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A squadron was sent to seize some Dutch settlements in Africa. The Dutch complained, and, when their complaints were neglected, reluctantly began to arm. Their Admiral, De Ruyter, recovered the African factories." The English made reprisals on Dutch ships. Attempts, diligently made by the Dutch to heal the quarrel, War with failed, and war was formally declared by the King in. of England. France and Denmark took part .... with his enemy. The vicissitudes of the sharp conflict of the next two years and a half need not be here described. A succession of alternate successes of the great naval powers terminated in an adventure deeply mortifying to English pride. The Dutch Admiral, De Ruyter, sailed up the Thames, took Sheerness, and burned six ships of war at their anchors. Repeating the insult, he came up as far as Tilbury fort. His guns were heard on the Royal Exchange; and a question of evacuating the Tower of London was seriously entertained in the Privy Council. In these humiliating circumstances, England concluded a treaty of peace, on favorable terms, due to the prowess of her fleets in the early part of the war, .." and to a sense of the greatness of her spirit and ..., resources, as well as to jealousy entertained by the Dutch of some equivocal movements on the part of their French allies. The original grounds of the dispute were passed over in silence. Acadie, in America, was surrendered to the King of France; but New Netherland, which had been taken by the English, as will hereafter be related, remained in their hands. The people of England chafed against that official mismanagement to which they imputed the defeat of their expectations from this war. And their ill-humor was increased by the occurrence of two great calamities, under which they could not even have the relief of complaining rol. their rulers. In the first year of the war, a London, pestilence had broken out in London, which in * six months destroyed a hundred thousand lives. A year afterwards, a fire devastated the city for six days and nights. Beginning near London Bridge, it .." spread in one direction to the Tower, and in the ... other nearly to Temple Bar, consuming thirteen thousand houses, and laying waste four hundred streets, and four hundred and thirty-six acres of land. The vague but violent discontent which prevailed vent. ed itself in an outcry against Lord Clarendon. From the i.e. time of his accession to the management of as to:- fairs, he had made enemies in all quarters except - among the clergymen, and not a few of the clergy he had offended by his abstinence from jobs in the distri. bution of patronage. The Catholics hated him for his vigilant and uncompromising Protestantism. The Protestant dissenters bore him no good-will for shutting up their places of worship, and turning their ministers out of their homes to beggary. Covenanting Scotland owed him a terrible reckoning. The resentment of disappointed suitors among the royalists accumulated a strong interest against him; for, where there were so many to be gratified, and they so craving, it was impossible for him to satisfy all; and, though he was charged with being covetous, it was not believed to be serviceable, or even to be safe, to approach him with a bribe. The mob of courtiers hated him, because of his blameless private life, and of that * I am not ignorant that a different torical Inquiries” of the late Lord opinion has been maintained in respect Dover upon the point; but witho". to Lord Clarendon's reputation among being satisfied of the correctnes of loathing for their practices which he took little pains to conceal. The seraglio hated him, because he paid it no respect, and because all his influence over the royal mind was sure to be adverse to its sway. The King was turned against him by the disgust and the scoffs of his mistresses, and because the cautions of the grave minister were distasteful and wearisome to the royal ear. By his own son-in-law — the Duke of York had seduced, and then married, Clarendon's daughter — he came to be scarcely tolerated, because the one was a Romish, the other an Anglican devotee. His stern temper, as it was manifested in measures of authority, or in private intercourse, provoked hostility; and his proud unconcern about recommending himself by a gracious deportment had its powerful effect to his disadvantage ; for, among the qualifications for public service, no small account is apt to be made of a readiness to promise, to compliment, and to smile. The fall of a minister cannot be long delayed, when the sovereign, the courtiers, and the people have ceased to love him. Peace was scarcely made before a universal clamor arose against the man to whom were imputed the disgraces and the unprofitable issue of the war. Dunkirk, in the Low Countries, had been taken by Cromwell from the Spanish. To supply his needs or his pleasures, Charles, in the second year after his restoration, had sold it to the King of France. The dishonor of this transaction was now charged upon Clarendon. He had built a costly mansion near St. James's Palace; it was called in derision Dunkirk House, and he was accused of having paid for it by 1957. official peculation. The King took from him “” the great seal; Parliament, coming together soon after, thanked the King for so doing, and was answered by an assurance that Clarendon should never again be employed. This was not enough. The House

* The “Discourse written by Sir The tricky envoy half pretends to call George Downing” at this time, (“given in question the authenticity of the arat the Hague, this 16th of Decem- gument of the “Estates General of the ber, 1664,”) is a specimen of diplo- United Provinces,” which he undermatic insolence perhaps unequalled takes to answer. since the times of Roman brutality.

his contemporaries, in this particular; the judgment there expressed. and I have carefully read the “His

1653

Oct. 15.

of Commons voted to impeach him, and sent up its No.12 articles. The Lords found them vague and informal, and declined to proceed. The Commons demanded a conference. It was uncertain what the issue would be, but the excitement and the danger were great. While the dispute was pending, Claren. don thought it prudent to withdraw to the Continent. From Calais he addressed to the Lords a vindication, which, by a joint order of the Houses, was pronounced a scandalous and seditious libel, and condemned to be burnt by the hangman. Another vote sentenced him to banishment for ims life. At the end of six years, passed in privacy, ** he died at Rouen, in France. Some measures of Lord Clarendon's administration concerned the Colonies of New England. The reader remembers that, at an early period of the Civil War, a Parliamentary Commission had been intrusted with the con, superintendence of colonial affairs." In the first ... year of the restored monarchy, this commission 160 was succeeded by a Council of Foreign Planta** tions, which was invested with similar powers’ ion. A few months later, twelve Privy Counsellors ** were appointed to be a “Committee touching the settlement of the government of New England.” But for the present this movement was fruitless. The Navigation Act of the Commonwealth was made the basis of further and stricter legislation. A law of the Convention Parliament forbade the importation of merchandise into any English Colony, except in English vessels, with English crews; and, specifying various colonial staples, it prohibited their exportation from the place of production to any other ports than such as belonged to England." The penalty in both cases was forfeiture of vessel and cargo so. The oppressive system was further extended by Act. an Act, which confined the import trade of the " colonists to a direct commerce with England, forbidding them to bring from any other country, or in any but English ships, the products, not only of England, but of any European soil.” The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel among the Indians had been composed of Presbyterians and Independents. After the Restoration, its friends, alarmed not only for the safety of its property, some of which was now reclaimed by the former owners, but even for the prospect of any further prosecution of their benevolent undertaking, lost no time in approaching the throne in its behalf.” Men sympathizing with them, and still of influence about the King, promoted their suit. The arrival of copies of John Eliot's Translation of the New Testament into the native language, with

Nov. 29.

Dec. 9.

Dec. 19.

* See Vol. I. 633, 634. established. (Journal of the Privy * In the preceding month (Novem- Council.) ber 7) a Council of Trade had been * Ibid.

a dedication to the King, was opportune.*

* Statutes at Large, II, 658–661.
—There were articles of New-England
production which the demand in Eng-
land, whether for consumption or for
commerce, could not exhaust; while
it concerned the English merchants,
that the colonists should somehow get
money to pay for English manufac-
tures. Accordingly, by an Order in
Council (February 13, 1661), New-
England vessels were permitted to
carry their freights (lumber, fish, &c.)
to “Spain and other parts,” and to
bring to England only the proceeds
of the sales.
* Ibid., 738. Salt for the New-
England fishermen, wines from Ma-
deira and the Azores, and provisions
from Scotland and Ireland, were how-
ever excepted.
* 1660, November 14.
VOL. II.

On petition
38

The Chan

of “divers of his Majesty's subjects, ministers and others,” for a continuance of the charter mentioned in their petition, and for securing “the lands set for maintenance, the Attorney-General was directed to report to the Privy Council a draught for a renewal of the charter. — 1661, April 10, his draught was approved. — May 17, he received a list of names of the first associates to be inserted in the charter. — 1662, July 2, “A brief” was ordered for “a general collection to be made throughout England and Wales” in aid of the Corporation. (Journal of the Council.)

* This great work, printed at Cambridge by Samuel Green and Marmaduke Johnson, was published in Boston in September, 1661. The Federal Commissioners sent twenty copies to

Richard Hutchinson and William Ash

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