a port in some measure answerable to his place.”
the following is a copy. The projection of the second story over the lower will remind those who have visited England of old houses which they have seen there. Buildings of this descrip
But houses of such pretension as these belonged only to the richer sort. The dwellings of the generality of the people were not of materials sufficiently durable to admit of their being known at this day through actual specimens. At the very earliest period, it was necessary for the great body of the emigrants to be content with any sort of shelter from the weather. After a while, when saw-mills furnished timber and boards, and shipments of salable articles brought plenty of iron from abroad, the villages began to consist of frame-houses. In the interval between these two periods, the settlers, it is
Coddington's House at Newport.
tion still remain in Holborn and other parts of London. The form of construction was adopted the more readily in New England, on account of its convenience for fortification against the natives.
probable, made themselves comfortable in log-houses, of a construction similar to those which are still seen in new settlements, wherever made in the United States. Josselyn says (Account of Two Voyages, &c., 20) that there were “not above twenty or thirty houses” at Boston, at the time of his visit in 1638. He was not an accurate witness, but he could not possibly have intended to say that Boston had only thirty dwellings at that time. By “houses” he must have meant such as had timber frames, or walls of stone or brick. Johnson (Wonder-Working Providence, 174), in or about 1650, speaks of the Lord's having “been pleased to turn all the wigwams, huts, and hovels the English dwelt in, at their first coming, into orderly, fair, and well-built houses.” In 1621, a storm at Plymouth “caused much daubing of the houses to fall down” (Mourt's Journal, 30), by which I suppose is to be understood the earth used to close the chinks between the logs, which, laid one upon another, made the
walls. Tall grass, gathered along the beaches, was largely used for the thatching of roofs. (Mass. Rec., III. 181.) For chimneys, bricks were made at Salem so early as the year before the arrival of Winthrop's company. (Higginson, New-England Plantation.)
The following copy, from a drawing in Indian ink by Washington Allston, will convey a substantially correct idea of what was probably the home of a
stuff.” gave to his wife two suits of
majority of the New-England colonists
suit of landscape hangings;” and to
The dress of the generality of the people must needs have been plain." They could have had no superfluity of offerings to lay on the altar of the pride of life. But such laws as have been referred to, aimed in almost the earliest times against “the ordinary wearing of silver, gold, and silk laces,” and against the wearing at all of “embroidered and needle-work caps,” “gold and silver girdles,” “immoderate great sleeves,”
and “slashed apparel,” point unequivocally to one form of the indulgence of the taste and ambition of that period." In the early days of New England, wheaten bread was not so uncommon as it afterwards became ; but its place was largely supplied by preparations of Indian corn. A mixture of two parts of the meal of this grain with one part of rye has continued, until far into the present century, to furnish the bread of the great body of the people. In the beginning, there was but a sparing consumption of butcher's meat. The multiplication of flocks, for their wool, and of herds for draught and for milk, was an important care, and they generally bore a high money value. Game and fish to a considerable extent supplied the want of animal food.
sanna.” (Conn. Rec., I. 574, 575.)
fact correlative to this, there was a great
exotick garbes, as not only dismantles