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the Houses of Parliament; and, frightened or emboldened by their clamor, the Houses cancelled their recent proceedings, and passed a vote inviting the King to Westminster. Depositing him at Hampton Court, Fairfax advanced the army a second time to the City; and now to more purpose. Ten thousand men had there been arrayed to oppose him; but their commanders — men so distinguished as Massey, Waller, and Poyntz—could not rouse them to any resolution. Fairfax pushed ... on his troops by a rapid march, and proceeded *... to occupy Westminster. The question of power between Presbyterians and Independents — between the Parliament and the army —was a question no longer. Two or three years had passed since the strife became overt; it was not yet formally brought to an end; but henceforward the party which had so suddenly emerged to greatness was in a condition to prescribe the terms of settlement. In such a division, it was natural for the King to flatter himself that each side would be disposed to bid high for his favor. At the same time, even with his imperfect knowledge of what was passing, he could not but see which side was the stronger; and he began to court the army, and to entertain a sanguine hope of its support. The cause of the rupture of the negotiations into which at this time he entered with its leaders remains obscure. But whether it was, that he unreasonably distrusted their sincerity; or that he again had hopes of crushing both parties, and preferred that chance; or that Cromwell, Ireton, and their confidants, intended only to delude and use him ; or that, on further experience, they became satisfied that he could not, under any securities, be trusted; or that, with a real desire to make a composition with him, they found themselves at last unable to command in such a proceeding the support of their followers; — however these things were, the King became anxious as to the dispositions of those in whose power he lived, and resolved a second time to seek safety in flight. With three attendants, he reached the Isle of Wight, The king, and there surrendered himself to the Parliamen- . tary Governor, Colonel Hammond, being proba- Wish". bly determined to that course by the fact that "" Hammond was the nephew of one of his chaplains. The Governor lodged him in Carisbrook Castle, and caused him to be entertained with respect. Suspicions of the purpose of the officers who had been treating with the King raised a mutiny in the army, which with some difficulty was quelled by Fairfax and Cromwell. A reconciliation was sealed by an engagement to bring the King to justice." The time for the consummation of that project had not come; and for the present he was only subjected to severer restraint, the leaders having such confidence in the fidelity of Hammond as to feel satisfied that he would be securely kept* The Scottish Commissioners to Parliament, whom it was not yet prudent to affront, were permitted to visit the King at Carisbrook, and used their opportunity to negotiate with him anew. Alarmed by the progress of the adverse interest in the sects and in the army, they consented to make a large abatement from the rigor of their former demands. Instead of requiring him to take the Covenant and engage to establish Presbytery, they agreed to accept his promise, that, if restored to power, he would favor that discipline as far as his conscience would allow, and that he would at once acquiesce in its establishment as the national, but not the exclusive, religion of England for three years. A treaty on this basis was secretly signed, and the Commissioners went jhome to animate Scotland against the Indepen*...*, dents and for the King. The strict Presbyterians of that kingdom, with the Earl of Argyll at their head, were dissatisfied with the bargain. The party of the Commissioners, under the lead of the Duke of Hamilton, prevailed in the Scottish Parliament, and a levy of forty thousand troops was ordered. The enlistments, however, went on heavily, and not half that force was actually raised. Arrangements had been quietly made for a simultaneous rising in England of the royalists and other malesecond civil contents; and, in the spring after the treaty with "isis, the Scots, what is called the Second War of this ** period began by an insurrection at Pembroke, in Wales. The Scots moved too slowly; and, before it became necessary to encounter them, there proved to be time effectually to suppress ill-managed outbreaks in the west, south, and east of the kingdom. Cromwell left little danger behind him when he moved to intercept the invasion from the north. At Preston, in Lancashire, with *..., nine thousand of his veterans, he met the Duke *::: of Hamilton, at the head of a force of some “ twenty thousand men. Cromwell's victory was complete. Of the enemy two thousand were killed, eight or nine thousand taken prisoners, and the rest scattered in all directions. Within a fortnight the town of Colchester, the chief position of the insurgents, surrendered to Fairfax, and the second war of arms was finished. Availing themselves of the absence of the army, Parliament resorted once more to negotiation with j the King. He was conducted from Carisbrook ;: to Newport, where he was met by a commission consisting of five Lords and fifteen members of
* Clarendon, III. 67–71. Commissary-General Ireton, &c., relat
* A collection, published in London, ing to King Charles the First, while he in 1764, of “Letters between Colonel was confined in Carisbrook Castle, in Robert Hammond, Governor of the Isle that Island,” is full of interest. Three of Wight, and the Committee of Lords letters of Cromwell to Hammond (22, and Commons at Derby House, General 40, 101) are highly characteristic. The Fairfax, Lieutenant-General Cromwell, last is long and elaborate.
the Lower House. Their fear of the rival party made it impossible for them to approach him with the indulgence to which probably most of them would not now have been disinclined;" and, though they brought him to an accommodation upon several points, they insisted upon some engagements — particularly for the final abolition of the episcopal order—which he could not bring himself to make. The Commissioners went their way. The last attempt at reconciliation seemed to have been made. The army, stronger, more confident and more determined from its recent achievements, was again at leisure. Part of it was in Scotland and in the North with Cromwell. The rest had mostly been drawn near to the metropolis. They sent a “Remonstrance” to the Commons,
praying, among other things, “that the King be lo.
brought to justice, as the capital cause of all the "... troubles” of the kingdom.” Affairs now grew pressingly serious for both the King and the Parliament. With bitter misgivings Charles brought himself to consent that bishops should be suspended from their functions till the sovereign and the Parliament should agree to restore them. The effect of this concession was seen when, after ten days' deliberation and advisement in the House of Commons, “the question whether the Remonstrance of the army should be taken into speedy consideration, was by ninety votes resolved in the negative.” This decision had been anticipated; and, on the day when it was announced, the King was taken from the island by a detachment from the camp, and conveyed to Hurst Castle, a fortress standing on a peninsular rock, near Lymington on the opposite shore. The next day Parliament was informed that the army was in rapid march towards the city. A message forbidding ...” any nearer approach was forthwith sent; but be*... fore another sunrise Westminster had been occupied by the troops. This violence did not prevent the passing of a vote by the Commons, after a debate of three days and a night, “that his Majesty's concessions to the propositions of the Parliament upon the treaty are sufficient grounds for settling the peace of the kingdom.” Two hundred and twelve members voted, and the majority was forty-six. The next morning the members, on the way to their Pride's places, found themselves confronted by a regiPurge. ment of horse and a regiment of foot, drawn up in Palace Yard, the latter under the command of Colonel Pride, whose name remains attached to the transaction. Forty-one members of the majority were stopped and turned back; many others had received intelligence of what was going on, and did not present themselves; more than a hundred places remained vacant in the expurgated House. Cromwell arrived from the North on the evening of the same day. Opposition was over, and events might now follow each other rapidly, as the will of the dominant party should give them shape. The House raised a committee of thirty-eight members to draw up charges against the King, who on the same day was brought to Windsor under a military escort. On receiving the committee's report, the House constituted .." a High Court of Justice to try him for high treason. ... A refusal by the Lords to concur was met by unanimous votes, – 1. that “the people, under God, are the original of all just power; 2. that the Commons of England assembled in Parliament, being chosen by and representing the people, have the supreme authority of this nation; 3. that whatsoever is enacted
* Lord Say and Sele, however, and * See the “Chief Heads of the Sir Henry Vane, were on the commis- Remonstrance,” in Whitelocke, 355; sion. Rushworth, VII. 1331.
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