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launched on the same river, at the plantation of Mr. Cradock." The Desire, of a hundred and twenty tons' burden, was a great triumph of the mechanics of Marblehead.* All former enterprises of the kind were outdone when Hugh Peter “procured some to join for building a ship at Salem of three hundred tons. The inhabitants of Boston, stirred up by his example, set upon the building another at Boston of a hundred and fifty tons.” The people of Massachusetts now had “good store of barks, ketches, lighters, shallops, and other vessels.” In one summer, “five ships more were built, three at Boston, one at Dorchester, and one at Salem;” and in the same year the intelligence went from Boston : “Besides many boats, shallops, hoys, lighters, pinnaces, we are in a way of building ships of a hundred, two hundred, three hundred, four hundred tons. Five of them are already at sea; many more in hand at this present; we being much encouraged herein by reason of the plenty and excellence of our timber for that purpose, and seeing all the materials will be had there in short time.” Surveyors of shipping had now been appointed." The comparative poverty of Plymouth kept her behindhand in such operations. Her first vessel, fit to navigate the ocean, measured forty or fifty tons. It was built at an expense of two hundred pounds, divided among thirteen owners.” In the second year of Boston, a cargo of fish and furs, despatched thence to Virginia, opened a commerce with the southern Colony.” Foreign trade followed in due time. In the sixth year, one of Mr. Cradock's vessels “came from Bermuda with thirty thousand weight of potatoes, and store of oranges and limes.” Then cotton was introduced from the West Indies.” Ships built in Massachusetts Isa. carried “many passengers and great store of * beaver” to London, being followed on their way by “many prayers of the churches.” A step still in advance was taken when a Boston vessel brought wines, pitch, sugar, and ginger from Teneriffe, in exchange for corn; and another yet, when “the Trial, the first ship built in Boston, being about a hundred and sixty tons, Mr. Thomas Graves, an able and a godly man, 1644. master of her,” carried a freight of fish to Bilboa, * and came home from Malaga “laden with wine, fruit, oil, iron, and wool, which was of great advantage to the country, and gave encouragement to trade.” Trade was embarrassed for a time by the insufficient supply of a circulating medium. Of the coin which the settlers brought over, a large part speedily dis- colours appeared, being sent back to England in pay- * ment for necessary supplies.* The first traffic with the natives was in the way of barter, to which, more or less, the use of wampum succeeded. Indian corn and beaverskins were in primitive use as money; and the former, at the market price, was in Massachusetts made a legal tender, when there was not an express stipulation to pay coin or beaver.” Corn and other produce, at fixed rates, were received in payment of the public taxes." When it was ordered that bullets should take the place of farthings, as a legal tender of the same value, it was at a juncture considered to require the keeping of a good supply of bullets in the country."

1642.

1641.

Commerce

* Wood, New England's Prospect,34. * New England's First Fruits, 22.

* Winthrop, I. 193. * Mass. Rec., I. 337.
* Ibid., II. 24. * Plym. Rec., II. 31.
* Lechford, 47. * Winthrop, II. 92, 101.

* Winthrop, II, 65.

1635.

* Winthrop, I. 182. * “Now (1640] our money was * Ibid., IL 31, 119 ; comp. Conn, gone.” (Winthrop, II. 24; comp. Rec., I. 59. Albro, Life of Shepard, 235)

* Winthrop, 150, 151, 154; comp. * Mass. Rec., I. 92. Wonder-Working Providence, Book "Ibid., 140. II. Chap. VI. * Ibid., 137.

The means of communication between the settlements grew up as fast as, under the circumstances, was to be

Facilities for travel.

expected; but that was not very fast.
roads, the obstacles of forest, hill, hollow, and

To make

marsh were to be overcome upon the land, and those of channel and rapid upon the water; and such operations

required time and money."

Ferries were early estab

lished, and bridges must soon have been thrown over

is narrow streams.”

June.

When it was intended to make Newtown the capital of the Colony, a canal was

cut to its upland from the marsh that borders the river.” Mother Brook, which connects the Charles with the Neponset, is an artificial work executed by

1641.

the town of Dedham.*

There was a scheme for

* insulating Cape Cod by cutting through the isthmus which connects it with the mainland ; but it was

abandoned.

