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tributed into regiments; a Lieutenant, and under him a . Sergeant-Major, commanded the militia of each county;” and over the whole force of the Colony was a SergeantMajor-General, subordinate only to the Governor, who was Commander-in-Chief.” For the present there was no appearance that field-artillery would be of service, and none was provided, except for the practice of the incorporated Artillery Company.” Some heavy ordnance had been mounted at the entrance of the ports.” The work on Castle Island, in Boston harbor, which had fallen into decay, had been rebuilt at an expense of four thousand pounds, and regularly garrisoned.” It has been seen that the colonists were at first hardly tasked to procure the mere means of subsistence. But anxieties of this kind had long ago passed away, when the confederation was made. They had “builded and planted

officers in Massachusetts in 1644, with eulogies of their several qualifications. The honor of an office in the militia was much esteemed. John Hull, a thriving Boston merchant, chosen a corporal in 1648, praises God for giving him “acceptance and favor in the eyes of His people, and, as a fruit thereof, advancement above his deserts.” (Diary, in Archaeolog. Amer, III. 145.)

When, six years later, he was promoted

to be an ensign, he recorded his prayer,
“beseeching that the good Lord, who
only can, would please to make me
able and fit for, and faithful in, the
place I am called unto, that I may,
with a spirit of wisdom and humility,
love and faithfulness, obey my supe-
riors, so also be exemplary and faithful
to my inferiors.” (Ibid., 147.)
* See Vol. I. 443, 617.
* Sept. 15, 1641, there was “a great
training at Boston two days. About
twelve hundred men were exercised in
most sorts of land service. Yet it was
observed that there was no man drunk,
though there was plenty of wine and

strong beer in the town, not an oath
sworn, no quarrel, nor any hurt done.”
(Winthrop, II. 41.)
* Whitman, History of the Ancient
and Honorable Artillery Company, 27.
—Mounted troops could not be fur-
nished except by the richer neighbor-
hoods. The Plymouth people had no
horses till they obtained them from the
settlers in Massachusetts.
* Mass. Rec., I. 130.
* Hubbard (Chap. XLV) says that
the Colonists were then thinking of the
Dutch, and of their exposure “to the
invasion of a mean and contemptible
enemy.” But the reader of the present
day does not forget that when Boston
harbor was fortified, and intrusted “to
Captain Davenport, a man approved
for his faithfulness, courage, and skill”
(Wonder-Working Providence, 194;
comp. Mass Rec., II. 63), — and when
the militia of Massachusetts were placed
under the single command of a veteran
of the Continental wars (Ibid.,66), the
strife had just become hot between the
King and the Parliament of England.

to admiration for the time.” Industry had taken the lo, forms which are common in a settled social state; cultivation and energy, capacity, and frugality had begun to of the soil. - - bestow their liberal recompenses. Agriculture, though never a lucrative employment in the greater part of New England, obtained better returns, on the whole, when the country presented tracts of unbroken mould, the rich accumulation of ages, than it has done since cultivation has exhausted the superficial fertility; though the contrary is true wherever proximity to great markets has offered a compensation for the expense of elaborate tillage. To the invaluable maize, or Indian corn, – nutritious, hardy, and of a bountiful increase, – the planters soon reconciled themselves as a substitute for wheat, to which the soil and temperature were less propitious.” From the natives they adopted the use of fish for manure, a practice of the continuance of which at the present day a traveller in the “Old Colony” is advertised through two senses. The native grasses were found insufficient for the sustenance of cattle. Strangely enough, the best hay is said to have been obtained from the salt marshes;” but it took only a few seasons to cover the mowing lands with a rich growth of the herbage of England. Barley, rye, oats, and pease were successfully cultivated, and most of the garden fruits and vegetables common in the mother country. The squash, the pumpkin, and the sceva-bean were indigenous to the soil. The pear, the cherry, the plum, and the quince were found to take kindly to their new home. The apple-tree, set out in extensive orchards, soon produced a fruit far superior in size and flavor to what it had borne on English ground." Poultry and swine, both of which repaid so bountifully their cheap supplies of food, multiplied in great abundance; and, as pasture land was extended and improved, goats in the first place, and then sheep.” horses, and neat cattle, became numerous. It was to be expected that the manufacturing interest would be of slower growth. Thread and yarn ... were spun and knit by the women at their tune. homes. Twenty families, who came from York- * shire and began the settlement of the little town of Rowley, introduced the weaving of woollen and cotton fabrics. “They were the first people that set upon making of cloth in the Western world, for which end they built a fulling-mill and caused their little ones to be very diligent in spinning cotton, many of them having been clothiers in England.” After a little time, “the manufacture of linen, woollen, and cotton cloth’’ in Massachusetts became so remunerative, that several acts of the General jou. Court designed to stimulate it were repealed.* A ** stock company was chartered for the smelting of iron, with a monopoly for twenty-one years;" but the en- ieu. terprise was premature, and for the time proved "** abortive. A manufacture of salt was favored by the simplicity of the process and the constant necessity for the product. A person who professed to have found a ign new method of producing this article, received ** a patent for the exclusive use of his invention for ten years." Glass-works at Salem were assisted by a loan of thirty pounds to the projectors.” Bounties were offered, and other legislative measures taken, for the manufacture of saltpetre and of gunpowder,” and for the mining of “coals or iron stone;” but it does not appear that the latter undertaking had any success. The wants of the new community afforded ample employment to the trades of the brickmaker, the mason, the carpenter, the tanner, the currier, the cordwainer, the sawyer, the smith, and the miller. In the third year after Winthrop's arrival, water-mills were erected in Plymouth and in Massachusetts.” Windmills were in earlier use." The woods were a source of wealth. Boards, clapboards, shingles, staves and hoops for barrels, and, at a later period, masts, all of which cost nothing but labor, and product, or commanded a ready sale, were shaped and laid ** up in the winter season for the basis of a profitable trade in the coming months. The pine-forests offered an inexhaustible supply of turpentine, pitch, and tar. Furs and peltry, obtained from the natives by barter for provisions and for foreign manufactured articles, were another rich resource for the export trade. The fishery was counted upon, from the beginning, as an important means of support and of gain. When, on the arrival of the Plymouth people in Massachusetts Bay, they proposed at first to seat themselves at Cold Harbor, it was with a view to advantages for taking the

