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the dispute between Massachusetts and D'Aulnay. At Boston, at their third meeting, they ratified the loss. treaty which had been provisionally made be- *** tween these parties;" and, for greater security, a special messenger was despatched to obtain a renewal of the Frenchman's subscription.” This he refused until the new controversy that had arisen should be composed. The General Court of Massachusetts (the Commissioners being no longer in session) then determined to send the Lieutenant-Governor, with Mr. William Hathorne and Mr. Daniel Dennison, to treat with him at Penobscot. D'Aulnay was too courteous to receive such an embassy without an expensive hospitality; and, being ill able to put himself to such a charge, he proposed on his part that the negotiation should take place at Boston.” Thither accordingly Marie, the former envoy, came, with two associates. The business occupied a week. The old complaints and explanations were mutually revived and discussed. At length, an agreement was reached for “all injuries and demands to be remitted, and so a final peace to be concluded,” on the condition of “a small present to M. D'Aulnay in satisfaction” of an act of violence committed by a Boston shipmaster, which the Magistrates did not undertake to justify."

1646. May.

Sept. 20.

* Records of the United Colonies, in Hazard, II. 53, 54; comp. above, p. 149. * Mass. Rec., III.44. The messenger was Mr. Bridges. (Winthrop, II. 259.) A translation of the Latin reply which he brought back from D’Aulnay is in Mass. Hist. Coll., XXVII. 109. * Winthrop, II. 259, 260, 266, 267. “Ibid., 273–275; comp. 135. The French visitors were entertained with ceremony. They were escorted daily to and from the place of conference. They were lodged and dieted at the public charge, “and the Governor accompanied them always at meals.” They

passed one Sunday in Boston, and were informed “that all men either came to the public meetings, or kept themselves quiet in their houses.” “They continued private all that day until sunset,” at the Governor's house, “and made use of such books, Latin and French, as he had, and the liberty of a private walk in his garden, and so gave no of fence. The two first days after their arrival, their pinnace kept up her flag in the main-top;" after which time, on a courteous intimation from the Governor, it was struck.

These transactions are of little interest except as showing with what freedom the Confederacy — or, as the case might be, Massachusetts, acting for it—took the position of an independent power." On her western border, New England had foreign relations of a more practical description to oversee and adjust. The Dutch at New Netherland were, from time to time, asserting *... a claim which the English colonists considered .* themselves to be under obligations alike of honor and of interest to fend off, at least as long as their friends in England were too busy to give it their attention. The New-Haven people having set up a trading-house some ten miles northwestwardly from their town,” the 1616. Dutch Governor wrote to the Governors of Mas** sachusetts and New Haven to remonstrate against what he represented as an encroachment on his domain.” The business came before the Federal Commissioners, who sent a messenger to New Amsterdam, to declare their approbation of the proceeding of their friends at New Haven, and to make a counter complaint of misbehavior on the part of the Dutch at Hartford." Kieft, the Governor of the Dutch, was soon after displaced;" and his successor, Peter Stuyvesant, being arrived at the Manhattoes, sent his secretary to Boston, bearing a letter to the Governor, “with tender of all courtesy and good correspondency.” Some of the Commissioners would have met his overture with cordiality; but, as in the letter he “laid claim to all between Connecticut and Delaware,” the Commissioners from the western Colonies “thought otherwise, supposing it would be more to their advantage to stand upon terms of distance. And answer was returned accordingly, only taking notice of his offer, and showing our readiness to give him a meeting in time and place convenient.” It complained at the same time of the sale of arms and ammunition by the Dutch to the Indians, and of the extortion by them of high duties from English traders. A serious occasion of resentment occurred when Stuyvesant, by a stratagem, captured a Dutch vessel in New-Haven harbor for an alleged evasion of certain payments due to his government.” The Commissioners were not sure that the charge was not well founded. But it in no sort justified the outrage on friendly territory; and the Dutch Governor had even gone so far as to intimate a claim to “the place, and so all along the sea-coast to Cape Cod,” and had directed his letter to “New Haven in the Netherlands.” Three servants of his, who had come to New Haven, were there imprisoned. He wrote to demand their restitution, which was refused.* While new in his place, Stuyvesant had misunderstood the proprieties and the capacities of his situation. A better acquaintance with it tended to lower his tone; and he now wrote to the Governor of Massachusetts, leis. proposing to submit to him and the Goyernor of * Plymouth the matters in dispute between New Haven and New Netherland, “with some kind of retractation of his former claim.” The General Court was consulted, who “thought the matter more weighty and general to the concernment of all the country, than that anything

Sept. 7.


