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1 37. Enter in column 11 the figure showing the number of children born to this woman, as 1, 2, 3, 6, 10, etc. If she has had none, write "0." Enter in column 12 the figure showing the number of these children living on the census day. Whether the children are living in your district or elsewhere makes no difference. If the woman has had no children, or if they are all dead, write "0."

NATIVITY

138. Column 1 3. Place of birth of person. The object of this question is to get the birthplace of every person living in your district. If the person was born in the United States, enter in column 13 the state or territory (not city or town) of the United States in which he was born. A person born in what is now West Virginia, North Dakota, South Dakota, or Oklahoma should be reported as so born, although at the time of his birth the particular region may have had a different name.

139. If the person was born outside the United States, enter in column 1 3 the country (not city or district) in which he was born. By country is meant usually a region whose people have direct relation with other countries. Thus, do not write Prussia or Saxony, but Germany. To this rule, however, note the following exceptions.

140. Write Ireland, England, Scotland, or Wales rather than Great Britain. Write Hungary or Bohemia rather than Austria for persons born in Hungary or Bohemia, respectively. Write Finland rather than Russia for persons born in Finland.

141. Note, also, that the language spoken is not always a safe guide to the birthplace. This is especially true of Germans, for over one-third of the Austrians and nearly three-fourths of the Swiss speak German. In case a person speaks German, therefore, inquire carefully whether the birthplace was Germany, Austria, or Switzerland.

142. In case the person speaks Polish, as Poland is not now a country, inquire whether the birthplace was what is now known as German Poland or Austrian Poland or Russian Poland, and enter the answer accordingly as Poland (Ger.), Poland (Aust.), or Poland (Russ.).

143. If the birthplace reported is Canada or Newfoundland, ask whether the person is of English or French decent. Write Canada English or Canada French, according to the answer.

144. If the person was born abroad of American parents, write in column 1 3 both the birthplace and "Am. Cit.;" that is, American citizen.

145. If the person was born at sea, write "at sea."

146. Spell out the names of states, territories, and countries, and do not abbreviate, except for American Citizen, as mentioned in paragraph 144.

147. Columns 14 and 1 5. Place of birth of father and mother. Apply the instructions for filling column 1 3 to these two columns; but where either the father or mother was born at sea, write in the proper column, besides the words "at sea," the birthplace of the father's father or mother's mother.

CITIZENSHIP

148. Column 16. Year of immigration to the United States.—If the person is a native of the United States, leave the column blank. If he was born abroad, enter the year in which he arrived in the United States.

149. Column 17. Number of years in the United States.—If the person is a native of the United States, leave the column blank. If he was born abroad, enter the number of years since his arrival in the United States. Disregard all fractions of a year. If the time is less than one year, write "0." Endeavor to get the exact number of years in all cases.

1 50. The question of immigration (columns 16 and 1 7) applies to all foreign-born persons, male and female, of whatever age. It does not apply to persons born in the United States.

151. Column 18. Naturalization.—If the person is a

native of the United States, leave the column blank. If he was born abroad, and has taken no steps toward becoming an American citizen, write "Al" (for alien). If he has declared his intention to become an American citizen and taken out his "first" papers, write "Pa" (for papers). If he has become a full citizen by taking out second or final papers of naturalization, write "Na" (for naturalized).

1 52. The question of naturalization (column 18) applies only to foreign-born males 21 years of age and over. It does not apply to foreign-born minors, to foreign-born females, or to any person, male or female, who was born in the United States, either of native or foreign parentage.

OCCUPATION, TRADE, OR PROFESSION

1 53. NOTE.—The following instructions concerning the return of the occupation, trade, or profession in column 19 do not, in the main, form a part of the instructions contained in the portfolio or the

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instructions printed at the bottom of the illustrative example. These instructions are very important, however, and must be not only read but studied carefully.

1 54. Column 19. Occupation.—This question applies to every person 10 years of age and over who is at work, that is, occupied in gainful labor, and calls for the profession, trade, or branch of work upon which each person depends chiefly for support, or in which he is engaged ordinarily during the larger part of the time. (See paragraph 223.)

155. This is a most important question. In reporting

occupations avoid the use of general or indefinite terms which do not indicate the kind of work done. You need not give a person's occupation just as he expresses it. If he can not tell intelligibly what he is, find out what he does, and describe his occupation accordingly. Endeavor to ascertain always the kind of work done, and so state it.

