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land, Scotland, France, and Ireland, to be our Sovereign Lord and King, and that we do acknowledge ourselves, the inhabitants of this Colony, to be his Majesty's loyal and faithful subjects. God save the King.”" Connecticut had been less tardy. The first General loo Court of the Colony, assembled after the arrival ** of tidings of the Restoration, does not appear to have taken any action in respect to it.” But, in the following spring, the Court came to a vote “to *... make a speedy Address to his Sacred Majesty, :* . . . . . to acknowledge their loyalty and allegiwo, ance to his Highness, thereby declaring and professing themselves, all the inhabitants of this Colony, to be his Highness's loyal and faithful subjects;” and to “humbly petition his Majesty for grace and favor, and for the continuance and confirmation of such privileges and liberties as were necessary for the comfortable and peaceable settlement of the Colony.” And the sum of five hundred pounds was appropriated “to be improved in pursuance of the Address.” At the next session, a draft of an Address, prepared by Winthrop,” was referred for revisal to a committee consisting of five Magistrates and four ministers; and Winthrop was appointed to present it, and “to agitate and transact the affairs of the Colony in reference thereto, or respecting the pat*... ent” Subsequently he received authority “to **... draw up and present any further petition in behalf of the Colony to his Majesty, as might be found necessary,” and to use his own discretion “respecting any letters that might be found necessary to be directed to any other nobles or gentlemen who might be stirred up to be helpful in promoting the Address, petition, or patent.” He was instructed to engage the favor and assistance of the former patentees of Connecticut and their representatives; and “to use all means to procure a copy of the patent” granted by the Earl of Warwick to Lord Say and Sele and his associates, no copy having been known to exist in Connecticut since the time when questions arose concerning it during the dispute with Massachusetts.” If a copy could be found, Winthrop was to solicit a confirmation of its grants from the King. At all events, he was to endeavor to obtain a royal charter with “liberties and privileges not inferior or short to what is granted to the Massachusetts,” and covering a territory extending “eastward to Plymouth line, northward to the limits of the Massachusetts Colony, and westward to the Bay of Delloway [Delaware], if it might be.” A list of names of patentees was recommended for insertion in the charter; and some matters of minor arrangement received attention.” In the Address to the King, — beginning and ending with expressions of affectionate loyalty, which, like those previously employed by Massachusetts, seem too emphatic to be sincere, — the Court excused their slowness on the ground of their separation, “by a lone tract of a dismal wilderness, from the other English Americans of the parts of the ordinary recourse of shipping.” They “humbly craved pardon” for having proclaimed the King before the reception of “a form and express order for the same,”— a step which had been deferred till the approach of winter, in “the expectation of the royal command therein.” Reciting the circumstances of the origin and progress of the Colony, they declared that they had chosen “rather to sit solitary, and wait only upon the Divine Providence for protection, than to apply themselves to any of those many changes of powers, their hearts as well as their stations still remaining free from illegal engagements and entire to his Majesty's interests.” And, “animated and encouraged by the beams of his sovereignty,” they “implored that he would be pleased to accept this Colony, his own Colony, a little branch of his mighty empire.” The Petition, which is in a less subservient strain, relates to a charter, and to an immunity from customs, the latter in consideration of the heavy expenses incurred “in prosecution of this wilderness work.” The letters to Lord Say and Sele, one of the two or three original patentees who still survived, and to Lord Manchester, entreated those noblemen to afford to Winthrop their advice and help in the prosecution of his business. According to both letters, Fenwick had threatened, at the time of the bargain with him, that, if the planters on the Connecticut did not come to his terms, he would “either impose customs on the river, or make sale thereof to the Dutch, their noxious neighbors.” To the Puritan Earl of Manchester they could venture to suggest a topic not suitable for influence with the King; that “the Honorable Committee of Lords and Commons did own this a distinct Colony.” In two or three months after his appointment to be

May 16.

* N. H. Rec., II. 423. the immediate re-election of a Gov* Conn. Rec., I. 353–358. ernor (Vol. I. 536) was repealed, that * Ibid., 361, 362. Winthrop might be continued in that

* In May, 1660, the rule forbidding station. (Conn. Rec., 346, 847.)

* Conn. Rec., I. 367–369. which was first prepared contained

* See above, p. 245. some names of clergymen; but these

* For these instructions, see Conn. were afterwards struck out. Rec., I. 579. The list of patentees

agent in England, Winthrop

* Conn. Rec., I. 582.

* The Petition is in Trumbull, I. 511.