* Chalmers saw plainly this bearing * Winthrop, II. 268. of the subject. (Annals, &c., 178, 181, * Records, &c., in Hazard, II. 54182; Revolt, &c., 88.) 58; comp. 68–72.

* It was at Paugusset (now Derby) * Winthrop thought it a providential on the Naugatuck, at, or near, the visitation, that Kieft, on his homeward junction of that river with the Housa- voyage, was wrecked and drowned. tonic. (N. Y. Hist. Coll., II. 273.) (II. 386.)

Aug. 17.


* Winthrop, II. 314. For the letter, * See N. H. Rec., I. 511–530, for see Records, &c., in Hazard, II. 97. a collection of letters which passed, at * N. H. Rec., I. 508, 511, 515; this time, between New Haven and the O'Callaghan, New Netherland, II, 48. Dutch Governor; comp. 361, 418. * Records, &c., in Hazard, II. 132.

should then be determined about it, and more fit for the Commissioners first to consider of" Stuyvesant was getting more and more uneasy as to the issue of the quarrel he had provoked, “both in regard of the weakness the State of Holland, especially the West-India Company, were fallen into, . . . . . and also in respect of the doubts which he was fallen into at this time, both from his own unruly people, and also of their neighbor Indians; ” and he was importunate for a reconciliation." At their next meeting, the Commissioners addressed to him a joint letter, inquiring what it was that he proposed to refer, and what credentials he could produce from his principals, and reiterating their complaints of the dangerous practices of the Dutch with the Indians, and of the exorbitant duties levied by him upon commerce.” They informed him that, until some accommodation should be made, Dutch traders would be subjected to the same liabilities in the harbors of New England, as were imposed upon Englishmen in New Netherland; that they should seize all arms and ammunition, suitable for trading with the Indians, which they might find in Dutch vessels within the English jurisdiction; and that they should strictly retaliate any injustice done “to any merchant or mariner, either English, Dutch, or other nation, admitted to be planters within any of the United Colonies,” and should “vindicate the English rights by all suitable and just means.” There was no reason to doubt that they would be as good as their word, and that, in their assumed plenitude of authority, they would act with promptness. But such a course would not do for Stuyvesant. He could not take the responsibility of involving his superiors in the consequences which might ensue. He wrote home, asking instructions, and urging that a settlement of the dispute should be made in Europe And here it rested for the present.

* Winthrop, II. 316, 324, 325, 329. * Records, &c., in Hazard, II. 102–105.

Sept. 16.

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WHEN Winslow went to England as agent for Massachusetts, to counteract the plots of Gorton and Child and their respective associates, eleven years had passed since the last of his three previous voyages to that country." He might now promise himself a more agreeable position there than he had occupied on the earlier occasions. Formerly he had had in charge an humble suit to a domineering Privy Council, and a vexatious negotiation with some London merchants about the investment of a few thousand pounds. The cause of a community beginning to be confident in its power was now to be pleaded by him in the hearing of rulers of England, whom he could trust for that devotion to freedom, civil and religious, which, while it had nerved some of its votaries for their triumph at home, had still earlier conducted others to a distant exile. He arrived in England in the els month in which the King was surrendered by o the Scottish army to the English Parliament, and Tiso." two months before the question about disband- “” ing the troops provoked the open quarrel between the Independents and the Presbyterians.

His proceedings in relation to the dispute of the authorities of Massachusetts with the Presbyterians in that Colony were related in the last chapter. The intrigues of Gorton, Greene, and Holden had demanded the agent's still earlier attention. As Child and his party relied upon the Presbyterians for support, so in the Levellers and Ranters, whom the strong hand of Cromwell, after help

* See Wol. I. pp. 215, 341, 542. WOL. II. 18

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