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Instructions to Enumerators
92. Column 1.—Number of dwelling house in order of visitation. In this column the first dwelling house you visit should be numbered as "1," the second as "2," and so on until the enumeration of your district is completed. The number should always be entered opposite the name of the first person enumerated in each dwelling house, and should not be repeated for other persons or other families living in the same house.
93. Dwelling house defined.—A dwelling house, for census purposes, is a place in which, at the time of the census, one or more persons regularly sleep. It need not be a house in the usual sense of the word, but may be a room in a factory, store, or office building, a loft over a stable, a boat, a tent, a freight car, or the like. A building like a tenement or apartment house counts as only one dwelling house, no matter how many persons or families live in it. A building with a partition wall through it and a front door for each of the two parts, however, counts as two dwelling houses. But a two-apartment house with one apartment over the other and a separate front door for each apartment counts as only one dwelling house.
94. Column 2. Number of family in order of visitation.—In this column number the families in your district in the order in which they are enumerated, entering the number opposite the name of the head of EACH family. Thus the first family you visit should be numbered as "1," the second as "2," and so on, until the enumeration of your district is completed.
95. Family defined.—The word "family," for census purposes, has a somewhat different application from what it has in popular usage. It means a group of persons living together in the same dwelling place. The persons constituting this group may or may not be related by ties of kinship, but if they live together forming one household they should be considered as one family. Thus a servant who sleeps in the house or on the premises should be included with the members of the family for which he or she works. Again,
a boarder or lodger should be included with the members of the family with which he lodges; but a person who boards in one place and lodges or rooms at another should be returned as a member of the family at the place where he lodges or rooms.
96. It should be noted, however, that two or more families may occupy the same dwelling house without living together. If they occupy separate portions of the dwelling house and their housekeeping is entirely separate, they should be returned as separate families.
97. Boarding-house families.—All the occupants and employees of a hotel, boarding house, or lodging house, if that is their usual place of abode, make up, for census purposes, a single family. But in an apartment or tenement house, there will usually be as many families as there are separate occupied apartments or tenements, even though use may be made of a common cafe or restaurant.
98. Institutional families.—The officials and inmates of an institution who live in the institution building or group of buildings form one family. But any officers or employees who sleep in detached houses or separate dwelling places containing no inmates should be returned as separate families.
99. Persons living alone.—The census family may likewise consist of a single person. Thus a clerk in a store who regularly sleeps there is to be returned as a family and the store as his dwelling place.
NAME AND RELATION
100. Column 3. Name of each person enumerated.—Enter the name of every person whose usual place of abode on April 15, 1910, waswith the family or in the dwelling place for which the enumeration is being made. In determining who is to be included with the family, follow instructions in paragraphs 95 to 99.
101. Order of entering names.—Enter the member of each family in the following order, namely: Head first, wife second, then children (whether sons or daughters) in the order of their ages, and lastly, all other persons living with the family, whether relatives, boarders, lodgers, or servants.
102. How names are to be written.—Enter first the last name or surname, then the given name in full, and the initial of the middle name, if any. Where the surname is the same as that of the person in the preceding line do not repeat the name, but draw a horizontal line ( ) under the name above.
103. Column 4. Relationship to head of
family.—Designate the head of the family, whether
104. Occupants of an institution or school, living under a common roof, should be designated as officer, inmate, pupil, patient, prisoner, etc.; and in the case of the chief officer his title should be used, as warden, principal, superintendent, etc., instead of the word "Head."
105. If two or more persons share a common abode as partners, write head for one and partner for the other or others.
106. In the case of a hotel or boarding or lodging house family (see paragraph 97), the head of the family is the manager or the person who keeps the hotel or boarding or lodging house.
107. Column 5. Sex.—Write "M" for male and "F" for female.
108. Column 6. Color or race.—Write "W for white; "B" for black; "Mu" for mulatto; "Ch" for Chinese; "Jp" for Japanese; "In" for Indian. For all persons not falling within one of these classes, write "Ot" (for other), and write on the left-hand margin of the schedule the race of the person so indicated.
109. For census purposes, the term "black" (B) includes all persons who are evidently fullblooded negroes, while the term "mulatto" (Mu) includes all other persons having some proportion or perceptible trace of negro blood.
110. Column 7. Age at last birthday.—This question calls for the age in completed years at last birthday. Remember, however, that the age question, like all other questions on the schedule, relates to April 1 5, 1910. Thus a person whose exact age on April 1 5, the census day, is 1 7 years, 11 months, and 25 days should be returned simply as 1 7, because that is his age at last birthday prior to April 1 5, although at the time of your visit he may have completed 18 years.
111. Age in round numbers.—In many cases persons will report the age in round numbers, like 30 or 45, or "about 30" or "about 45," when that is not the exact age. Therefore, when an age ending in 0 or 5 is reported, you should ascertain whether it is the exact age. If, however, it is impossible to get the exact age, enter the approximate age rather than return the age as unknown.
