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from time to time to determine the duty of the citizen on some passing occasion, the force soon expired, either by express provision, or by the nature of the obligation imposed. Alarms from the Indians, and altercations with the Dutch, shared, in the business of the Courts, with deliberations about the disposition of lands, the control of houses of public entertainment, the supervision of weights and measures, the purchase and distribution of arms, the regulation of ferries, the registration of births and marriages, the branding of swine and cattle, the laying out of highways, the fixing of prices, the administration of estates, the maintenance of ministers, contributions for the College, and a great variety of matters incident to the internal order and daily comfort of a forming community. The records of New-Haven Colony, for a period of nine years beginning with the first year of the Confederacy, are lost.” The records of the town, which ... were made out in great detail, indicate a course or of public administration of the same general tenor as that in Connecticut; for the condition of the two Colonies, and their occasions of legislation and of judicial procedure, were essentially alike. Something in the nature of a code, though elementary and less imperfect, was produced, when the town govern*** ment of New Haven ordered a collection to be made of such orders, of earlier date, as were of a permanent nature;” and there is some reason to believe, that, three or four years later, a digest was made by the colonial authority." Always wisely thoughtful for the rising

(Ibid., 97, 98) ‘Baggett Egleston, "Ibid., 105.-Plymouth adopted the generation, the town of New Haven, in the ninth year from its foundation, directed the reservation of a lot of land “commodious for a College, which they desired might be set up so soon as their ability should reach thereunto.” But more than fifty years passed before that wish could be fulfilled. The two western Colonies had been associated “in sending to procure a patent from the Parlia- ieu. ment.”” Before it could have been known that * * the joint movement was frustrated by the disaster to Lamberton's ship,” in which Mr. Gregson, charged with the application, had sailed for England, Connecticut renewed her endeavors for the much-desired object in another form. The Governor, the Deputy-Governor, Mr. Fenwick, and two other Magistrates, were ap- is: pointed by the General Court to “agitate the * * business; ” and Mr. Fenwick was desired, “if his occasions would permit, to go for England to endeavor the enlargement of the patent.” But as to a patent, no one of the three unchartered Colonies of the Confederacy had any success with the Parliament. At the end of its first twenty-five years, the importance of the town of Plymouth in relation to the rest of the Colony of that name had been much to: diminished. “Many having left the place, by * reason of the straitness and barrenness of the same, and their finding of better accommodations elsewhere, more suitable to their ends and minds, and sundry others still upon every occasion desiring their dismissions, the church began seriously to think whether it were not better jointly to remove to some other place, than to be thus weakened, and as it were insensibly dissolved." Many meetings and much consultation was held hereabout ; ” the

for bequeathing his wife to a young
man, was fined twenty shillings.” (Ibid.,
127.) “Cooper, for his misdemeanor
in inveigling the affections of Mr. Lee
his maid, without her master's con-
sent,” was sentenced “to pay Mr. Lee
twenty shillings, and twenty shillings'
fine to the country.” (Ibid., 142.)

same useful system, and improved upon
it by requiring also a registration of
burials. (Plym. Rec., II. 96.)
* The chasm is between April 3,
1644, and May 25, 1653. (N. H. Rec.,
I. iv.)
* N. H. Rec., I. 191 – 219.
* See below, p. 375.

* N. H. Rec., I. 376.-‘Mr. Pearce,” of New Haven, seems to have a claim to be commemorated as an amateur teacher. He “desired the plantation to take notice that, if any would send their children to him, he would instruct them in writing or arithmetic.” (Ibid., 156.)

Nor did military science fail to

be cultivated and extended. An ar-
tillery company was raised in 1644,
and was, from time to time, encouraged
by some honorable distinctions. (Ibid.,
141, 156–159, 187, 203, 204.)
* Ibid., 211; comp. 149.
* See Mather, Magnalia, Book L
Chap. VI.; Winthrop, II. 266, 328.
* Conn. Rec., I. 126, 128.

result of which was, that “the greater part con

sented to a removal,” and several families established themselves at Nauset, which town—the ninth in the Colony—took, a few years later, the name of Eastham.” “And thus was this poor church left, like an ancient mother, grown old, and forsaken of her children, though not in their affections, yet in regard of their bodily presence and personal helpfulness; her ancient members being most of them worn away by death, and these of later time being like children translated into other families, and she like a widow left only to trust in God. Thus she that had made many rich became herself poor.” But if the town had suffered a decline, and the church was dispersed, the Colony, in the measure of its scanty means, was prosperous and efficient. No member of the Confederacy was more prompt in its offerings to the common welfare. At the time of the muster for the invasion of the Narragansett country, the troops of Standish's command “were at Seekonk, the place of their rendezvous, eight or ten days before the rest were ready.” Plymouth was near Cape Cod, and Stamford was near Hudson's River; but no sooner was it heard at Plymouth that “injurious practices, to the murdering of some of the English,” had been committed by the natives at Stamford, than forty men, with Standish at their head, were provided for a three months' campaign against the Mohawks, and received orders to be in instant readiness to march.”


