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partners, write head for one and partner for the
other or others. 106. In the case of a hotel or boarding or lodging house
family (see paragraph 97), the head of the family is the manager or the person who keeps the hotel or boarding or lodging house.
divorced. Write “S” for single or unmarried persons; "Wd" for widowed (man or woman); "D" for divorced; for married persons, inquire whether they have been married before, and if this is the first marriage, write "M1," but if this is the second or subsequent marriage, write “M2” (meaning married more than once).
114. Persons who were single on April 15 should be so
reported, even though they may have married between that date and the day of your visit; and, similarly, persons who become widowed or divorced after April 15 should be returned as married if that was their condition on that date.
115. Column 9. Number of years of present
marriage.-This question applies only to persons
107. Column 5. Sex.—Write "M” for male and “F” for
female. 108. Column 6. Color or race.-Write “W” for white; “B”
for black; “Mu" for mulatto; "Ch" for Chinese; “Jp"
schedule the race of the person so indicated. 109. For census purposes, the term "black" (B) includes
all persons who are evidently fullblooded negroes, while the term “mulatto" (Mu) includes all other persons having some proportion or perceptible trace of
negro blood. 110. Column 7. Age at last birthday.—This question calls
for the age in completed years at last birthday.
Age in round numbers.-In many cases persons will
return the age as unknown. 112. Ages of children.-Take particular pains to get the
exact ages of children. In the case of a child not 2
116. Column 10. Number of children born.-This ques
tion applies to women who are now married, or
Column 11. Number of children now living.-This refers again only to the children which the woman herself has had. Include all of these children that are living, no matter whether they are living in your district or somewhere else. If all the children are dead, write "0."
NATIVITY AND MOTHER TONGUE
118. Column 12. Place of birth of this person. If the
person was born in the United States, give the state
of his birth the particular region may have had a different name. Do not abbreviate the names of states and territories.
mother.—Enter in columns 13 and 14 the birthplace of the father and of the mother of the person whose own birthplace was entered in column 12. In designating the birthplace of the father and mother, follow the same instructions as for the person himself. In case, however, a person does not know the state or territory of birth of his father or mother but knows that he or she was born in the United States,
write United States rather than “unknown.” 129. Mother tongue of father and mother. Ask for the
mother tongue of any parent born abroad and write down the answer in columns 13 and 14, following the instructions given for reporting the mother
tongue of persons enumerated in column 12. 130. In short, whenever a person gives a foreign country
as a birthplace of himself or either of his parents, before writing down that country ask for the mother tongue and write the answer to both questions in columns 12, 13, or 14, as the case may be, in the manner herein indicated.
119. If the person was born outside the United States,
enter the country (not city or district) in which born. 120. Instead of Great Britain, write Ireland, England,
Scotland, or Wales. 121. For persons born in the double Kingdom of Austria
Hungary, be sure to distinguish Austria from Hun. gary. For person born in Finland, write Finland and not "Russia." For persons born in Turkey, be sure to
distinguish Turkey in Europe from Turkey in Asia. 122. Do not rely upon the language spoken to determine
birthplace. This is especially true of Germans, for over one-third of the Austrians and nearly threefourths of the Swiss speak German. In the case of persons speaking German, therefore, inquire carefully whether the birthplace was Germany, Switzer
land, Austria, or elsewhere. 123. If the person was born abroad, but of American par
ents, write in column 12 both the birthplace and
was born at sea, write At sea. 124.
Mother tongue.-The question "What is your mother
graphs 134 to 143. 125. For example, if a person reports that he was born in
Russia and that his mother tongue is Lithuanian, write in column 12 Russ.-Lithuanian; or if a person reports that he was born in Switzerland and that his
mother tongue is German, write Switz.-German. 126. Note that the name of the mother tongue must be
given even when it is the same as the language of the country in which the person was born. Thus, if a person reports that he was born in England and that his mother tongue is English, write Eng. English; or if a person reports that he was born in Germany and that his mother tongue is German, write Ger.-German. This is necessary to distinguish such persons from others born in the same
country but having a different mother tongue. 127. The question of mother tongue should not be asked
of any person born in the United States.
131. Column 15. Year of immigration to the United
States. This question applies to all foreign-born persons, male and female, of whatever age. It should be answered, therefore, for every person whose birthplace as reported in column 12 was in a foreign country. Enter the year in which the person came to the United States. If he has been in the United States more than once, give the year of his
first arrival. 132.
Column 16. Whether naturalized or alien.—This
ABILITY TO SPEAK ENGLISH
133. Column 17. Whether able to speak English; or, if
not, give language spoken. This question applies
141. Write Little Russian instead of “Ukrainian." 142. Write Ruthenian instead of "Rosniak" or "Russine."
English, write the name of that language which is his native language or mother tongue. For persons
under 10 years of age, leave the column blank. 134. The following is a list of principal foreign languages
spoken in the United States. Avoid giving other names when one in this list can be applied to the language spoken. With the exception of certain languages of eastern Russia, the list gives a name for every European language in the proper sense of the word.
