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partners, write head for one and partner for the

other or others. 106. In the case of a hotel or boarding or lodging house

family (see paragraph 97), the head of the family is the manager or the person who keeps the hotel or boarding or lodging house.

divorced. Write “S” for single or unmarried persons; "Wd" for widowed (man or woman); "D" for divorced; for married persons, inquire whether they have been married before, and if this is the first marriage, write "M1," but if this is the second or subsequent marriage, write “M2” (meaning married more than once).


114. Persons who were single on April 15 should be so

reported, even though they may have married between that date and the day of your visit; and, similarly, persons who become widowed or divorced after April 15 should be returned as married if that was their condition on that date.

115. Column 9. Number of years of present

marriage.-This question applies only to persons
reported as married, and the answer should give
the number of years married to the present hus-
band or wife. Thus a woman who may have been
married for 10 years to a former husband, but has
been married only 3 years to her present husband,
should be returned as married 3 years. For instance,
a person who on April 15, the census day, has been
married 3 years and 11 months should be returned
as married 3 years. For a person married less than 1
year, write "O” (meaning less than 1 year).

107. Column 5. Sex.—Write "M” for male and “F” for

female. 108. Column 6. Color or race.-Write “W” for white; “B”

for black; “Mu" for mulatto; "Ch" for Chinese; “Jp"
for Japanese; "In" for Indian. For all persons not fall-
ing within one of these classes, write “Ot” (for
other), and write on the left-hand margin of the

schedule the race of the person so indicated. 109. For census purposes, the term "black" (B) includes

all persons who are evidently fullblooded negroes, while the term “mulatto" (Mu) includes all other persons having some proportion or perceptible trace of

negro blood. 110. Column 7. Age at last birthday.—This question calls

for the age in completed years at last birthday.
Remember, however, that the age question, like all
other questions on the schedule, relates to April 15,
1910. Thus a person whose exact age on April 15,
the census day, is 17 years, 11 months, and 25
days should be returned simply as 17, because that
is his age at last birthday prior to April 15, although
at the time of your visit he may have completed 18

111. Age in nou.

Age in round numbers.-In many cases persons will
report the age in round numbers, like 30 or 45, or
"about 30" or "about 45," when that is not the
exact age. Therefore, when an age ending in 0 or 5
is reported, you should ascertain whether it is the
exact age. If, however, it is impossible to get the
exact age, enter the approximate age rather than

return the age as unknown. 112. Ages of children.-Take particular pains to get the

exact ages of children. In the case of a child not 2
years old, the age should be given in completed
months, expressed as twelfths of a year. Thus the
age of a child 3 months old should be entered as
3/12, a child 7 months old as 7/12, a child 1 year
and 3 months old as 1 3/12, etc. If a child is not yet
a month old, enter the age as 0/12. But note again
that this question should be answered with refer-
ence to April 15. For instance, a child who is just a
year old on the 17th of April, 1910, should never-
theless be returned as 11/12, because that is its
age in completed months on April 15.

116. Column 10. Number of children born.-This ques

tion applies to women who are now married, or
who are widowed, or divorced. The answer should
give the total number of children that each such
woman has had during her lifetime. It should
include, therefore, the children by any former mar-
riage as well as by her present marriage. It should
not include the children which her present husband
may have had by a former wife, even though they
are members of her present family. Stillborn chil-
dren should not be included. If the woman has
never had any children, write "O" in this column and
also in column 11.

Column 11. Number of children now living.-This refers again only to the children which the woman herself has had. Include all of these children that are living, no matter whether they are living in your district or somewhere else. If all the children are dead, write "0."


118. Column 12. Place of birth of this person. If the

person was born in the United States, give the state
or territory (not county, city, or town) in which
born. The words "United States" are not sufficiently
definite. A person born in what is now West Vir-
ginia, North Dakota, South Dakota, or Oklahoma

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of his birth the particular region may have had a different name. Do not abbreviate the names of states and territories.

mother.—Enter in columns 13 and 14 the birthplace of the father and of the mother of the person whose own birthplace was entered in column 12. In designating the birthplace of the father and mother, follow the same instructions as for the person himself. In case, however, a person does not know the state or territory of birth of his father or mother but knows that he or she was born in the United States,

write United States rather than “unknown.” 129. Mother tongue of father and mother. Ask for the

mother tongue of any parent born abroad and write down the answer in columns 13 and 14, following the instructions given for reporting the mother

tongue of persons enumerated in column 12. 130. In short, whenever a person gives a foreign country

as a birthplace of himself or either of his parents, before writing down that country ask for the mother tongue and write the answer to both questions in columns 12, 13, or 14, as the case may be, in the manner herein indicated.


