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volume, to agree with such as were already in force.” There is no reason to suppose that they who now had the business in charge desired to frustrate it; but it was not of a nature to be, at the same time, well and hastily done. The Court was careful to keep it in remembrance;” and at length it was matured,” and a lets. copy of the code, fairly engrossed for publication, * * was “at the press.” By degrees the original rudeness of the revenue system was reformed. “Wintners, or other persons that had license to draw wine,” were held to pay “twenty shillings for every butt of sack drawn, or begun to be drawn, and so proportionably for every greater or lesser vessel.” A duty of “the four-and-twentieth part of the true value” was laid on “all wines brought into the Colony in any ship or loss. other vessel, either of the Colony or of strangers, * * whether English, Dutch, or others.”" Tonnage and anchorage duties (the latter at the rate of sixpence the ton) were collected from foreign vessels coming into the harbors;' but from this charge vessels belonging to friends of the Parliament were exempted, in consideration of the provision of that body in favor of New-England shipping.” A poll-tax, not felt to be oppressive, of twenty

Improve
ments of the
revenue sys-
tem.
1644.
Nov. 13.

1646. pence annually levied on males above sixteen ** years of age, yielded a considerable supply. “Laborers,

artificers, and handicraftsmen, (that usually took in summer time above eighteen pence by the day wages,)” were charged with a uniform tax of three shillings and four pence annually; upon other persons, payments were assessed “according to their returns and incomings.” In the second year of Winthrop's fourth series of services as Governor, he had the satisfaction of giving his official sanction to a measure, the worth of which no man of that day could better estimate, though no estimate of that day could approach a just conception of its beneficent issues, as later time has revealed them. Not a word of such legislation as the following must be withheld from the reader:* Since the seventeenth year of Massachusetts, no child of hers has been able to say, that to him poverty has closed the book of knowledge, or the way to honor. “It being one chief project of that old deluder, Satan, to keep men from the knowledge of the Scriptures, as in former times by keeping them in an unknown tongue, so in these latter times by persuading from the use of tongues, that so at least the true sense and meaning of the original might be clouded by false glosses of saintseeming deceivers, – that learning may not be buried in the grave of our fathers in the church and commonwealth, the Lord assisting our endeavors, – “It is therefore ordered, that every township in this jurisdiction, after the Lord hath increased them to the number of fifty householders, shall then forthwith appoint one within their town to teach all such children as shall resort to him to write and read, whose wages shall be paid either by the parents or masters of such children, or by the inhabitants in general, by way of supply, as the major part of those that order the prudentials of the town shall appoint; provided those that send their children be not oppressed by paying much more than they can have them taught for in other towns. And it is further ordered, that when any town shall increase to the number of one hundred families or householders, they shall set up a grammar school, the master thereof being able to instruct youth so far as they may be fitted for the University; provided, that if any town neglect the performance hereof above one year, that every such town shall pay five pounds to the next school till they shall perform this order.”” Death had now begun to thin the ranks of the settlers of New England, and the career of some of the most illustrious among them was ended. The affluent and large-hearted George Willis, six years a Magistrate of Connecticut, and one year Governor, ..." had left a memory scarcely less cherished than ..., were to be the memories of the best of the fellow-laborers whom he had followed, or who followed him, to the grave. Of those associates, Thomas Hooker, if we may not assign to him precedence of the civil father of his Colony, was inferior in gifts and ..." graces to none. “The whole land,” wrote the §. contemporary chronicler of Plymouth, “sustained a great loss by the death of that most eminent servant of Jesus Christ. . . . . . His name will live, and is embalmed, and doth remain, and will be as a precious ointment in the churches and amongst the saints in present and future ages. This special servant of Christ, as he served his Master with great zeal, love, wisdom, and sincerity, so he ended his life with much comfort and serenity; so as it is rare that was said of him, that the peace which he had in believing, thirty years before his death, was firm, and not touched by the adversary until the period of his life; and, with much joy and peace in believing, he fell asleep in the Lord.” He had lived sixty-one years. His death was keenly felt throughout New England as a general calamity. He had been sharply opposed to Winthrop in the controversies which engaged their respective Colonies; but Winthrop was not a man to permit public or personal differences to obscure to him the duty, or despoil him of the satisfaction, of a cordial recognition of kindred excellence. After relating the ravages of an epidemic sickness in Massachusetts and Connecticut, he proceeds: “But that which made the stroke more sensible and grievous, both to them and to all the country, was the death of that faithful servant of the Lord, Mr. Thomas Hooker, pastor of the church in Hartford, who, for piety, prudence, wisdom, zeal, learning, and what else might make him serviceable in the place and time he lived in, might be compared with men of greatest note. And he shall need no other praise; the fruits of his labors in both Englands shall preserve an honorable and happy remembrance of him for ever.” In less than two years after recording this tribute to his friend, Winthrop was called to follow him.

