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disciples,” he said at the foot of the ladder, “must take up the cross.” The last words heard from ..., his lips were those of the martyr Stephen, “Lord Jesus, receive my spirit.” During Leddra's trial, Wenlock Christison, who had been banished, and threatened with death if he should return, came into court, and confronted the judges with bold language. “I am come here to warn you,” he said, “that ye shed no more innocent blood.” He was arrested, and after three months was brought up for trial. There was an unprecedented division among the Magistrates, and they are said to have been no less than two weeks in debate.” The Governor was so vexed at what he thought their want of spirit, that at one moment, “flinging something furiously on the table, he said, “I could find it in my heart to go home’” (to England). “You that will not consent, record it,” he cried, as he put the question a second time to vote; “I thank God I am not afraid to give judgment.” Christison was condemned to die. But the dreadful sentence could not again be executed.” In the mean time the General Court had met, and the evidences of opposition to any further pursuance of this rigorous policy were unmistakable. The contest of will was at an end. The trial that was to decide which party would hold out longest had been made, and the Quakers had conquered." It was settled that the Governor and Company of Massachusetts Bay were not to have the disposal of their home. They had bought it, and paid dear for it. They had on their side that sort of rigid justice which accredited writers recognize, when they lay down the rule that a perfect right may be maintained at any cost to the invader." But trespassers had come who would not be kept away, except by violent measures, which had produced only a partial effect, and which the invaded could not prevail upon themselves any longer to employ. The feeling of humanity, which all along had pleaded for a surrender, at length uttered itself in overpowering tones. The Court, it is true, was not ready for such an express contradiction of some of the leading men, and such a formal concession of victory to the Quakers, as ...” would have been afforded by a repeal of the law ... for capital punishment. But it made other enactments, which, in the existing state of feeling, would practically supersede the execution of that law. “Being desirous to try all means with as much lenity as might consist with safety to prevent the intrusions of the Quakers, who . . . . . had not been restrained by the laws already provided,” they ordered that such intruders should be “tied to a cart's tail,” and whipped from town to town “towards the borders of the jurisdiction.” Should they return after being three times thus dealt with, and should “ the Court judge not meet to release them,” they were to “be branded with the letter R on their left shoulder, and be severely whipped and sent away in manner as before.” Should they return yet again, they were then to be amenable to the previous law for banishment on pain of death.”

May 22.

* Bishop, New England Judged, 329; Persecutions in New England, 13, 14. * Sewel, History, &c., 270. * Daniel Gould, who came in the company of Robinson and Stevenson from Salem to Boston, gives an account of the proceedings against them in his “Brief Narration of the Sufferings of the People called Quakers” (5–10). * It seems, however, from the following paper in the Massachusetts Archives (X. 273), both that Christison was not informed how the tide was VOL. II. 41

turning for his advantage, and that the pride of consistency in the Magistrates was spared the struggle which seemed to be awaiting it in his case : —

“I, the condemned man, doe give forth under my hand, that, if I may have my libarty, I have freedome to depart this Jurisdiction; and I know not yt ever I shall com into it any In Oro,

“WINLOCK CHRISTISON.

from ye Goal in Boston,
yo 7th day of ye 4th mo. 1661.”

* Wattel, Law of Nations, Prelimi- * Mass. Rec., IV. (ii) 2-4. It has been naries, § 17; Burlamaqui, Principles commonly said that it was a mandate of Natural and Political Law, Part I. from Charles the Second that put a Chap. VII. § 8; Puffendorf, Droit de stop to the ill-treatment of the Quakers la Nature, &c., Liv, I. Chap. VII. § 7, in New England. See below, p. 520. * Hutch. Hist., I. 187; Persecutions the Sad and Great Persecution and in New England, 20. Martyrdom of the People of God, called * Bishop, 377, 383. Quakers, in New England, for the * A summary in “A Declaration of Worshipping of God,” is as follows:– “Twenty-two have been banished upon pain of death. Three have been martyred. Three have had their right ears cut. One hath been burned in the hand with the letter H. Thirtyone persons have received six hundred and fifty stripes. One was beat while his body was like a jelly. Several were beat with pitched ropes. Five appeals made to England were denied by the rulers of Boston. One thousand forty-four pounds' worth of goods hath been taken from them (being poor men) for meeting together in the fear of the Lord, and for keeping the commands of Christ. One now lieth in iron fetters, condemned to die.”

No hanging, and no branding, ever took place by force of this law. Under its provisions for other penalties, the contest between the rulers and the strangers was carried on for a considerable time longer. Though at length the vehemence on both sides cooled, it had not, on one side, yet reached its highest point of fervor. At first, after the discontinuance of capital punishment, the antics of the Quakers became more absurd than before. Far and near, they disturbed the congregations at their worship. George Wilson at Boston, and Elizabeth Horton at Cambridge, cried through the streets that the Lord was coming with fire and sword. Thomas Newhouse, having delivered in the meeting-house in Boston the message with which he alleged himself to be charged, broke two glass bottles “in a prophetic manner,” proclaiming, “Thus will the Lord break you in pieces.” One wretched woman, Mary Brewster, made herself a spectacle by walking about in a gown made of sackcloth; and another exhibited herself with her face smeared with grease and lampblack.” “Deborah Wilson . . . . . was constrained, being a young woman of very modest and retired life, and of sober conversation, as were her parents, to go through the town of Salem naked, as a sign.” “Lydia [Wardel], being a young and tender, chaste woman, . . . . . as a sign to them [the church at Newbury], went in (though it was exceeding hard to her modest and shamefaced disposition) naked amongst them.”