11 2. Ages of children.—Take particular pains to get the exact ages of children. In the case of a child not 2 years old, the age should be given in completed months, expressed as twelfths of a year. Thus the age of a child 3 months old should be entered as 3/12, a child 7 months old as 7/12, a child 1 year and 3 months old as 1 3/12, etc. If a child is not yet a month old, enter the age as 0/12. But note again that this question should be answered with reference to April 1 5. For instance, a child who is just a year old on the 1 7th of April, 1910, should nevertheless be returned as 11/12, because that is its age in completed months on April 1 5.
11 3. Column 8. Whether single, married, widowed, or
divorced. Write "S" for single or unmarried persons;
114. Persons who were single on April 1 5 should be so reported, even though they may have married between that date and the day of your visit; and, similarly, persons who become widowed or divorced after April 1 5 should be returned as married if that was their condition on that date.
11 5. Column 9. Number of years of present
marriage.—This question applies only to persons
I 16. Column 1 0. Number of children born.—This ques
tion applies to women who are now married, or
II 7. Column 1 1. Number of children now living.—This
refers again only to the children which the woman
NATIVITY AND MOTHER TONGUE
118. Column 1 2. Place of birth of this person. If the
person was born in the United States, give the state
should be reported as so born, although at the time of his birth the particular region may have had a different name. Do not abbreviate the names of states and territories.
119. If the person was born outside the United States,
enter the country (not city or district) in which born.
1 20. Instead of Great Britain, write Ireland, England, Scotland, or Wales.
121. For persons bor n in the double Kingdom of AustriaHungary, be sure to distinguish Austria from Hungary. For person born in Finland, write Finland and not "Russia." For persons born in Turkey, be sure to distinguish Turkey in Europe from Turkey in Asia.
1 22. Do not rely upon the language spoken to determine birthplace. This is especially true of Germans, for over one-third of the Austrians and nearly threefourths of the Swiss speak German. In the case of persons speaking German, therefore, inquire carefully whether the birthplace was Germany, Switzerland, Austria, or elsewhere.
123. If the person was born abroad, but of American parents, write in column 12 both the birthplace and Am. cit — that is, American citizen. If the person was born at sea, write At sea.
124. Mother tongue.—The question "What is your mother tongue or native language?" should be asked of all persons who were born in any foreign country, and the answer should be written in column 12, after the name of the country of birth. In order to save space, the abbreviations (indicated on separate "List of foreign countries") should be used for the country of birth, but the language given as the mother tongue should be written out in full. In returning the mother tongue observe the rules laid down in paragraphs 134 to 143.
1 25. For example, if a person reports that he was bor n in Russia and that his mother tongue is Lithuanian, write in column 12 Russ.—Lithuanian; or if a person reports that he was born in Switzerland and that his mother tongue is German, write Switz.—German.
126. Note that the name of the mother tongue must be given even when it is the same as the language of the country in which the person was born. Thus, if a person reports that he was born in England and that his mother tongue is English, write Eng.— English; or if a person reports that he was born in Germany and that his mother tongue is German, write Ger.—German. This is necessary to distinguish such persons from others born in the same country but having a different mother tongue.
127. The question of mother tongue should not be asked of any person born in the United States.
128. Columns 1 3 and 14. Place of birth of father and mother.—Enter in columns 13 and 14 the birthplace of the father and of the mother of the person whose own birthplace was entered in column 1 2. In designating the birthplace of the father and mother, follow the same instructions as for the person himself. In case, however, a person does not know the state or territory of birth of his father or mother but knows that he or she was born in the United States, write United States rather than "unknown."
129. Mother tongue of father and mother. Ask for the mother tongue of any parent born abroad and write down the answer in columns 13 and 14, following the instructions given for reporting the mother tongue of persons enumerated in column 12.
130. In short, whenever a person gives a foreign country as a birthplace of himself or either of his parents, before writing down that country ask for the mother tongue and write the answer to both questions in columns 12, 13, or 14, as the case may be, in the manner herein indicated.
131. Column 1 5. Year of immigration to the United States.—This question applies to all foreign-born persons, male and female, of whatever age. It should be answered, therefore, for every person whose birthplace as reported in column 1 2 was in a foreign country. Enter the year in which the person came to the United States. If he has been in the United States more than once, give the year of his first arrival.
132. Column 16. Whether naturalized or alien.—This question applies only to foreign-born males 21 years of age and over. It does not apply to females, to foreign-born minors, or to any male born in the United States. If the person was born abroad, but has become a full citizen, either by taking out a second or final papers of naturalization or through the naturalization of his parents while he was under the age of 21 years, write "Na" (for naturalized). If he has declared his intention to become an American citizen and has taken out his "first papers," write "Pa" (for papers). If he has taken no steps toward becoming an American citizen, write "Al" (for alien).
