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conspicuous ability, and has a right to be remembered with the most meritorious of her early benefactors. In the next year the many days of Thomas Dudley were numbered and finished." He had been twice Governor, Deputy-Governor thirteen times, and Death of Major-General of the militia in other years. His on. well-known capacity, experience, and scrupulous ... fidelity to every trust, made him an object of implicit respect. His integrity was unimpeachable; his superiority to influences of human blame or favor was above question; the fear of God was an ever-present and deciding motive to him; no man, in public action, had a more single eye to the public welfare. But Dudley's was one of those characters in which virtue does not put on her gracious aspect. He belonged to the class of men who are commended, confided in, and revered, but not loved. If hasty, he was not revengeful; he never meant to be unjust, and he did sincerely mean to be magnanimous; but he wanted the qualities to conciliate and win. Strictly true to his own engagements, he expected a like precision from others, and was thought to exact it with too great rigor. He was positive, prejudiced, undemonstrative, austere. When he was gentle and generous, it seemed to be more from conscience than from sympathy, so that even benefits from him won approval rather than affection. It might be expected of such a man, that he would find it hard to tolerate a difference of religious opinion; and it is recorded of Dudley, that after his decease some lines expressive of that form of narrowness were found in a pocket of his dress.” He was not alone in cherishing it. Others among his eminent fellow-laborers were perhaps ready to act on his harsh maxims of this kind, if a sounder public opinion, countenanced and fostered by minds of more calmness and comprehension, had not disabled and controlled them. But, on the other hand, it is not safe to draw exact inferences as to men's character and deliberate plans from their animated expressions in speech, or even in writing. In the warmth of controversy the thought and feeling of the moment are not seldom uttered with a vehemence which inexactly represents the permament purpose of the mind; and constantly it is seen that men trusted with authority, properly impressed with its responsibilities, and brought to look at practical questions with the dispassionate scrutiny which its possession rightfully requires, adopt in action a course of lenity and good sense different from what had been foreshadowed by their less well-considered words. Roger Ludlow, one of Dudley's early associates in MasRoger sachusetts, seems at first view to have resembled *" him in some points of character. But the resemblance was not close. Both had traits fitting them to take a lead in business; and both were obstructed by their want of suavity, and of an aptitude for accommodation. But in Dudley a sense of duty, if sometimes perverted or only partially operative, was always paramount, while Ludlow's pertinacity was apt to be passionate and wilful; his better qualities were mixed with an alloy of personal ambition and of jealousy of associates, with which Dudley could not be charged; and repeated disappointments and mortifications, which his morbid self. reference both provoked and made keener, impaired his self-respect and disturbed his sense of obligation. The worst mischief of a course of opposition and defeat is experienced when, generating ill humors, it hinders a cheerful perseverance in useful action. Ludlow, after a restless career in Massachusetts, left that Colony in dis

1. Dudley Was fifty-four years old Lest that ill egg bring forth a cockatrice,

when he came to New England in 1630. #.*o: *u* The lines, twenty in number, are My epitaph is, “I died no libertine.” preserved by Mather (Magnalia, Book Such clamorous assertions of an intolII. Chap. W. § 1). They conclude erant spirit are themselves a forcible inthus:– dication of the existence in other minds ... Let men orded in court, and churche, watch of a different tone of feeling, which it

O'er such as do a toleration hatch, was thought necessary to rebuke.

gust at what he thought injustice to his deserts, though he had repeatedly received almost the highest tokens of public esteem. By his new neighbors in Connecticut he was treated with scarcely greater favor. He sometimes represented them in the federal congress; but they never elected him to the highest office in their government, and only twice to the second; and this penurious confidence must have occasioned him the more chagrin, because Haynes, the ruler first preferred to him in Connecticut, was the person whose promotion in Massachusetts had probably been one of the motives for his departure thence. His new associates did not like his project of founding a remote settlement under their jurisdiction, though they indulged him in it, as a man bent on having his own way, and worth gratifying.” But when the Massachusetts people refused to go to war with the Dutch, he could not control his indignation. His companions at Fairfield resolved to wage the war on their own icos. account, and made him commander of their levy.” ” Discountenanced in this rash step both by Connecticut and by New Haven, he gave free way to his or resentment, and in the following spring, after New Engtwenty-four years of residence in New England, ". withdrew himself to Virginia, never to return.” May. Ludlow left what possibly might even yet have proved a more open field to him in Connecticut; for Haynes died just before his departure, and Hopkins had gone o:

to England the year before.” These men, the ol.