143. Write Roumanian instead of “Moldavian," "Walla
chian," "Tsintsar," or "Kutzo-Vlach."
144. Column 18. Trade or profession.—An entry should
be made in this column for every person enumer-
Scotch Servian or Croatian (including Bosnian, Dalmatian, Herzegovinian, and Montenegrin) Slovak
Persons retired or temporarily unemployed.-Care should be taken in making the return for persons who on account of old age, permanent invalidism, or otherwise are no longer following an occupation. Such persons may desire to return the occupations formerly followed, which would be incorrect. If living on their own income the return should be own income. If they are supported by other persons or institutions, the return should be none. On the other hand, persons out of employment when visited by the enumerator may state that they have no occupation, when the fact is that they usually have an occupation but merely happen to be idle or unemployed at the time of the visit. In such cases the return should be the occupation followed when the person is employed.
Persons having two occupations.If a person has two occupations, return only the more important one that is, the one from which he gets the more money. If you can not learn that, return the one at which he spends the more time. For example: Return a man
Measuring America ing, although he may also follow the occupation of a clergyman or preacher; but return him as a clergyman if he gets more of his income from that occupation.
150. Column 19. Industry. An entry should be made in
this column in all cases where the entry in column 18 has been that of an occupation. But where the entry in column 18 is own income or none, leave this column blank. The entry, when made, should consist of the word or words which most accurately describe the branch of industry, kind of business or establishment, line of work, or place in which this person works, as cotton mill, general farm, drygoods store, insurance office, bank.
ing out, as the case may require. Of course, a woman who herself operates or runs a farm should be reported as a farmer, and not as a "farm
laborer." 155. Children on farms.- In the case of children who
work for their own parents on a farm, the entry in column 18 should be farm laborer and in column 19 home farm; but for children who work as farm laborers for others, the entry in column 19 should
be working out. 156. Children working for parents. Children who work
for their parents at home merely on general household work, on chores, or at odd times on other work, should be reported as having no occupation. Those, however, who materially assist their parents in the performance of work other than household
work should be reported as having an occupation. 157. Keeping boarders.—Keeping boarders or lodgers
should be returned as an occupation if the person engaged in it relies upon it as his (or her) principal means of support or principal source of income. In that case the return should be keeper-boarding house or keeper-lodging house. If, however, a family keeps a few boarders or roomers merely as a means of supplementing or eking out the earnings or income obtained from other occupations or from other sources, no one in the family should be
returned as a boarding or lodging house keeper. 158. Officers, employees, and inmates of institutions or
homes.-For an officer or regular employee of an institution or home, such as an asylum, penitentiary, jail, reform school, convict camp, state farm worked by convicts, etc., return the occupation followed in the institution. For an inmate of such institution, if regularly employed, return the occupation pursued in the institution, whether the employment be at productive labor or at other duties, such as cooking, scrubbing, laundry work, etc.; but if an inmate is not regularly employed—that is, has not specific duties or work to perform, write none in
column 18. 159. Avoid general or indefinite terms.-Give the occu
pation and industry precisely. For example, return a worker in a coal mine as a miner-coal mine, laborer-coal mine, driver-coal mine, etc., as the
case may be. 160. The term "laborer" should be avoided if any more
precise definition of the occupation can be secured.
153. Women doing housework.-In the case of a woman
doing housework in her own home, without salary
154. Women doing farm work.-A woman working regu
larly at outdoor farm work, even though she works on the home farm for her husband, son, or other relative and does not receive money wages, should be returned in column 18 as a farm laborer. Distinguish, however, such women who work on the home farm from those who work away from home,
165. Distinguish a traveling salesman from a salesman in
a store; the former preferably should be reported as a commercial traveler.
166. If any person in answer to the occupation question
says that he is "in business," you must find out what branch of business and what kind of work he does or what position he holds.
161. Avoid in all cases the use of the word "mechanic,”.
but give the exact occupation, as carpenter, painter,
machinist, etc. 162. Distinguish carefully the different kinds of "agents"
by stating in column 19 the line of business fol
lowed. 163. Distinguish carefully between retail and wholesale
merchants, as retail merchant-dry-goods; whole
sale merchant-dry-goods. 164. Avoid the use of the word "clerk” wherever a more
definite occupation can be named. Thus a person in a store, often called a clerk, who is wholly or principally engaged in selling goods should be called a salesman. A stenographer, typewriter, accountant, bookkeeper, or cashier, etc., should be reported as such, and not as a clerk.
167. Illustrations of occupations. The following
examples, in addition to the occupations given in the illustrative schedule, will illustrate the method of returning some of the common occupations and industries; they will also suggest to you distinctions which you should make in other cases: