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instructions printed at the bottom of the illustrative example. These instructions are very important, however, and must be not only read but studied carefully.

154. Column 19. Occupation. This question applies to

every person 10 years of age and over who is at
work, that is, occupied in gainful labor, and calls for
the profession, trade, or branch of work upon
which each person depends chiefly for support, or
in which he is engaged ordinarily during the larger
part of the time. (See paragraph 223.)

160. If a married woman has a gainful occupation, return

the occupation accordingly, whether she does the work at her home or goes regularly to a place of employment, and whether she is regularly or only occasionally so employed. For example, “milliner,”

"dressmaker," "nurse," etc. 161. In farming sections, where a farm is found that is

under the management or supervision of a woman as owner or tenant, return the occupation of such woman as "farmer" in all cases.

155. This is a most important question. In reporting

occupations avoid the use of general or indefinite terms which do not indicate the kind of work done. You need not give a person's occupation just as he expresses it. If he can not tell intelligibly what he is, find out what he does, and describe his occupation accordingly. Endeavor to ascertain always the kind of work done, and so state it.

162. Report a student who supports himself by some

occupation according to the occupation, if more time is given to that, but as a student, if more time is given to study. Thus report a student who does stenographic work as a student unless more of his time is spent in stenography. Report a salesman in a grocery store, who attends a night school as "salesman, groceries,” because most of his day is spent in

the store. (See paragraph 219.) 163. Many a person who does not follow any occupation

still has an income. In that case indicate the source of the income. Report a person whose income comes from the rent of lands or buildings as "landlord.” Report a person who receives his income, or most of it, from money loaned at interest, or from stocks, bonds, or other securities, as a "capitalist.”

156. Indicate in every case the kind of work done or

character of service rendered. Do not state merely
the article made or worked upon, or the place
where the work is done. For example, the reply
"carriage builder," or "works in carriage factory," is
unsatisfactory, because men of different trades,
such as blacksmiths, joiners, wheelwrights, paint-
ers, upholsterers, work together in building car-
riages. Such an answer, therefore, does not show
what kind of work the person performs.

164. Abbreviations. The space in column 19 is some

what narrow, and it may be necessary to use the following abbreviations (but no others):

157. Return every person according to his own occupa

tion, not that of his employer. For example,
describe a blacksmith employed by a manufacturer
of carriages as a carriage blacksmith and not as a
carriage builder, or a cooper employed by a brewery
as a cooper and not a brewer, etc.


158. If a person has two occupations, enter the more

important one, that is, the one from which he gets
the more money. If you can not learn that, enter the
one in which he spends the more time. For
example, describe a person who gets most of his
income by managing a farm, but also preaches, as a
"farmer," but if he gets more income from his
preaching, describe him as a “preacher” and not as
a farmer.

Agric. agriculture
Mfr. manufacturer
Agt. agent
Prest. president
Asst. assistant
R.R. railroad or railway
Co. company
Sch. school
Comsn. commission

Dept. department
Supt. superintendent
Fcty. factory
Teleg. telegraph
Insur. insurance
Telph. telephone
Merch. merchant
Trav. traveling, or traveler
Mfg. manufacturing
Treas. treasurer

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159. Sometimes you will find a person engaged in one

occupation, but claiming a different one. This will be common in certain resorts for invalids. Such persons often take up for the time occupations different from those followed at home. For example, you may find a clergyman canvassing for books or a physician herding cattle. In such a case ask from which occupation the person gets the more money or to which he gives more time during the year.

165. The illustrations given under this head show the

nature of the answers which should be made to this inquiry. They are not intended to cover all occupations, but are merely examples of the answers

Measuring America the character of the service rendered or kind of work done by each and every person engaged in gainful labor.