* See Vol. I. 538.
* N. H. Rec., II. 47.
* He went away in the midst of a
quarrel with New Haven, about the
vessel in which he embarked. (Ibid.,
69–75.) Neither the time nor the
place of his death is known.
I think it probable that Ludlow's
agency was important in the quarrel
between the western Colonies and

Massachusetts. He was one of the
Commissioners for Connecticut during
the whole of its progress. He was an
able, an irascible, and a headstrong
man. He had long ceased to feel
kindly towards Massachusetts. His
plantation had been much harassed
by the Indians; and he was very stren-
uous for the war with the Dutch.
* Winthrop the younger was now at

chief rulers of Connecticut, through nearly a score of its earliest years, had never lost for an hour that public confidence which was won by their sterling worth and wisdom, their generous, active public spirit, and their eminence in all Christian graces. Haynes was a man of family as well as of fortune; and the dignified and courteous manners, which testified to the care bestowed on his early nurture, won popularity by their graciousness, at the same time that they diffused a refining influence by their example. Deliberate, unimpassioned, firm, secured against solicitude and fear by the consciousness of a mind competent in its resources and consecrated to the pursuit of worthy ends, he acquitted himself of his great task with uniform manliness, discretion, and serenity. His colleague, resembling him in substantial merits, appears to have been a person, if not more impetuous, more fond of action. Hopkins, rather than Haynes, was prominent in the combinations and disputes among the sister Colonies. His previous occupation, — that of a merchant in London, — while it accumulated for him a fortune which he bountifully dispensed in public uses, had exercised and ripened that practical talent for which, in the trio of the great early names of Connecticut, he ros., was conspicuous. Engagements occasioned by Hopkins the death of a brother caused him to make what * he intended for a short visit to England. But he did not return. Cromwell bespoke his services. He was made a Warden of the Fleet and Commissioner of the Admiralty, and was a member of the Protector's last m.a. Parliament when he died, four years after re1957, crossing the water. By his will he dedicated * nearly the whole of his property in New England, besides five hundred pounds from his estate elsewhere, to “the breeding up of hopeful youths in a way of learn

Nameaug in the Pequot country; but been considered as within the limits of his settlement had only very recently Connecticut. See above, p. 379, note.

ing, both at the grammar school and College, for the public service of the country, in future times;” and the public grammar schools of New Haven, Hartford, Hadley, and Cambridge do their part in keeping alive his memory at this day. The residue of his property in America he bequeathed to other charitable uses. The distinguished career of Hopkins's friend and relative, Governor Eaton of New Haven, came to its close in the following winter. Through the nineteen years since the foundation of that settlement, he ** had always been at the head of its government. ... The abilities which in England had raised him to fortune and to diplomatic station, in America found exercise, sufficient to content him, in building up what he hoped would be perpetuated as a pure community of Christians. Other good and able men shared in the labors which provided for New Haven its inheritance of honor and of prosperity; but no element of its honor and prosperity can be dissociated from the names of Eaton and Davenport. The accounts which have been transmitted to us of the Governor testify with one voice to the perfect confidence which was reposed in the uprightness and wisdom of his public administration, and to the admiration entertained for the virtues and accomplishments which were exhibited by him in all relations and offices of private life. The Colony voted to defray the charges of his burial; to relieve his estate from taxes for a year; and to commemorate his worth by the erection of a monument. “Eaton,” — such is part of the inscription upon it, more affectionate than tuneful,

“Eaton, so famed, so wise, so meek, so just,
The Phoenix of our world, here hides his dust;
This name forget New England never must.”

* See Vol. I. 537, note 2.

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