* Ibid., 513 ; Conn. Rec., I. 584. The way had just been prepared for the arrangement which was now sought, by an adjustment of the long-standing account with George Fenwick. Fourteen years had passed since the sale made by him to the Colony, and no discharge had been given on his part. Fenwick died in 1657; and by his will, his sister, who had married Captain

set sail from New Amster

Cullick, of Hartford, inherited all his American property, except five hundred pounds given “to the public use of that country of New England.” (Conn. Rec., I, 575.) Some questions arose; and a negotiation with Cullick for a settlement, begun in 1658 (Ibid., 318) and continued through two years (Ibid., 325–329; comp. 573), ended in a compromise for a mutual “discharge and acquittance,” on the payment by him of five hundred pounds to the Colony.

dam" for that country, whence he had been absent during the whole of the last eighteen eventful years. John Wi He was a man to make and keep friends; and, i. both from his old friends and from others, he o had a flattering reception. From good-will to him, as well as to the community which he represented, the aged Lord Say and Sele, with whose business in America he had been formerly intrusted,” embraced his cause with a cordial interest.” Winthrop's mind was inquisitive in a variety of ways, and he had made some attainments in physical science. A similarity of tastes introduced him to the useful acquaintance of men enjoying favor with a prince whose only claim to grateful remembrance consists in his having founded the Royal Society. That Society was forming just at the time of Winthrop's arrival in England, with Robert Boyle for its President, with whom, as President of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, he had already had

official relations.”

The result of his negotiation was, that, at the end of a few months, he had obtained for his Colony a royal char. ter conveying the most extraordinary privileges.

* N. H. Rec., 457, note.
* See Vol. I. 450.
* See his Lordship's letter in Trum-
bull, I. 515.
* It has been inferred from some
language in Mortimer's Dedication of
the fortieth volume of the Royal So-
ciety's Transactions, that Winthrop
was one of the original associates. But
such was not the fact. See a list of
them in the Charter (which passed the
seals, July 15, 1663) in Weld's excel-
lent History of the Royal Society, II.
484,497. Sir Kenelm Digby, who was
active in its formation, was afterwards
a copious correspondent of Winthrop;
and some of his letters which are pre-
served (Mass. Hist. Coll., XXX. 5, 15)
go to confirm Evelyn's opinion (Me-
moirs, &c., I. 257): “The truth is, Sir
Kenelm was an errant mountebank.”

However, he was a benefactor to our
College, in its day of small things.
In the Royal Society's Archives
are eleven manuscript letters of John
Winthrop the younger. One, writ-
ten in London, July 27, 1662, and ad-
dressed to Robert Boyle, gives a de-
scription of maize, and of its use by
Indians and English. He says the lat-
ter made malt and beer with it. This
letter is published in the Society's
Transactions (II. 633). Of the rest,
one was written in Salem; the others
in Hartford or Boston; and all be-
tween August 18, 1668, and Septem-
ber 25, 1673. Seven are addressed
to Mr. Oldenburg, two to Sir Robert
Moray, and one to Lord Brereton. In
more than one of these letters, Win-
throp speaks very favorably of Colonel
Nicolls, of whom hereafter.

*: Nineteen patentees, with such associates as they *†, should from time to time elect, were constituted

a corporation under the name of “The Governor and Company of the English Colony of Connecticut in New England in America.” The territory granted to them was “bounded on the east by the Narrogancett River, commonly called Narrogancett Bay where the said river falleth into the sea; and on the north, by the line of the Massachusetts plantations; and on the south, by the sea; and, in longitude, as the line of the Massachusetts Colony runneth from east to west, that is to say, from the said Narrogancett Bay on the east, to the South Sea [the Pacific Ocean] on the west part, with the islands thereunto adjoining.” Thus it embraced the whole of New-Haven Colony; part of the lands claimed respectively by the planters of Providence and Rhode Island, and by the Dutch ; and that territory east of Pequot River to which Massachusetts had asserted a title. The Colonial government was vested in a Governor, DeputyGovernor, twelve Assistants, and a House of Deputies, to be constituted of two members from each town or city. These officers were to be elected annually by the freemen of the Colony; and the legislature was to hold semi

* The patentees were mostly the persons named in a list which accompanied Winthrop's instructions. The names of William Phelps, Robert Warner, Robert Royce, Philip Groves, and Jehu Burr, inserted in that list, were left out from the patent; and those of John Tapping, Richard Lord, Henry Wolcott, John Ogden, Thomas Wells, and Obadiah Bruen were added. The names presented in the Instructions were those of the Magistrates (except the Magistrates from Long Island, omitted, perhaps, with reference to

the claim of the Earl of Stirling), and of one out of each pair of Deputies by which the towns were severally represented in the General Court when the Address was adopted. Tapping and Ogden, who were made patentees, were of Southampton (Long Island). Phelps, one of the persons omitted from the patent, though named in the Instructions, was left out of the magistracy in the first election under the patent, and was succeeded by Henry Wolcott, who had also been substituted for him as a patentee.

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