* Bradford, 425. “Ibid., 434; comp. Plym. Rec., II. * Plym. Rec., II. 167. 63 – 65.

* Bradford, 427. * Plym. Rec., II. 145


AN animated dispute grew up between the three smaller Colonies on the one side, and Massachusetts on the other, occasioned by a law which had been made by Connecticut in order to fulfil her contract with George Fenwick for the purchase of the fort at Saybrook." The reader will remember that the all-important measure of confederation had been delayed by “divers differences” between Massachusetts and the company which first emigrated from her territory to the west.” One of these related to Pynchon's settlement at Springfield, where the Connecticut people “went on to exercise their authority,” while Massachusetts claimed the place as within her chartered limits.” Among other arrangements made by Connecticut for the collection of an export duty to pay the debt incurred to Fenwick, officers ::... were appointed to give clearances at Windsor, .** Hartford, and Wethersfield; and the fort was to ... “make stay” of vessels which did not produce “a note or certificate from them.” The traders from Springfield, the other river town, refused to pay the duty, on the ground of their belonging to the jurisdiction of Massachusetts. The prescribed penalty was confiscation of the property, “the execution whereof.” Connecticut “deferred until the judgment of the Commissioners of the other Colonies might be understood in the premAppeal to ises.” She accordingly brought the question to commis before that body, representing that the puro: pose of the impost was “chiefly to maintain the loo, fort for security and conveniency,” and that pt. 2 a. Springfield had in its proportion the same benefit" as the other towns. The Commissioners were of the same opinion; but, as Massachusetts had given her representatives no instructions touching the matter, they postponed the consideration of it.” A special session was held the next summer at Boston. The fort had now been destroyed by fire. .." A written argument was delivered by both the setts. contending Colonies. That of Massachusetts ... was embodied in Resolves of her General Court, to the effect, — 1. that the people of Connecticut could not rightfully compel the inhabitants of another jurisdiction to contribute to a purchase of theirs; 2. that, if the question were only as to money for maintaining the fort at Saybrook, it was “not useful” to Springfield; 3. that it was unreasonable to claim from Englishmen of Springfield a payment not demanded of Dutchmen at

* See Vol. I. 605; comp. Conn. Rec., I. 266 – 272.

* See Vol. I. 626, note 2. — Since the publication of my first volume, a paper of prime importance in respect to the making of the confederation has been printed in the first volume of the Collections of the Connecticut Historical Society, by Mr. J. Hammond Trumbull, from the original, disinterred by him from the chaos of the Archives of Massachusetts. It is the answer which, in the autumn of 1638, Hooker made to Winthrop's letter mentioned in my note above referred to. The warmth of its tone is such as forbids the reader to wonder that some time had to pass before the confederation could proceed. Hooker complains that he and his friends were represented in Massachusetts as “poor rash-headed creatures, who rushed

themselves into a war with the heathen
[the Pequot war], and, had we [Massa-
chusetts] not rescued them, they had
been utterly undone;” that in Mas-
sachusetts, and in England by her
friends, emigrants had been dissuaded
from going to Connecticut; and that
the natives had been taught to hold
the planters along the river in inferior
respect. He disapproves the treaty
which, in October, 1636, Winthrop
had made with Miantonomo, and de-
nies that any obligation was imposed
by it on Connecticut. And he defends
the scruples which had delayed the
assent of Connecticut to the Articles of
Confederation, differing from his cor-
respondent in relation even to some
statements of fact.
* Winthrop, I. 285. Comp. Mass.
Rec., I. 321 ; Records, &c., in Hazard,
II. 81, 82, 112, 119.

* Conn. Rec., I. 120, 121; comp. * Ibid., 189. 170, where again only Hartford, Weth- * Records, &c., in Hazard, II. 72. ersfield, and Windsor are named.

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