119. If the person was born outside the United States,

enter the country (not city or district) in which born. 120. Instead of Great Britain, write Ireland, England,

Scotland, or Wales. 121. For persons born in the double Kingdom of Austria

Hungary, be sure to distinguish Austria from Hun. gary. For person born in Finland, write Finland and not "Russia." For persons born in Turkey, be sure to

distinguish Turkey in Europe from Turkey in Asia. 122. Do not rely upon the language spoken to determine

birthplace. This is especially true of Germans, for over one-third of the Austrians and nearly threefourths of the Swiss speak German. In the case of persons speaking German, therefore, inquire carefully whether the birthplace was Germany, Switzer

land, Austria, or elsewhere. 123. If the person was born abroad, but of American par

ents, write in column 12 both the birthplace and
Am. cit.- that is, American citizen. If the person

was born at sea, write At sea. 124.

Mother tongue.-The question "What is your mother
tongue or native language?" should be asked of all
persons who were born in any foreign country, and
the answer should be written in column 12, after
the name of the country of birth. In order to save
space, the abbreviations (indicated on separate “List
of foreign countries") should be used for the coun-
try of birth, but the language given as the mother
tongue should be written out in full. In returning the
mother tongue observe the rules laid down in para-

graphs 134 to 143. 125. For example, if a person reports that he was born in

Russia and that his mother tongue is Lithuanian, write in column 12 Russ.-Lithuanian; or if a person reports that he was born in Switzerland and that his

mother tongue is German, write Switz.-German. 126. Note that the name of the mother tongue must be

given even when it is the same as the language of the country in which the person was born. Thus, if a person reports that he was born in England and that his mother tongue is English, write Eng. English; or if a person reports that he was born in Germany and that his mother tongue is German, write Ger.-German. This is necessary to distinguish such persons from others born in the same

country but having a different mother tongue. 127. The question of mother tongue should not be asked

of any person born in the United States.

131. Column 15. Year of immigration to the United

States. This question applies to all foreign-born persons, male and female, of whatever age. It should be answered, therefore, for every person whose birthplace as reported in column 12 was in a foreign country. Enter the year in which the person came to the United States. If he has been in the United States more than once, give the year of his

first arrival. 132.

Column 16. Whether naturalized or alien.—This
question applies only to foreign-born males 21
years of age and over. It does not apply to females,
to foreign-born minors, or to any male born in the
United States. If the person was born abroad, but
has become a full citizen, either by taking out a sec-
ond or final papers of naturalization or through the
naturalization of his parents while he was under the
age of 21 years, write "Na” (for naturalized). If he
has declared his intention to become an American
citizen and has taken out his "first papers," write
“Pa” (for papers). If he has taken no steps toward
becoming an American citizen, write “Al” (for alien).


133. Column 17. Whether able to speak English; or, if

not, give language spoken. This question applies
to all persons 10 years of age and over. If such a
person is able to speak English, write English. If he
is not able to speak English-and in such cases
only—write the name of the language which he
does speak, as French, German, Italian. If he speaks

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141. Write Little Russian instead of “Ukrainian." 142. Write Ruthenian instead of "Rosniak" or "Russine."

English, write the name of that language which is his native language or mother tongue. For persons

under 10 years of age, leave the column blank. 134. The following is a list of principal foreign languages

spoken in the United States. Avoid giving other names when one in this list can be applied to the language spoken. With the exception of certain languages of eastern Russia, the list gives a name for every European language in the proper sense of the word.

143. Write Roumanian instead of “Moldavian," "Walla

chian," "Tsintsar," or "Kutzo-Vlach."


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144. Column 18. Trade or profession.—An entry should

be made in this column for every person enumer-
ated. The occupation, if any, followed by a child, of
any age, or by a woman is just as important, for
census purposes, as the occupation followed by a
man. Therefore it must never be taken for granted,
without inquiry, that a woman, or child, has no
The entry in column 18 should be either (1) the
occupation pursued—that is, the word or words
which most accurately indicate the particular kind
of work done by which the person enumerated
earns money or a money equivalent, as physician,
carpenter, dressmaker, night watchman, laborer,
newsboy; or (2) own income; or (3) none (that is, no

Scotch Servian or Croatian (including Bosnian, Dalmatian, Herzegovinian, and Montenegrin) Slovak


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Persons retired or temporarily unemployed.-Care should be taken in making the return for persons who on account of old age, permanent invalidism, or otherwise are no longer following an occupation. Such persons may desire to return the occupations formerly followed, which would be incorrect. If living on their own income the return should be own income. If they are supported by other persons or institutions, the return should be none. On the other hand, persons out of employment when visited by the enumerator may state that they have no occupation, when the fact is that they usually have an occupation but merely happen to be idle or unemployed at the time of the visit. In such cases the return should be the occupation followed when the person is employed.