1 56. Indicate in every case the kind of work done or

character of service rendered. Do not state merely the article made or worked upon, or the place where the work is done. For example, the reply "carriage builder," or "works in carriage factory," is unsatisfactory, because men of different trades, such as blacksmiths, joiners, wheelwrights, painters, upholsterers, work together in building carriages. Such an answer, therefore, does not show what kind of work the person performs.

1 57. Return every person according to his own occupation, not that of his employer. For example, describe a blacksmith employed by a manufacturer of carriages as a carriage blacksmith and not as a carriage builder, or a cooper employed by a brewery as a cooper and not a brewer, etc.

158. If a person has two occupations, enter the more important one, that is, the one from which he gets the more money. If you can not learn that, enter the one in which he spends the more time. For example, describe a person who gets most of his income by managing a farm, but also preaches, as a "farmer," but if he gets more income from his preaching, describe him as a "preacher" and not as a farmer.

159. Sometimes you will find a person engaged in one occupation, but claiming a different one. This will be common in certain resorts for invalids. Such persons often take up for the time occupations different from those followed at home. For example, you may find a clergyman canvassing for books or a physician herding cattle. In such a case ask from which occupation the person gets the more money or to which he gives more time during the year.

160. If a married woman has a gainful occupation, return the occupation accordingly, whether she does the work at her home or goes regularly to a place of employment, and whether she is regularly or only occasionally so employed. For example, "milliner," "dressmaker," "nurse," etc.

161. In farming sections, where a farm is found that is under the management or supervision of a woman as owner or tenant, return the occupation of such woman as "farmer" in all cases.

162. Report a student who supports himself by some occupation according to the occupation, if more time is given to that, but as a student, if more time is given to study. Thus report a student who does stenographic work as a student unless more of his time is spent in stenography. Report a salesman in a grocery store, who attends a night school as "salesman, groceries," because most of his day is spent in the store. (See paragraph 219.)

163. Many a person who does not follow any occupation still has an income. In that case indicate the source of the income. Report a person whose income comes from the rent of lands or buildings as "landlord." Report a person who receives his income, or most of it, from money loaned at interest, or from stocks, bonds, or other securities, as a "capitalist."

164. Abbreviations.—The space in column 19 is somewhat narrow, and it may be necessary to use the following abbreviations (but no others):

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the character of the service rendered or kind of
work done by each and every person engaged in
gainful labor.

Agricultural Pursuits

1 66. Do not confuse a farmer with a farm laborer. If a person works on a farm for a stated wage (in money or its equivalent), even though he may be a son or other relative of the person who conducts the farm, he should be entered as a farm laborer, and not as a farmer. On the other hand, if a person owns or rents a farm, or operates it with or for another person, for a fixed share of the products, he should be entered as a farmer, and not as a farm laborer. Enter the older children of a farmer (who work on the farm) as farm laborers, except when a father and son (or sons) jointly operate the farm for fixed shares of the product.

167. Do not confuse a day laborer at work for the city, town, or at odd jobs with a farm laborer at work on the farm or plantation or in the employ of gardeners, nurserymen, etc. Do not say simply "laborer," but state in every case the kind of work done as day laborer, farm laborer, garden laborer, etc. If a person is a laborer in a mill, workshop, or factory, specify the fact, in addition to the word laborer, as laborer (cement works), etc.

168. Distinguish between a woodchopper at work regularly in the woods or forests and an ordinary laborer who takes a job occasionally at chopping wood.

169. Distinguish between a farmer or a planter who owns, hires, or carries on a farm or plantation, and a gardener, fruit grower, nurseryman, florist, or vine grower, etc., who is engaged in raising vegetables for market or in the cultivation of fruit, flowers, seeds, nursery products, etc.

170. Avoid the confusion of the garden laborer, nursery laborer, etc., who hires out his services, with the proprietor gardener, florist, nurseryman, etc., who carries on the business himself or employs others to assist him.

1 71. Return as a dairyman or dairywoman any person whose occupation in connection with the farm has to do chiefly with the dairy. Do not confuse such a person with an employee of a butter and cheese or condensed milk factory, who should be separately returned by some distinctive term.

1 72. Return a stock herder or stock drover separately from a stock raiser.