The number of Quakers who were fined, imprisoned, or scourged, under a sentence from the General Court of Massachusetts, was about thirty. The number of those punished in like manner by sentences of the county courts, is not ascertained.” Some similar proceedings took place in New Haven" and Plymouth, – especially in Plymouth,” which, as being nearest to Rhode

Proceedings against them in the smaller Colonies.

Island, the Quakers most frequented of all the confederate Colonies, after Massachusetts.”

But,

among the Colonies of New England, it is the unhappy distinction of the chartered—and therefore at once more self-confident and more endangered—Colony of Massachusetts, to have been the only one in which Quakers who refused to absent themselves were condemned to die. Her right to her territory was absolute, deplorable as was the extreme assertion of it. No householder has a more unqualified title to declare who shall have the shelter of his roof, than had the Governor and Company of Massachusetts Bay to decide who should be sojourners or visitors within their precincts. Their danger was real, though the experiment proved it to be far less than was at first supposed. The provocations which were offered were exceedingly offensive. It is hard to say what should have been done with disturbers so unmanageable. But that one thing should not have been done till they had become more mischievous, is plain enough. They should not have been put to death. Sooner than put them to death, it were devoutly to be wished that the annoyed dwellers in Massachusetts had opened their hospitable drawing-rooms to naked women, and suffered their ministers to ascend the pulpits by steps paved with fragments of glass bottles. The reader is aware that in Massachusetts there had been from an early period a law against Baptists, which had for the most part remained a dead letter, one though in one important instance it had been io.

This book is in the form of an Address to the King, in reply to statements in the Address of the General Court of Massachusetts. (See above, p. 449.) It is signed by seven persons, all of whom had been sufferers in the Colony, and were now in London. A postscript, which has the signature of “E. B.” (Edward Burrough, I suppose), is dated 15 March, 1660 (1661), indicating the time when it was presented. As might be expected in the circumstances, the treatise was aggressive as well as apologetic. It aimed to incense the King by averring (p. 11), that in “a letter subscribed by some of these petitioners” (the Massachusetts Magistrates) were these words: “There is more danger in the Quakers to trouble and overcome England, than in the King of Scots, and all the Popish princes in Germany.”

* Bishop, 203, 204; Howgill, Popish

Inquisition, &c., 12. — The one case of branding in the hand mentioned in the “Declaration,” &c., was, I suppose, that of Humphrey Norton, in New Haven Colony. See N. H. Rec., IL 217, 238,276, 291, 363,412. * See Bishop, 160 – 203; Howgill, Popish Inquisition, &c., 13–17. — James Cudworth, an important man of Plymouth Colony, was a friend and champion of the Quakers, though no convert to their opinions. Timothy Hatherly was in sympathy with him, and both were left out of the magistracy, in 1658, on account of the displeasure thus occasioned. For the legislation in Plymouth against the Quakers, extending through four years, see Brigham, Compact, &c., 102, 103, 114, 122, 125–127, 129, 130; comp. Plym. Rec., III. 111, 123–130, 139, 147, 151, 167, 176, 179, 184, 185, 197, 199; Baylies, Historical Memoir of Plymouth, II. 30 –48. — In Connecticut, notwithstanding the menace of some dangerouslooking laws (Conn. Rec., I. 283, 303, 324), Bishop allows (pp. 226, 227) that, on the whole, his friends did not fare very ill; though they were not “suffered to abide,” and two women “were imprisoned several days, and some of their clothes sold to pay their fees.” * In England, at the same time, thousands of Quakers were punished in the same way (see Sewel, 252, 254, 335); and the return of Quakers from banishment continued to be a felony in Virginia years after it ceased to be a felony in Massachusetts. (Jefferson, Notes on Virginia, Query

carried rigorously into effect.” A congregation

17; compare Hening, Statutes at
Large, II. 181.) — Howgill (Popish
Inquisition, &c., 6–9) narrates at
length “the grievous suffering of Rob-
ert Hodshon [a Friend] by the Gov-
ernor of the Dutch Plantations in New
England.” But Hodshon gave up the
point, and went away. For an account
of Hodshon's case and several others
like it, see Brodhead, History of New
York, 637 – 639, 643, 689.
* See above, pp. 346 – 354. — In
1648, some “misdemeanor” of a Depu-
ty from Dover, “with profession of

anabaptistery, &c.," led to an investi-
gation, which, as far as we know, ended
in nothing. (Mass. Rec., II. 253.)
In the same year, according to Back-
us (History, &c., iv.), a person of the
name of Samuel Hubbard, and his wife,
went from Connecticut to Newport, be-
cause, according to Hubbard's account,
in consequence of being “enlightened.”
as to “baptizing only visible believers,”
they were “threatened with imprison-
ment to Hartford gaol, if they did not
renounce it or remove.”

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