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allowed themselves to be almost unrepresented in the General Court." Massachusetts put a new on officer in command of their militia, and sent a May 27. committee, consisting of Danforth, Hathorne, and Lusher, to the County of York, to “require all persons belonging to this county to return peaceably to their former obedience, and all officers, orderly established,..... to attend the faithful discharge of their respective places.” The King, by Secretary Morrice, wrote to his “trusty and well-beloved, the inhabitants upon the Province of Meyn,” informing them that he was legally advised that the claim of Gorges was valid and that the government over them by Massachusetts was usurped, and requiring them “forthwith to make restitution of the said province unto the said Ferdinando Gorges or his commissioners, and deliver him or them the quiet and peaceable possession thereof.”* Upon this, Gorges took some measures towards restoring his authority. The General Court of the Colony gave their attention to the loss. subject, at the moment of their sharpest collision ** with the royal Commissioners; and, “taking into consideration the distracted condition of the people of the County of Yorkshire, occasioned by some persons presuming to claim and exercise government amongst them by a pretended power derived from Ferdinando Gorges, Esq.,” the Magistrates despatched thither a proclamation, “requiring all the inhabitants of that county to remain in their duty and obedience to his Majesty, in subjecting to the authority of this Court.”"

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June 11.

* Mass. Rec., IV. (ii.) 2, 41, 72, 100.

* Ibid., 76. — Just at this time (June 25), Daniel Gookin wrote to Gorges, advising him, in a friendly way, to “make some honorable composition with the jurisdiction of Massachusetts for his claim " The letter, which is in the State-Paper Office, has been printed by Mr. George Folsom, in his

very valuable “Catalogue of Original
Documents in the English Archives
relating to the Early History of the
State of Maine” (p. 55; comp. Hist.
and Geneal. Reg., XIII. 349).
* Hutch. Coll., 385.
* Mass. Rec., IV. (ii.) 151, 152;
comp. 236, 253; also Hutch. Coll., 396.

So matters stood in the eastern county, when the royal The commi. Commissioners approached it. Professing to be ;..." influenced by “several petitions from the inhabitants of the Province of Meyne, . . . . . in which petitions they desired to be taken into his Majesty's immediate protection,” they proceeded, at York, to settle a government independent alike of the Proprietary and of Massachusetts, and to appoint magistrates for each of the eight towns, with authority also to convene as one board, for the transaction of business of general concern.” Continuing their journey to the new Province of the Duke of York beyond the Kennebec, where Massachusetts had never claimed jurisdiction, they there made similar arrangements for the government of the few and scattered inhabitants, and gave to the territory the name of Cornwall.” At York, on their way back, they held a court, in which they decreed the invalidity of all titles to land acquired from the natives, or under the Lygonia patent.” While they were thus engaged, the General Court held another meeting, and, with the advantage of two months' deliberation, proceeded to take some further measures. “Upon the intelligence of De Ruyter approaching their coasts,” — so the necessity for arming is explained, – they placed a strong garrison in the Castle in Boston harbor, and made other military dispositions; they took care for the more effectual restraint of persons “reproaching the laws and authority here established according to his Majesty's charter;” and, in another Address to the King, they complained of the misconduct of the three Commissioners, and depre

June 23.

Sept. 5.


Aug. 1.

* These petitions were sent to Eng- 422. — The settlements were Sagadaland by the Commissioners, and may hock, Sheepscot, Arrowsick, and Pembe seen by the curious at the State- aquid. The Commissioners, in their Paper Office. Report, give a sorry account of the in

* Mass. Rec., IV. (ii) 249-251. habitants. (Hutch. Coll., 424.)

* Williamson, History, &c., I. 420 – “Williamson, History, I. 424.


cated the displeasure which might be awakened in England by their malign misrepresentations. “Unto that arbitrary, absolute, and unlimited power which those gentlemen would impose,” they said they could not “see

reason to submit.”"

The final visit of the Commissioners to Boston was of short duration. The Court sent them a message proposing a conference on what had lately taken place; but the tone of Carr's answer was offensive, and the Court

resolved to proceed no further.” He went to

look after his interests in the Delaware coun- of the com

try, and in the second following year sailed for

England,” where he died, the day after landing. Maverick fixed his home at New York, where the Duke of York gave him a house “in the Broad Way.” Cartwright went to England, in a fury of displeasure, with the Report of the Commissioners, and a mass of documents for its illustration. He was taken at sea by a Dutch cruiser, and stripped of all his effects, including his papers; and, while copies were awaited, the indignation which he labored to stimulate had time to cool, the minister he had served was falling from power, and the coming war with France had a paramount claim on the thoughts of men in office." The apprehensions which the General Court had expressed of being unfavorably represented to the King had all along been well founded. But the Reports which, in every stage of their proceedings with Massachusetts, the Commissioners had been sending home, while they expressed the ill-humor of the writers, at the same time betrayed their impotence. Under whatever disadvantages pursued, the quarrel could not yet in England be abandoned with dignity; and a resolution was taken to carry it on by another method. The King, by Secretary ico. Morrice, wrote to Massachusetts, that he had at*" tended to the statements submitted to him by both parties; and it was “very evident” to him “that those who governed the Colony of the Massachusetts - - - - - did, upon the matter, believe that his Majesty had no jurisdiction over them, but that all persons must acquiesce in their judgments and determinations, how unjust soever, and could not appeal to his Majesty.”

