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write blasphemous opinions, despising government and the order of God in church and commonwealth, speaking evil of dignities, reproaching and reviling magistrates and ministers, seeking to turn the people from the faith, and gain proselytes to their pernicious ways.” And, in order “to prevent the like mischief as by their means was wrought in their native land,” the Court now required shipmasters, who should bring Quakers into the jurisdiction, to pay a fine of one hundred pounds, and to give security for the re-transportation of such passengers to the port whence they came. It was at the same time enacted, that Quakers coming into the Colony should “be forthwith committed to the House of Correction, and at their entrance to be severely whipped, and by the master thereof to be kept constantly to work, and none suffered to converse or speak with them during the time of their imprisonment;”—that a fine of five pounds should be incurred by the importation, circulation, or concealment of Quaker books;– that persons presuming “to defend the heretical opinions of the said Quakers” should be punished, for the first offence, by a fine of two pounds; for a second, by a fine of four pounds; and for a third, by imprisonment in the House of Correction till there should “be convenient passage for them to be sent out of the land;”—and that “what person or persons soever should revile the office or person of magistrates or ministers, as was usual with the Quakers, such person or persons should be severely whipped, or pay the sum of five pounds.” This law, forthwith “published, in several places of Boston, by beat of drum,” betrays the excitement into which the government had been thrown by the transactions of the previous summer. Nicholas Upsall” an ancient citizen, for “reproaching the honored Magistrates, and speaking against the law made and published against Quakers,” was sentenced to pay a fine of twenty pounds, and to “depart the jurisdiction within one month, not to return under the penalty of imprisonment.” The admonition designed by the new laws was, before long, to be practically enforced. Anne Burden and Mary Dyer came to Boston from England. The latter was the wife of the Secretary of Rhode Island, to which Colony, twenty years before, she had gone from Boston after the Antinomian dissension.” Both were imprisoned. Burden, after two or three months, was sent back to England. Dyer, pleading ignorance of the law, was delivered to her husband, to be conducted home, on his giving security “not to lodge her in any town of the Colony, nor to permit any to speak with her.”” But Mary Clarke, who had made the voyage from London “to warn these persecutors to desist from their iniquity,” was scourged. Christopher Holden and John Copeland, two of the party who had been reshipped to England in the preceding autumn, appeared again at Salem, “and spoke a few words in their meeting after the priest had done;” they were whipped and imprisoned, and Lawrence and Cassandra Southwick, of Salem, were imprisoned for having harbored them.” “The next that came from England, as being under a necessity from the Lord to come to this land of persecution, was Richard Dowdney.” He received the same treatment as Holden and Copeland, and the three were
* Mass. Rec., IV. (i.) 277. (Mass. Rec., I. 366.) I suppose this * A Nicholas Upsall took the free- was the man. Comp. Gerard Croes, man's oath among the first, in 1631. Historia Quakeriana, 394 et seq.
* Mass. Rec., IV. (i.) 277,280. * “An evident token,” says Sewel,
* Dyer was an object of peculiar abhorrence in Boston, on account of an absurd story of her having given birth to a monster, a divine judgment for her attachment to Mrs. Hutchinson. Winthrop tells the story in unpleasant detail (I. 261 – 263).
who relates the proceeding, (History, &c., 167,) “that he was not of the society of Quakers, for otherwise he would not have entered into such a bond.”
“Ibid., 168; Bishop, New England Judged, 50–53; Croes, Histor. Quaker., 398.