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Professional Pursuits 177. Specify each profession in detail, according to the

fact, as follows: actor, artist or teacher of art, clergyman, dentist, designer, draftsman, engraver, civil engineer or surveyor, mechanical or mining engineer, government clerk or official, journalist, lawyer, librarian, musician or teacher of music, physician, surgeon, professor (in college or university), teacher (in school), or other pursuits of a profes

sional nature. 178. Distinguish between an actor, a theatrical manager,

and a showman.

Agricultural Pursuits 166. Do not confuse a farmer with a farm laborer. If a

person works on a farm for a stated wage (in money or its equivalent), even though he may be a son or other relative of the person who conducts the farm, he should be entered as a farm laborer, and not as a farmer. On the other hand, if a person owns or rents a farm, or operates it with or for another person, for a fixed share of the products, he should be entered as a farmer, and not as a farm laborer. Enter the older children of a farmer (who work on the farm) as farm laborers, except when a father and son (or sons) jointly operate the farm for

fixed shares of the product. 167. Do not confuse a day laborer at work for the city,

town, or at odd jobs with a farm laborer at work on the farm or plantation or in the employ of gardeners, nurserymen, etc. Do not say simply "laborer," but state in every case the kind of work done as day laborer, farm laborer, garden laborer, etc. If a person is a laborer in a mill, workshop, or factory, specify the fact, in addition to the word laborer, as

laborer (cement works), etc. 168. Distinguish between a woodchopper at work regu

larly in the woods or forests and an ordinary laborer

who takes a job occasionally at chopping wood. 169. Distinguish between a farmer or a planter who

owns, hires, or carries on a farm or plantation, and a gardener, fruit grower, nurseryman, florist, or vine grower, etc., who is engaged in raising vegetables for market or in the cultivation of fruit,

flowers, seeds, nursery products, etc. 170. Avoid the confusion of the garden laborer, nursery

laborer, etc., who hires out his services, with the proprietor gardener, florist, nurseryman, etc., who carries on the business himself or employs others

to assist him. 171. Return as a dairyman or dairywoman any person

whose occupation in connection with the farm has to do chiefly with the dairy. Do not confuse such a person with an employee of a butter and cheese or condensed milk factory, who should be separately

returned by some distinctive term. 172. Return a stock herder or stock drover separately

from a stock raiser. 173. Do not include a lumberman, raftsman, log driver,

etc., engaged in hauling or transporting lumber
(generally by water) from the forest to the mill with
an employee of a lumber yard or a lumber mill.


179. Return a government official, in the service of the

national, state, county, city, or town government,
by the title of his office, if that is the occupation
upon which he depends chiefly for a livelihood; oth-
erwise by his usual trade or profession.
Distinguish between a government clerk occupying
a position under the national, state, county, city, or
town government and a clerk in an office, store,

manufacturing establishment, etc.
181. Return a veterinary surgeon separately from

another surgeon.

182. Distinguish a journalist editor, or reporter from an

author or other literary person who does not follow

journalism as a distinct profession. 183. Return a chemist, assayer, metallurgist, or other

scientific person by his distinctive title.

Domestic and Personal Service

184. Specify each occupation or kind of service rendered

in detail, according to the fact, as hotel keeper, boarding-house keeper, restaurant keeper, saloon keeper, or bartender; housekeeper, cook, or servant (in hotel, boarding-house, hospital, institution, private family, etc.); barber or hairdresser; janitor,

Measuring America


policeman, or detective. The above are given only as examples of the occupations which would naturally be included under this general class of work.

such, and should not be described simply as a "clerk."

185. Return as a housekeeper a woman who receives a

stated wage or salary for her services, and do not confuse her with a woman who keeps house for her own family or for herself, without any gainful occupation, or with a grown daughter who assists in the household duties without pay. A wife or daughter who simply keeps house for her own family should not be returned as a housekeeper in any case. (See paragraph 218.)

186. A clerk in a hotel, restaurant, or saloon should be

so described and carefully distinguished from a bartender. In many instances a bartender will state his occupation as "clerk” in wine store, etc., but the character of the service rendered by such a person will readily determine whether he should be classed as a "bartender," or as a "clerk.”