* Lechford, 47. of Indian corn was estimated in the

* Indian corn is at present the great decennial census at $296,035,552; that agricultural product of the United of wheat at $ 100,485,944; of cotton at States, exceeding in value the aggre- $98,608,720; of hay at $96,870,494. gate value of the three products of (De Bow, Statistical View, &c., 176.) next importance. In 1850, the crop * Hutch. Hist, I. 424.

* I recollect no mention of peaches History is brought down. The author

in the early times. But Danforth raised
apricots in 1646. (Winthrop, II. 332,
note.)
* Johnson, in the description of the
industry and prosperity of Massachu-
setts (“Wonder-Working Providence,”
Book II. Chap. XXI.), has been sup-
posed to be speaking of the year
1642, the Election of which year he
mentions a little before. But I am
persuaded that by “this day” he means
the time when he was writing, not long
before the year 1652, to which time his

of “New England's First Fruits” puts
the number of sheep in 1642 at a thou-
sand, while Johnson says, that, at the
time of which he was writing, there
were three thousand. The descrip-
tion, in the “First Fruits,” of the re-
sources and condition of the people in
1642, is of the highest interest.
* Johnson, Wonder-Working Provi-
dence, 130; comp. Winthrop, II. 31,
119. -
* Mass. Rec., I. 294, 303, 320, 322.
* Ibid., II. 61; comp. I. 327, II, 11.

Fisheries. - - whale and the cod; and if their plans, made in * Mass. Rec., I. 331. * “The windmill was brought down * Ibid., 344. to Boston (1632) because, where it * Ibid., I. 260, 263, II. 17, 29, 30. stood near Newtown, it would not * Ibid., I. 206. grind but with a westerly wind.” (Ibid.,

* Plym. Rec., I. 8, 22; Mass. Hist. 87.) Col, IX. 164; Winthrop, I. 116.

England, had been carried out, one of their vessels would have remained with them for that service. In the third year after their arrival, their single boat was the chief resource of the little colony against starvation. “It helped them to improve the net, wherewith they took a multitude of bass, which was their livelihood all that summer.” In the fifth year, they exported to England a ship-load of fish, cured with salt of their own making;” and, in two years more, they were trading in that commodity with the Dutch on Hudson's River.” Along the seaboard of New England, as fast as it was occupied, this form of industry became a main reliance of the settlers. How profitable it was, may be inferred from the statement that a hogshead of mackerel would sell for three pounds twelve shillings, and that three men in a boat could catch ten hogsheads in a week.” Massachusetts instituted a Protective System for it, by enacting that all vessels and other property employed in “taking, making, and transporting of fish,” should be exempt from duties and public taxes for seven years; and that all fishermen, during the season of their business, should be dispensed from military duty." In the second year before the confederation, the mariners of that Colony “followed the fishing so well, that there was above three hundred thousand dry fish sent to the market.”" w Fishing led to ship-building. The year after Winthrop's arrival, to help in obtaining supplies of corn from ou. the Indians, he built on Mystic River a bark of ing: thirty tons' burden, which he named the Bless- * ing of the Bay." The next year a vessel of a hundred tons, and a year later another of twice that size, were

1641.

* Hubbard, 80. * Mass. Rec., I. 257, 258.
* Bradford, 202. * Winthrop, II, 42.
* See Vol. I. 226. * Ibid., I, 57, 60.

* Winthrop, I. 308.

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