173. Do not include a lumberman, raftsman, log driver, etc., engaged in hauling or transporting lumber (generally by water) from the forest to the mill with an employee of a lumber yard or a lumber mill.

Measuring America

1 74. For a fisherman or oysterman describe the occupation as accurately as possible. Be careful to avoid the return of a fisherman on a vessel as a sailor. If he gains his living by fishing, he should be returned as a "fisherman," and not as a sailor.

Mining and Quarrying

1 75. Make a careful distinction between a coal miner and a miner of ores; also between a miner and a quarryman. State the kind of ore mined or stone quarried.

176. Do not return a proprietor or official of a mining or quarrying company as a miner or quarryman, but state his business or official position accurately.

Professional Pursuits

1 77. Specify each profession in detail, according to the fact, as follows: actor, artist or teacher of art, clergyman, dentist, designer, draftsman, engraver, civil engineer or surveyor, mechanical or mining engineer, government clerk or official, journalist, lawyer, librarian, musician or teacher of music, physician, surgeon, professor (in college or university), teacher (in school), or other pursuits of a professional nature.

1 78. Distinguish between an actor, a theatrical manager, and a showman.

1 79. Return a government official, in the service of the national, state, county, city, or town government, by the title of his office, if that is the occupation upon which he depends chiefly for a livelihood; otherwise by his usual trade or profession.

180. Distinguish between a government clerk occupying a position under the national, state, county, city, or town government and a clerk in an office, store, manufacturing establishment, etc.

181. Return a veterinary surgeon separately from another surgeon.

182. Distinguish a journalist editor, or reporter from an author or other literary person who does not follow journalism as a distinct profession.

183. Return a chemist, assayer, metallurgist, or other scientific person by his distinctive title.

Domestic and Personal Service

184. Specify each occupation or kind of service rendered in detail, according to the fact, as hotel keeper, boarding-house keeper, restaurant keeper, saloon keeper, or bartender; housekeeper, cook, or servant (in hotel, boarding-house, hospital, institution, private family, etc.); barber or hairdresser; janitor,

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sexton, or undertaker; nurse or midwife; watchman, policeman, or detective. The above are given only as examples of the occupations which would naturally be included under this general class of work.

185. Return as a housekeeper a woman who receives a stated wage or salary for her services, and do not confuse her with a woman who keeps house for her own family or for herself, without any gainful occupation, or with a grown daughter who assists in the household duties without pay. A wife or daughter who simply keeps house for her own family should not be returned as a housekeeper in any case. (See paragraph 218.)

186. A clerk in a hotel, restaurant, or saloon should be so described and carefully distinguished from a bartender. In many instances a bartender will state his occupation as "clerk" in wine store, etc., but the character of the service rendered by such a person will readily determine whether he should be classed as a "bartender," or as a "clerk."

187. A stationary engineer or fireman should be carefully distinguished from a locomotive engineer or fireman.

188. A soldier, sailor, or marine enlisted in the service of the United States should be so returned. Distinguish between an officer and an enlisted man, and for a civilian employee state the kind of service performed by him.

Pursuits of Trade and Transportation

189. Distinguish carefully between a real estate agent, insurance agent, claim agent, or commission agent, etc.

190.

191.

192.

If a person combines two or more of these occupations, as is often the case, return the occupation from which he derives the larger share of his income.

Return an accountant, bookkeeper, clerk, cashier, etc., according to his distinctive occupation, and state the kind of service rendered, as accountantinsurance; bookkeeperwholesale dry goods; clerk—gas company; cashiermusic store.

Do not confound a clerk with a salesman, as is often done, especially in dry goods stores, grocery stores, and provision stores. Generally speaking, a person so employed is to be considered as a salesman, unless most of his service is in the office on the books and accounts; otherwise he should be returned as salesman—dry goods; salesman—groceries, etc.

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193. A stenographer or typewriter should be reported as such, and should not be described simply as a "clerk."

194. Distinguish carefully between a bank clerk in bank, cashier in bank, or bank official, describing the particular position filled in each case. In no case should a bank cashier be confounded with a cashier in a store, etc.

195. Distinguish between a foreman and overseer, a packer and shipper, a porter and helper, and an errand, office, and messenger boy in a store, etc., and state in each case the character of the duties performed by him, as foremanwholesale wool; packercrockery; porterrubber goods; errand boydry goods; messenger boytelegraph.