194. Distinguish carefully between a bank clerk in bank,

cashier in bank, or bank official, describing the particular position filled in each case. In no case should a bank cashier be confounded with a cashier in a

store, etc. 195. Distinguish between a foreman and overseer, a

packer and shipper, a porter and helper, and an errand, office, and messenger boy in a store, etc., and state in each case the character of the duties performed by him, as foreman-wholesale wool; packer-crockery; porter-rubber goods; errand

boy-dry goods; messenger boy-telegraph. 196. State the kind of merchant or dealer, as dry goods

merchant, wood and coal dealer, etc. Whenever a single word will express the business carried on, as

grocer, it should be used. 197. In the case of a huckster or peddler also state the

kind of goods sold, as peddler-tinware. 198. Distinguish a traveling salesman from a salesman in

a store, return the former as a “commercial trav

eler," and state the kind of goods sold by him. 199.

Return a boarding or livery stable keeper separately

from a hostler or other stable employee. 200. Distinguish also between an expressman, teamster,

drayman, and carriage and hack driver. 201. A steam railroad employee should be reported

according to the nature of his work, as baggageman, brakeman, conductor, railroad laborer, locomotive engineer, locomotive fireman, switchman, yardman, etc.

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202. An official of a railroad, telegraph, express, or

other company should be returned by his title and carefully distinguished from an employee of such company.

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203. Return a boatman, canalman, pilot, longshoreman,

stevedore, or sailor (on a steam or sailing vessel)

according to his distinctive occupation. 204. A telegraph operator, telephone operator, telegraph

lineman, telephone lineman, electric-light man, etc., should be reported according to the nature of the work performed.


Manufacturing and Mechanical Pursuits

Do not confound a clerk with a salesman, as is often done, especially in dry goods stores, grocery stores, and provision stores. Generally speaking, a person so employed is to be considered as a salesman, unless most of his service is in the office on the books and accounts; otherwise he should be returned as salesman-dry goods; salesman-groceries, etc.

205. In reporting this class of occupations there are

many difficulties in the way of showing the kind of work done rather than the article made or the place worked in. The nature of certain occupations is


Measuring America descriptive terms without the use of some expression relating to the article made or place in which

the work is carried on. 206. Do not accept "maker” of an article or "works in"

mill, shop, or factory, but strive always to find out

the particular work done. 207. Do not use the words "factory operative," but

specify the kind of work done, as cotton

mill-spinner; silk mill-weaver, etc. 208.

Avoid in all cases the use of the word "mechanic,” and state whether a carpenter, mason, house

painter, machinist, plumber, etc. 209. Do not say "finisher," "molder,” “polisher," etc., but

describe the work done as brass finisher, iron

molder, steel polisher, etc. 210. Distinguish between a person who tends machines

and the unskilled workman or laborer in mills, fac

tories, and workshops. 211. Describe the proprietor of the establishment as a

"manufacturer," and specify the branch of manufacture, as cotton manufacturer, etc. In no case should a manufacturer be returned as a “maker” of any

article. 212. In the case of an apprentice, state the trade to

which apprenticed, as Apprentice-carpenter, etc. 213. Distinguish between a butcher, whose business is

to slaughter cattle, swine, etc., and a provision

dealer, who sells meats. 214. Distinguish also between a glover, hatter, or furrier

who actually makes in his own establishment all or part of the gloves, hats, or furs which he sells, and a person who simply deals in but does not make

these articles. 215. Do not describe a person in a printing office as a

"printer" where a more expressive term can be

used, as compositer, pressman, press feeder, etc. 216. Make the proper distinction between a clock or

watch "maker" and a clock or watch "repairer." Do not apply the word "jeweler” to those who make watches, watch chains, or jewelry in large establish

ments. 217.

