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Changes from 1940 were few. Special pains were taken in the 1950 census, however, to distinguish among institutions, households, and quasi households (five or more nonrelatives of the head, other than employees). College students were to be enumerated where they lived while attending school, rather than where their homes were located. Members of the Armed Forces who slept off post would be counted where they slept rather than where they were stationed. The instructions continued to allow anyone to be designated as head of the household for relationship purposes, but if a woman was listed as head and her husband was present, he was reclassified as the head when the completed schedule was reviewed in the office. (At the time, the number of such cases was relatively small.)

the family represented a group of two or more persons related by blood, marriage, or adoption. A household could contain one or more families, or none, but would occupy only one dwelling unit (quarters with separate cooking equipment or (new for 1950) a separate entrance.) As in 1940, there was a separate form a respondent could use to report income. However, this was now a selfmailing piece (form P6) which the householder was asked to complete and post (rather than hand it to the enumerator). A supplemental schedule (form P8) was used to obtain additional information on Indian reservations. In addition to entering each person's name as it appeared on the regular schedule, the enumerator wrote in any other name(s) by which that person was known.

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FOR ALL FOR NONFARM FOR NONFARM
VACANTI VACANT UNITS | UNITS OCCUPIED |

FOR NONFARM UNITS OCCUPIED
UNITS ONLY
BY OWNER

BY RENTER
17 18 19 20 21 22

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Instructions to Enumerators—Housing
The census takers continued to define "nondwelling-unit
quarters" (item 3) as they had in 1940, including as dwell-
ing units those places with fewer than 10 lodgers. How-
ever, in subsequent office coding, any residence with 5 to
9 lodgers was reclassified as a nondwelling unit and
excluded from the housing inventory. Vacant trailers,
tents, boats, etc., were not enumerated.

There were detailed instructions for classifying various
facilities (such as plumbing), equipment, and rooms for
inclusion in the census.
In item 7 (condition of unit), the enumerator had to decide
whether or not the place was "dilapidated,” which, in con-
junction with the information on plumbing facilities (items
10-13) would provide an indicator of housing quality. The
reference manual had a special illustrated section devoted
to item 7 and training was augmented with a filmstrip.
With this background, "dilapidated" or "not dilapidated"

was to be checked without asking the householder about
the condition of the unit. The decision was to be made on
the basis of observation, looking for critical and minor
housing deficiencies or for the adequacy of the original
construction. A dilapidated unit, the census taker was
told, was "below the generally accepted minimum stan-
dard for housing." It failed to protect the occupants from
the elements or endangered their health or safety. It could
be dilapidated because it had been neglected or because
the original construction had been inadequate in the first
place. A unit was not to be reported as "dilapidated" sim-
ply because it was old or dingy, nor was it “not dilapi-
dated" because it happened to be freshly painted or
shingled over.
Items 14 and 15 were five different sets of questions, and
each household answered the set found on the line on
which it was enumerated (thus constituting a 20-percent
sample for these items).

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The responses supplied by householders to the inquiries shown below were transcribed by enumerators to machine-readable forms, 141/8" X 17 1/4," which were the official 1960 schedules.

ties also were to be considered White. Asian Indians were to be classified as "Other," and "Hindu" written in.

Instructions

For the population inquiries, questions P3-P7 were asked for all persons, but the other items (P8ff.) were collected on a 25-percent basis. In 1960, the housing unit or the group quarters (the dwelling or nondwelling units in 1950) was the sampling unit, so that everyone living in that unit fell in the sample. There were special procedures for sampling persons in institutions and similar facilities, however. A unit with five or more lodgers or six unrelated individuals (one of whom was designated as head) was classified as “group quarters." The month of birth (P6) was collected for everyone, but only the quarter was transcribed to the official schedule. The instructions for completing P5 (race or color) by observation directed that Puerto Ricans, Mexicans, or other persons of Latin descent would be classified as "White" unless they were definitely Negro, Indian, or some

The husband of a married couple was always to be listed as the head of the household if he was present. Housing questions H3-H16 were asked for all housing units, and the others (H17H46) on either a 25., 20., or 5-percent sample basis. (The 20- and 5-percent samples were subdivisions of the 25-percent selection.) Questions on the presence of a kitchen sink and electric lighting, and the type of refrigerator asked in 1950 were omitted. A number of new sample items were added, however, mainly on facilities and equipment, and detailed instructions were supplied. In question H6 (condition), the category "Not dilapidated" was subdivided into "sound" (in good repair) and "deteriorating" (in need of repair), and the enumerator was given a list of "slight," "intermediate," and "critical" defects by which a determination could be made. As before, vacant trailers, boats, etc., were not enumerated.

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