The primitive architecture of public buildings was altogether unambitious." The taste for comfortable dwellings

* Endicott excused himself in 1631 from a visit to Winthrop, “my body,” said he, “being in ill condition to wade or take cold.” (Hutchinson's Collections, &c., 50.) At the present time, the traveller easily goes from Salem to Boston in three quarters of an hour, without discomposing his dress. – Winthrop, having lived two years in Boston, projected an expedition to the capital of the sister Colony of Plymouth, and prosperously reached that place after two days' travel, having been conveyed over the fords of streams on the shoulders of Indians. (See Vol. I. 335, 336.) — In 1639, a continuous line of road was laid out along the coast of Massachusetts, from Newbury on the Merrimack to Hingham, the southeastern limit. (Mass. Rec., I. 280.)

* Ibid., 81, 87, 88, 241, 275. — A general law of Massachusetts passed in

1648 (Ibid., II. 228) indicates that bridges were then numerous: “The Court, considering the great peril which men, horses, teams, and other cattle are exposed to by reason of defective bridges and highways,” made towns liable to a fine of £ 100 for every life lost by such defect, and to equitable damages for less injuries. * Ibid., I. 88. * Haven, Historical Address to the Citizens of Dedham, 56. * That of the meeting-house of Dedham, the first or second inland town of Massachusetts, may serve as an example. It was erected in the eighth year after the arrival of Winthrop's company. It was thirty-six feet long; twenty feet wide ; and twelve feet high “in the stud;” and the roof was thatched with long grass. When it was nineteen years old, and there

which the settlers brought with them — so intimately associated with the English feeling for home — they appear to have allowed themselves early to gratify in full proportion to their means. Coddington had built a brick house in Boston, before he went thence to found his colony." The New-Haven people were thought to have “laid out too much of their stocks and estates in building of fair and stately houses;” and Isaac Allerton, who went among them from Plymouth, “built a grand house on the creek, with four porches.”* The

Reverend Mr. Whitefield's house at Guilford, part of the

Architecture.

Whitefield's House, as seen from the south.

were a hundred and sixty families of
worshippers, the town voted to “have
the meeting-house lathed upon the
inside, and so daubed and whited
over, workmanlike.” (Lamson, Ser-
mon preached October 31, 1858, &c.,
32.) A meeting-house, built accord-
ing to the approved model of the sec-
ond age of New England, when a
more fastidious taste had been devel-
oped, had a roof of pyramidal form,
crowned with a belfry. Accordingly
the bell-rope hung down to the centre
of the floor, and the sexton stood half-
way between the principal door and
the pulpit to do his office of summon-
ing the people together. As far as
I know, the only meeting-house on this
model that survives is that of Hing-
ham, built in 1681. Another, which
stood long within my recollection, was
that of the First Church in Boston,
occupying the spot in Washington
Street (then Cornhill) where now
stands Joy's Building.
* See Vol. I. 328, note 4.
* Hubbard, 334.
* Stiles, History of Three of the
Judges, 65.
* Whitefield's house was built in
1639. I suppose there is no doubt that
it is the oldest house in the United
States, now standing as originally
built, unless there be older at St. Au-
gustine in Florida. By the kindness of

my friend, Mr. Ralph D. Smith, of Guil-
ford, a gentleman thoroughly versed in
the local antiquities, I have been fur-
nished with the following plans of it.

The walls are of stone, from a ledge eighty rods distant to the east. It was probably brought on hand-barrows, across a swamp, over a rude causey, which is still to be traced. A small addition, not here represented, has in modern times been made to the back of the house, but there is no question that the main building remains in its original state, even to the oak of the beams, floors, doors, and window-sashes. The following representations of the inte- thickness of the walls, &c., on a scale rior exhibit accurately the dimensions of ten feet to the inch. The single of the rooms, windows, and doors, the dotted lines represent fire-places and

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merchant Curwin's, at Salem, and others which it is not so certain were built before the confederation, still remain

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