* Winthrop, II, 259; comp. Mass.
Rec., II. 157.
* Mass. Rec., II. 168, 196, 209.
* Ibid., 217, 230.
* Ibid., 239. —I have not been able
to learn that any copy of this book ex-
ists. In October of the next year the
Court testified to its “finding by ex-
perience the great benefit that doth

redound to the country by putting of
the law in print.” (Ibid., 286.)
* Ibid., 82. After three years, this
tax was raised to fifty shillings. (Ibid.,
215.)
* Ibid., 106; comp. 246, 259,268.
* Ibid., 107; comp. 131. -
* Winthrop, II. 236; see above, Vol.
I. 583.

Institution of common schools. 1647. Nov. 11.

* Mass. Rec., II. 173.

* Ibid., 203. — The measure is all the more impressive for having originated in a general voluntary movement of the people in their several settlements. In 1645, Winthrop writes: “Divers free schools were erected, as at Roxbury.” (II. 215.) In 1644, the inhabitants of Dedham, “taking into consideration the necessity of providing some means

for the education of youth, did, by a unanimous consent, declare by vote their willingness to promote that work, promising to put to their hands to provide maintenance for a free school.” And they made for the purpose an appropriation of some lands, and of twenty pounds annually. (Haven, Historical Address, &c., 58.) Comp. Clapp, History of Dorchester,419–429. * Mass. Rec., II. 203.

*. Early in his sixty-second year, “he took a cold, ** which turned into a fever, whereof he lay sick

about a month,” and then closed his eyes upon a scene of rare prosperity, which he, laboring with many other good and able men, had been the chief instrument in creating. Close by a great thoroughfare of the happy city, which itself is but a part of his monument, a simple tablet, inscribed with his bright and venerable name, covers the grave in which his body was laid amidst universal mourning. Most of his ample fortune had been sacrificed in the public service, and of the rest he had been spoiled by a dishonest agent. The public gratitude made provision for his infant child." Nineteen years had passed since, disgusted with the despotism and bigotry that afflicted his home, he had come, in the prime of manhood, to the various sufferings and endless anxieties of subduing a “bare creation,” and of defending the fabric which he reared there against hostility from without and from within. He had not learned that, before he died, the infatuated King who had wrought such sorrow to him and his, had perished by the hand of public vengeance.” But he lived long enough to know that the party, of which he had been a not unhonored associate, was installed in absolute control of the affairs of his native country. And his last look abroad rested upon the tranquil and affluent dwellings of a flourishing Christian people, enjoying a virtual independence which well-nigh realized the longing of the best third of his life. The vital system of New England, as it had now been created, was complete. It had only thenceforward to grow, as the human body grows from childhood to graceful and robust maturity. The time that has now passed since Winthrop lived is

* Morton, Memorial, 237. — Cotton,
imagined to have had some rivalry with
Hooker in Massachusetts (see Vol. I.
446), wrote an elegy in eight stanzas,
of which the following are two: —
“”T was of Geneva's worthies said, with wonder,
(Those worthies three,) Farel was wont to thun-
der;
Viret, like rain, on tender grass to shower;
But Calvin, lively oracles to pour.

“All these in Hooker's spirit did remain,
A son of thunder, and a shower of rain,
A pourer forth of lively oracles,
In saving souls, the sum of miracles.”.

The Muse of Bulkley, minister of
Concord, also brought her tribute in a

longer “lamentation” over him. Ac-
cording to this,
“To sinners stout, which no law could bring
under,
To them he was a son of dreadful thunder;
Yet to sad souls, with sense of sin cast down,'
He was a son of consolation.”
If the verses are not graceful, the
feeling which prompted them was most
profound, reverential, and hearty.
* Winthrop, II. 310.
* Mather, Book II. Chap. IV. § 12.
— The last entry, which is a long one,
in Winthrop's Journal, bears the date
of January 11.

* Mass. Rec., II. 274; III. 161. — For “A List of the several heads under which were placed the several papers of greater or lesser public or private use of such writings as were left in honored Mr. Winthrop's study,” see Mass. Rec., III. 179. A committee, appointed by the General Court in the May after

VOL. II. 23

his death, reported the list in Octo-
ber.
* The intelligence was communi-
cated, as having just arrived, in a letter
from Roger Williams to Winthrop the
younger, at Pequod, dated from the
Narragansett country, May 26, 1649.
(Mass. Hist. Coll., XXIX. 286.)

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