Distinguish between a cloakmaker, dressmaker, seamstress, tailoress, etc. In the case of a sewingmachine operator, specify the kind of work done.

daughter living at home and assisting only in the household duties without pay (see paragraph 185); nor for a person too old to work, or a child under

10 years of age not at school. 219. The doing of domestic errands or family chores out

of school hours, where a child regularly attends school, is not an occupation. But if a boy or girl, above 10 years of age, is earning money regularly by labor, contributing to the family support, or appreciably assisting in mechanical or agricultural industry, the kind of work performed should be

stated. (See paragraph 162.) 220.

In the case of an inmate of an institution or home,
such as a hospital, asylum, home for the aged, sol-
diers' home, penitentiary, jail, etc., no entry is
required in column 19 unless the inmate is actually
engaged in remunerative work for which he
receives a stated wage in addition to his board. The
occupation of an officer or regular employee of
such institution or home, however, is to be entered
in this column, the same as for all other persons

having a gainful occupation. 221. Column 20.—Months not employed. The object of

this question is to get the number of months (or parts of months) in the census year (June 1, 1899, to May 31, 1900) during which each person having a gainful occupation was not employed. For those who have no gainful occupation, leave the column

blank. 222. The law does not contemplate that this question

shall apply solely to the principal occupation in which the person may have been engaged during the year, but it is the intent to find out the number of months (or parts of months) during which a person ordinarily engaged in gainful labor was not

employed at all. 223. A return is required in columns 19 and 20 for each

and every person 10 years of age and over who
was engaged in gainful labor during any part of the
census year (June 1, 1899, to May 31, 1900, inclu-
sive), or who is ordinarily occupied in remunerative
work but during the census year was unable to
secure work of any kind. In the latter case enter his
customary occupation, as carpenter, bricklayer, etc.,
in column 19 and the figure "12" in column 20 to
show that, although he had an occupation or trade,
he was not employed at all during the year at that
or any other kind of work.

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counted as two or more homes instead of one. The family is the basis for all inquiries in columns 25,

26, and 27. 235. A home occupied by a family engaged in farming,

gardening, or any other form of agricultural production includes the land cultivated. If occupied by a family not so engaged, it includes only the dwelling and the ground occupied by it, with the appurte

nances thereto. 236. In case a family resides in a tent or boat, write in

column 27 the word "tent" or "boat." 237. If a family cultivates a farm, but resides in a house

detached from the farm, in a village or elsewhere, the farm and the house must jointly be considered the family home and that home a farm, unless the chief occupation of the person operating the farm is something other than farming. In the latter case,

the house alone is to be regarded as the home. 238. Owned or rented. A home is to be classed as

"owned" whenever the title, in whole or in part, is
vested in any member of the family (not a boarder)
by which the house is occupied. It is owned if any
member of the family has a life interest or estate in
it; or if it is occupied by a settler on the public
domain who has not "proved up;" or if it is held
under a contract or bond for a deed, or occupied
for redemption purposes after having been sold for
debt. It is not necessary that full payment for the
property should have been made. All homes not
owned as herein explained are to be classed as

"rented." 239. In case of a farm part of which is owned and part

rented; or in case different members of the same
family operate different farms, of which one is
owned and the other rented; or in case of the culti-
vation of a farm by a family which does not reside
upon the farm, but elsewhere, the dwelling being
owned and the farm rented, or, on the contrary, the
farm being owned and the dwelling rented, the
principle applies that "part ownership is owner-
ship." In all these and similar cases write in column

25 the letter "0."
240. Following the same general rule, if a family occu-

pies a house upon leased land for which "ground rent" is paid, and the building is owned by any member of the family (not boarder), write "O." Ownership of the building and not the ground, or of the ground and not the building, but the occupant, is

part ownership. 241. If, of two families occupying the same house, one

has an interest in it, and the other not, the home
occupied by the former is to be returned as
"owned" but that occupied by the other as "rented."

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Measuring America

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