ABILITY TO SPEAK ENGLISH
133. Column 1 7. Whether able to speak English; or, if not, give language spoken.—This question applies to all persons 10 years of age and over. If such a person is able to speak English, write English. If he is not able to speak English—and in such cases only—write the name of the language which he does speak, as French, German, Italian. If he speaks
140. Write Croatian instead of "Hervat."
141. Write Little Russian instead of "Ukrainian."
142. Write Ruthenian instead of "Rosniak" or "Russine."
143. Write Roumanian instead of "Moldavian," "Wallachian," "Tsintsar," or "Kutzo-Vlach."
144. Column 1 8. Trade or profession.—An entry should be made in this column for every person enumerated. The occupation, if any, followed by a child, of any age, or by a woman is just as important, for census purposes, as the occupation followed by a man. Therefore it must never be taken for granted, without inquiry, that a woman, or child, has no occupation.
145. The entry in column 18 should be either (1) the occupation pursued—that is, the word or words which most accurately indicate the particular kind of work done by which the person enumerated earns money or a money equivalent, as physician, carpenter, dressmaker, night watchman, laborer, newsboy; or (2) own income; or (3) none (that is, no occupation).
146. The entry own income should be made in the case of all persons who follow no specific occupations but have an independent income upon which they are living.
147. The entry none should be made in the case of all persons who follow no occupation and who do not fall within the class to be reported as own income.
148. Persons retired or temporarily unemployed.—Care should be taken in making the return for persons who on account of old age, permanent invalidism, or otherwise are no longer following an occupation. Such persons may desire to return the occupations formerly followed, which would be incorrect. If living on their own income the return should be own income. If they are supported by other persons or institutions, the return should be none. On the other hand, persons out of employment when visited by the enumerator may state that they have no occupation, when the fact is that they usually have an occupation but merely happen to be idle or unemployed at the time of the visit. In such cases the return should be the occupation followed when the person is employed.
149. Persons having two occupations.If a person has two occupations, return only the more important one that is, the one from which he gets the more money. If you can not learn that, return the one at which he spends the more time. For example: Return a man
as farmer if he gets most of his income from farm-
1 50. Column 19. Industry.—An entry should be made in
151. The purpose of columns 1 8 and 19 is thus to bring out, on the one hand, in column 18, the specific occupation or work performed, if any, by each person enumerated, and on the other, in column 19, the character of the industry or place in which such work is performed.
1 52. Farm workers. Return a person in charge of a farm as a farmer, whether he owns it or operates it as a tenant, renter, or cropper; but a person who manages a farm for some one else for wages or a salary should be reported as a farm manager or farm overseer; and a person who works on a farm for some one else, but not as a manager, tenant, or cropper, should be reported as a farm laborer.
1 53. Women doing housework.—In the case of a woman doing housework in her own home, without salary or wages, and having no other employment, the entry in column 1 8 should be none. But a woman working at housework for wages should be returned in column 18 as housekeeper, servant, cook, or chambermaid, as the case may be; and the entry in column 19 should state the kind of place where she works, as private family, hotel, or boarding house. Or, if a woman, in addition to doing housework in her own home, regularlyearns money by some other occupation, whether pursued in her own home or outside, that occupation should be returned in columns 18 and 19. For instance, a woman who regularly takes in washing should be reported as laundress or washerwoman, followed in column 19 by at home.
1 54. Women doing farm work.—A woman working regularly at outdoor farm work, even though she works on the home farm for her husband, son, or other relative and does not receive money wages, should be returned in column 18 as a farm laborer. Distinguish, however, such women who work on the home farm from those who work away from home,
by writing in column 19 either home farm or working out, as the case may require. Of course, a woman who herself operates or runs a farm should be reported as a farmer, and not as a "farm laborer."
155. Children on farms.—In the case of children who work for their own parents on a farm, the entry in column 18 should be farm laborer and in column 19 home farm; but for children who work as farm laborers for others, the entry in column 19 should be working out.
1 56. Children working for parents.—Children who work for their parents at home merely on general household work, on chores, or at odd times on other work, should be reported as having no occupation. Those, however, who materially assist their parents in the performance of work other than household work should be reported as having an occupation.
1 57. Keeping boarders.—Keeping boarders or lodgers should be returned as an occupation if the person engaged in it relies upon it as his (or her) principal means of support or principal source of income. In that case the return should be keeper—boarding house or keeper—lodging house. If, however, a family keeps a few boarders or roomers merely as a means of supplementing or eking out the earnings or income obtained from other occupations or from other sources, no one in the family should be returned as a boarding or lodging house keeper.
1 58. Officers, employees, and inmates of institutions or homes.—For an officer or regular employee of an institution or home, such as an asylum, penitentiary, jail, reform school, convict camp, state farm worked by convicts, etc., return the occupation followed in the institution. For an inmate of such institution, if regularly employed, return the occupation pursued in the institution, whether the employment be at productive labor or at other duties, such as cooking, scrubbing, laundry work, etc.; but if an inmate is not regularly employed—that is, has not specific duties or work to perform, write none in column 18.
159. Avoid general or indefinite terms.—Give the occupation and industry precisely. For example, return a worker in a coal mine as a miner—coal mine, laborer—coal mine, driver—coal mine, etc., as the case may be.
160. The term "laborer" should be avoided if any more precise definition of the occupation can be secured. Employees in factories and mills, for example, usually have some definite designation, as weaver, roller, puddler, etc. Where the term "laborer" is used, be careful to define accurately the industry in column 19.