sent away together. The four visitors last named belonged to a party of fifteen who, having arrived from London at New Amsterdam, thence dispersed themselves into New England." Three women of this company, Sarah Gibbons, Mary Wetherhead, and Dorothy Waugh, had been sent to England with Holden, Copeland, and others, in the year before. It seemed probable that the recent enactments had had some effect, while, on the other hand, it was clear that they were not fully adequate to their purpose; and both considerations prompted to the trial of measures more severe. The fine for harboring Quakers was now increased to the amount of forty shillings for every hour; the forfeiture for bringing them was enforced by a more rigid rule; and it was ordered that every Quaker, coming into the jurisdiction after having been once punished, should, for the first offence, suffer the loss of one ear; for a second offence, the loss of the other; and for a third, should have the tongue “bored through with a hot iron.”* Of the three lastmentioned provisions, the last two never took effect. The other, after the lapse of nearly a year, – for the repugnance to it must have been hard to overcome, – was executed in three instances. Holden, Copeland, los, and John Rouse, who had twice come back *** after being banished, each had the right ear cut off by the constable. The sad scene took place within the prison walls, in the presence of only a few witnesses. Of this mutilation—a mode of punishment then well known in the mother country — there has been no example since that time in New England.” The Federal Commissioners were at this moment in session at Boston, under the presidency of Endicott. Their last proceeding before they parted was to pass the following vote:— “Whereas there is an accursed and pernicious sect of heretics lately risen up in the world who are commonly called Quakers, who take upon them to be immediately sent of God and infallibly assisted; who do speak and write blasphemous things, despising government and the order of God in church and commonwealth, speaking evil of dignities, reproaching and reviling magistrates and the ministers of the Gospel, seeking to turn the people from the faith, and to gain proselytes to their pernicious ways; — and whereas the several jurisdictions have made divers laws to prohibit and restrain the aforesaid cursed heretics from coming amongst them, yet notwithstanding they are not deterred thereby, but arrogantly and presumptuously do press into several of the jurisdictions, and there vent their pernicious and devilish opinions, which being permitted tends manifestly to the disturbance of our peace, the withdrawing of the hearts of the people from their subjection to government, and so in issue to cause division and ruin, if not timely prevented;—it is therefore propounded and seriously commended to the several General Courts, upon the considerations aforesaid, to make a law that all such Quakers formerly convicted and punished as such, shall (if they return again) be imprisoned, and forthwith banished or expelled out of the said jurisdiction, under pain of death; and if afterwards they presume to come again into that jurisdiction, then to be put to death as presumptuously incorrigible, unless they shall plainly and publicly renounce their cursed opinions; and for such Quakers as shall come into any jurisdiction from any foreign parts, or such as shall arise within the same, after due conviction that either he
* Brodhead, History, &c., 636. In Relation of a Voyage to New England, the British Museum is a copy of a jour- performed by Robert Fowler,” &c. nal of this voyage, under the title, “A * Mass. Rec., IV. (i.) 308. Quaker's Sea-Journal, being a True * Bishop, New England Judged, 91.
under pain of severe corporal punishment; and if they return again, then to be punished accordingly, and banished under pain of death; and if afterwards they shall yet presume to come again, then to be put to death as aforesaid, except they do then and there plainly and publicly renounce their said cursed opinions and devilish tenets.” Massachusetts, alone of the four Colonies, carried this advice into full effect. The General Court of that Colony, which met three weeks after the adjournment of the Commissioners, received a memorial from twenty-five leading citizens of Boston, urging the necessity of more efficient measures of protection against the Quakers. “Their incorrigibleness,” say the petitioners, “after so much means used both for their conviction and preserving this place from contagion, is such as, by reason of their malignant obdurities, daily increaseth rather than abateth our fear of the spirit of Muncer or of John of Leyden renewed, and consequently of some destructive evil impending.” And they formally present the question, whether “it be not necessary, after the example of other Christian commonwealths infested with pests not more perilous than these are, and the common and universally approved argument of se defendendo, upon the sad experience that the remedy hitherto applied is not only not effectual, but contemned and abused with the highest hand, if, after the sentence of banishment added thereunto, they shall still presumptuously obtrude themselves upon this jurisdiction, — whether,
* Records, &c., in Hazard, II. 399, 400. —It was the practice of the Commissionersto append to the record of each meeting the following entry, with their names attached, namely, “These foregoing conclusions were agreed and subscribed by the Commissioners the day of * .” The record of the present meeting, as printed by Hazard,
was thus certified by all the Commissioners except Josiah Winslow, of Plymouth, whose name, however, appears in the Connecticut copy of the Journal. John Winthrop, of Connecticut, attached to his subscription the following words: “Looking at the last [the vote relating to the Quakers] as a query, and not an act, I subscribe.”