* Mass. Rec., IV. (ii.) 274–278. – A connected narrative of these transactions with the Commissioners, with a vindication of the government, occupies more than a hundred quarto pages in the printed edition of the Records. (Ibid., 157 – 273.) I suppose it was prepared by Danforth, and that in the Danforth Papers (Mass. Hist. Coll., XVIII.46 et seq.) we have the original collection of materials for it.





* Mass. Rec., IV. (ii.) 279. —In December, 1665, Carr was still in Boston, whence he wrote to Lord Lauderdale: “If the King would take the lands lying east to Connecticut River, and join it, with Rhode Island, to the King's Province, it would make a good receptacle for the King's loyal subjects, and be a great stop to the Massachusetts, if they should rebel. Rhode Island Colony is so full of faction, and so void of men fit to govern; — for there is, besides the Governor and Deputy-Governor, (betwixt whom, to my knowledge, there is a great feud,) not one fit to make a Governor of,” &c. (Letter of Carr, in Proceedings of Mass. Hist. Soc. for 1858– 1860, p. 274.)

* Meanwhile, however, he made a visit to Boston, where he had a little

adventure. Perhaps he came thither to embark. As in January, 1667, he was merry-making at the Ship Tavern, with Maverick and Temple, on a Saturday evening, a constable stepped in, and desired them to be more regardful of the sobriety of the hour, and disperse. The party drove away the of ficer with blows, and then adjourned to Mr. Kellond's. Arthur Mason, another constable, found them there, and, in an altercation which ensued, he told Carr that he would have taken away the King himself, if he had found him noisy on Saturday evening in Boston. Maverick complained to the Governor, and Mason was informed against, before the Grand Jury, for “maliciously uttering treasonable words.” The Grand Jury found a bill to the effect that “the words charged were spoken,” and a petit jury brought in a verdict in the same terms; the Magistrates referred the question of further proceedings to the General Court; and the officer was sentenced to be “admonished in solemn manner by the Governor.” (Hutch. Hist., I. 232– 234.) On the other hand, Leverett summoned Carr to appear before him, and answer for “riotous and abusive


carriage to one of his Majesty's of
ficers, one of the constables of the
town.” (Hutch. Coll., 411.) But how
Carr's case was disposed of, I have not
* Nicolls remained but a short time
in his government of New York. He
went home in 1668, and resumed his
place in the Duke's household. He

was killed, May 28th, 1672, in the
naval engagement at Solebay, and his
remains lie under the chancel of the
church of Ampthill, in Bedfordshire.—
Miss Caulkins says (History of New
London, 41) that he gave Fisher's Isl-
and to Winthrop (see above, p. 234,

He accordingly had resolved to recall his Commissioners to make their report in person, at the same time giving “express command and charge, that the Governor and Council of the Massachusetts should forthwith make. choice of five or four persons to attend upon his Majesty, whereof Mr. Richard Bellingham and Major Hathorne were to be two, both which his Majesty commanded upon their allegiance to attend,” the other three or two to be “such as the Council should make choice of.” Orders were added for the liberation of all persons “imprisoned only for petitioning or applying themselves to his Majesty's Commissioners,” and for the continuance of the government of Maine, and of the boundaries of the several Colonies, as the Commissioners had established them, “until his Majesty should

Demand for agents to be sent to England.

further determine.”

The next General Court gave diligent attention to the

preparation of military defences; but its record contains no notice of the demands in the King's Possibly it may not have been received so early.


May 23.

When, after more than three months, the Court

met again,” its first action was to order “that

pt. 11.

* “If" wrote Lord Clarendon to Nicolls, April 13, 1666, “they do not give obedience to it [this command to send agents] we shall give them cause to repent it; for his Majesty will not sit down by the affronts which he hath received.” * The letter is printed by Hutchinson (Hist., I. 466). It bears the same date as the laudatory letters addressed to Plymouth, Connecticut, and Rhode Island. (See above, p. 606, note 1.) * Mass. Rec., IV. (ii) 294-312. * Maverick had in the previous month been again in Boston, where he was again charged with business from England. August 6, 1666, he received duplicate letters from Sir William MorVOL. II. 53

rice, which, agreeably to his orders, he took to the Governor (Bellingham), “and required him, in his Majesty's name, immediately to convoke the It was six weeks ere they were assembled”; and, “shortly after, in a General Court, it was voted that the persons sent for should not go.” (Letter of Maverick to Lord Arlington, August 25, 1668, in the State Paper Office.) It was doubtless of an interview with Bellingham on this occasion that Maverick wrote to Governor Prince, of Plymouth, August 11, 1666: “My discourse this morning with the Governor, I fear, took off his stomach for breakfast, and my discourse next week with him and his Coun

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