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Persons having two occupations.If a person has two occupations, return only the more important one that is, the one from which he gets the more money. If you can not learn that, return the one at which he spends the more time. For example: Return a man


Measuring America ing, although he may also follow the occupation of a clergyman or preacher; but return him as a clergyman if he gets more of his income from that occupation.

150. Column 19. Industry. An entry should be made in

this column in all cases where the entry in column 18 has been that of an occupation. But where the entry in column 18 is own income or none, leave this column blank. The entry, when made, should consist of the word or words which most accurately describe the branch of industry, kind of business or establishment, line of work, or place in which this person works, as cotton mill, general farm, drygoods store, insurance office, bank.

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ing out, as the case may require. Of course, a woman who herself operates or runs a farm should be reported as a farmer, and not as a "farm

laborer." 155. Children on farms.- In the case of children who

work for their own parents on a farm, the entry in column 18 should be farm laborer and in column 19 home farm; but for children who work as farm laborers for others, the entry in column 19 should

be working out. 156. Children working for parents. Children who work

for their parents at home merely on general household work, on chores, or at odd times on other work, should be reported as having no occupation. Those, however, who materially assist their parents in the performance of work other than household

work should be reported as having an occupation. 157. Keeping boarders.—Keeping boarders or lodgers

should be returned as an occupation if the person engaged in it relies upon it as his (or her) principal means of support or principal source of income. In that case the return should be keeper-boarding house or keeper-lodging house. If, however, a family keeps a few boarders or roomers merely as a means of supplementing or eking out the earnings or income obtained from other occupations or from other sources, no one in the family should be

returned as a boarding or lodging house keeper. 158. Officers, employees, and inmates of institutions or

homes.-For an officer or regular employee of an institution or home, such as an asylum, penitentiary, jail, reform school, convict camp, state farm worked by convicts, etc., return the occupation followed in the institution. For an inmate of such institution, if regularly employed, return the occupation pursued in the institution, whether the employment be at productive labor or at other duties, such as cooking, scrubbing, laundry work, etc.; but if an inmate is not regularly employed—that is, has not specific duties or work to perform, write none in

column 18. 159. Avoid general or indefinite terms.-Give the occu

pation and industry precisely. For example, return a worker in a coal mine as a miner-coal mine, laborer-coal mine, driver-coal mine, etc., as the

case may be. 160. The term "laborer" should be avoided if any more

precise definition of the occupation can be secured.
Employees in factories and mills, for example, usu-
ally have some definite designation, as weaver,
roller, puddler, etc. Where the term "laborer" is
used, be careful to define accurately the industry in
column 19.

153. Women doing housework.-In the case of a woman

doing housework in her own home, without salary
or wages, and having no other employment, the
entry in column 18 should be none. But a woman
working at housework for wages should be returned
in column 18 as housekeeper, servant, cook, or
chambermaid, as the case may be; and the entry in
column 19 should state the kind of place where she
works, as private family, hotel, or boarding house.
Or, if a woman, in addition to doing housework in
her own home, regularly earns money by some
other occupation, whether pursued in her own
home or outside, that occupation should be
returned in columns 18 and 19. For instance, a
woman who regularly takes in washing should be
reported as laundress or washerwoman, followed in
column 19 by at home.

154. Women doing farm work.-A woman working regu

larly at outdoor farm work, even though she works on the home farm for her husband, son, or other relative and does not receive money wages, should be returned in column 18 as a farm laborer. Distinguish, however, such women who work on the home farm from those who work away from home,

Measuring America

165. Distinguish a traveling salesman from a salesman in

a store; the former preferably should be reported as a commercial traveler.

166. If any person in answer to the occupation question

says that he is "in business," you must find out what branch of business and what kind of work he does or what position he holds.

161. Avoid in all cases the use of the word "mechanic,”.

but give the exact occupation, as carpenter, painter,

machinist, etc. 162. Distinguish carefully the different kinds of "agents"

by stating in column 19 the line of business fol

lowed. 163. Distinguish carefully between retail and wholesale

merchants, as retail merchant-dry-goods; whole

sale merchant-dry-goods. 164. Avoid the use of the word "clerk” wherever a more

definite occupation can be named. Thus a person in a store, often called a clerk, who is wholly or principally engaged in selling goods should be called a salesman. A stenographer, typewriter, accountant, bookkeeper, or cashier, etc., should be reported as such, and not as a clerk.

167. Illustrations of occupations. The following

examples, in addition to the occupations given in the illustrative schedule, will illustrate the method of returning some of the common occupations and industries; they will also suggest to you distinctions which you should make in other cases:

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