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SECTION 2. 1. The judicial power shall extend to all cases, in law and equity, arising under this constitution, the laws of the United States and treaties made, or which shall be made, under their authority; to all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls; to all cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction; to controversies to which the United States shall be a party; to controversies between two or more states, between a state and citizens of another state, between citizens of different states, between citizens of the same state, claiming lands under grants of different states, and between a state, or the citizens thereof, and foreign states, citizens or subjects.
2. In all cases, affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, and those in which a state shall be party, the supreme court shall have original jurisdiction. In all the other cases before mentioned, the supreme court shall have appellate jurisdiction, both as to law and fact, with such exceptions, and under such regulations, as the congress shall make.
3. The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by jury: and such trial shall be held in the state where the said crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any state, the trial shall be at such place or places, as the congress may by law have directed.
SECTION 3. 1. Treason against the United States, shall consist only in levying war against them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason, unless on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in
open court. 2. The congress shall have power to declare the
punishment of treason: but no attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood or forfeiture, except during the life of the person attainted,
SECTION 1. 1. Full faith and credit shall be given in each state, to the public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of a every other state. And the congress may, by general
laws, prescribe the manner in which such acts, records, ant and proceedings shall be proved, and the effect thereof. "; 1
SECTION 2. 1. The citizens of each state shall be entitled to all privileges and immunities of citizens in the several
2. A person charged in any state with treason, felony, or other crime, who shall flee from justice, and be found in another state, shall, on demand of the executive authority of the state from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the state having jurisdiction of the crime.
3. No person, held to service or labor in one state, under the laws, thereof, escaping into another, shall, in consequence of any law, or regulation therein, be dis
charged from such service or labor; but shall be delivch ered
up on claim of the party to whom such service or
2. The congress shall have power to dispose of and make all needful rules and regulations respecting the territory or other property belonging to the United States: And nothing in this constitution shall be so construed, as to prejudice any claims of the United
States, or of any particular state. !
SECTION 4. 1. The United States shall guaranty to every state
in this Union, a republican form of government; and shall protect each of them against invasion; and on application of the legislature, or of the executive, (when the legislature cannot be convened) against domestic violence.
ARTICLE V. 1. The congress, whenever two thirds of both houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose amendments to this constitution; or, on the application of two thirds of the legislatures of the several states, shall call a convention for proposing amendments, which, in either case, shall be valid, to all intents and purposes, as part of this constitution, when ratified by the legislatures of three fourths of the several states, or by conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other mode of ratification may be proposed by the congress; provided, that no amendment which may be made prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight, shall in any manner affect the first and fourth clauses in the ninth section of the first article; and that no state without its consent, shall be deprived of its equal suffrage in the senate.
ARTICLE VI. 1. All debts contracted, and engagements entered into, before the adoption of this constitution, shall be as valid against the United States, under this constitution, as under the confederation.
2. This constitution, and the laws of the United States which shall be made in pursuance thereof, and all treaties made, or which shall be made, under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme law of the land; and the judges in every state, shall be bound thereby, any thing in the constitution or laws of any state to the contrary notwithstanding.
3. The senators and representatives before mention ed, and the members of the several state legislatures, and all executive and judicial officers, both of the United States and of the several states, shall be bound
by an oath or affirmation to support this constitution; but no religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under the United States.
ARTICLE VII. 1. The ratification of the conventions of nine states shall be sufficient for the establishment of this constitu- : tion between the states so ratifying the same. Done in convention, by the unanimous consent of the states present, the
seventeenth day of September, in the year of our Lord, one thousand seven hundred and eighty-seven, and of the independence of the United States of America the twelfth. In witness whereof, we have hereunto subscribed our names.
President, and deputy from Virginia. NEW HAMPSHIRE.
Daniel of St. Tho. Jenifer, NEW YORK.
James Madison, jun.
Richard Dobbs Spaight, PENNSYLVANIA.
Charles C. Pinckney,
WILLIAM JACKSON, SEC'RY.
AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION.
ARTICLE I. Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.
ARTICLE II. A well-regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed.
ARTICLE III. No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without the consent of the owner; nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.
ARTICLE IV. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated; and no warrants shall issue but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.
ARTICLE V. No, person shall be held to answer for a capital or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service, in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be subject, for the same offence, to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled, in