196. State the kind of merchant or dealer, as dry goods merchant, wood and coal dealer, etc. Whenever a single word will express the business carried on, as grocer, it should be used.

197. In the case of a huckster or peddler also state the kind of goods sold, as peddlertinware.

198. Distinguish a traveling salesman from a salesman in a store, return the former as a "commercial traveler," and state the kind of goods sold by him.

199. Return a boarding or livery stable keeper separately from a hostler or other stable employee.

200. Distinguish also between an expressman, teamster, drayman, and carriage and hack driver.

201. A steam railroad employee should be reported according to the nature of his work, as baggageman, brakeman, conductor, railroad laborer, locomotive engineer, locomotive fireman, switchman, yardman, etc.

202. An official of a railroad, telegraph, express, or other company should be returned by his title and carefully distinguished from an employee of such company.

203. Return a boatman, canalman, pilot, longshoreman, stevedore, or sailor (on a steam or sailing vessel) according to his distinctive occupation.

204. A telegraph operator, telephone operator, telegraph lineman, telephone lineman, electric-light man, etc.. should be reported according to the nature of the work performed.

Manufacturing and Mechanical Pursuits

205. In reporting this class of occupations there are many difficulties in the way of showing the kind of work done rather than the article made or the place worked in. The nature of certain occupations is

Measuring America such that it is well-nigh impossible to find properly descriptive terms without the use of some expression relating to the article made or place in which the work is carried on.

206. Do not accept "maker" of an article or "works in" mill, shop, or factory, but strive always to find out the particular work done.

207. Do not use the words "factory operative," but specify the kind of work done, as cotton mill—spinner; silk millweaver, etc.

208. Avoid in all cases the use of the word "mechanic," and state whether a carpenter, mason, house painter, machinist, plumber, etc.

209. Do not say "finisher," "molder," "polisher," etc., but describe the work done as brass finisher, iron molder, steel polisher, etc.

210. Distinguish between a person who tends machines and the unskilled workman or laborer in mills, factories, and workshops.

211. Describe the proprietor of the establishment as a "manufacturer," and specify the branch of manufacture, as cotton manufacturer, etc. In no case should a manufacturer be returned as a "maker" of any article.

212. In the case of an apprentice, state the trade to which apprenticed, as Apprenticecarpenter, etc.

21 3. Distinguish between a butcher, whose business is to slaughter cattle, swine, etc., and a provision dealer, who sells meats.

214. Distinguish also between a glover, hatter, or furrier who actually makes in his own establishment all or part of the gloves, hats, or furs which he sells, and a person who simply deals in but does not make these articles.

215. Do not describe a person in a printing office as a "printer" where a more expressive term can be used, as compositer, pressman, press feeder, etc.

216. Make the proper distinction between a clock or watch "maker"and a clock or watch "repairer." Do not apply the word "jeweler" to those who make watches, watch chains, or jewelry in large establishments.

21 7. Distinguish between a cloakmaker, dressmaker, seamstress, tailoress, etc. In the case of a sewingmachine operator, specify the kind of work done.

Nongainful Pursuits

218. If a person is attending school write "at school." No entry in column 19 should be made, however, for a lawyer, merchant, manufacturer, etc., who has

Measuring America

retired from practice or business; nor for a wife or
daughter living at home and assisting only in the
household duties without pay (see paragraph 185);
nor for a person too old to work, or a child under
10 years of age not at school.

219. The doing of domestic errands or family chores out of school hours, where a child regularly attends school, is not an occupation. But if a boy or girl, above 10 years of age, is earning money regularly by labor, contributing to the family support, or appreciably assisting in mechanical or agricultural industry, the kind of work performed should be stated. (See paragraph 162.)

220. In the case of an inmate of an institution or home, such as a hospital, asylum, home for the aged, soldiers' home, penitentiary, jail, etc., no entry is required in column 19 unless the inmate is actually engaged in remunerative work for which he receives a stated wage in addition to his board. The occupation of an officer or regular employee of such institution or home, however, is to be entered in this column, the same as for all other persons having a gainful occupation.

221. Column 20.—Months not employed. The object of this question is to get the number of months (or parts of months) in the census year (June 1, 1 899, to May 31, 1900) during which each person having a gainful occupation was not employed. For those who have no gainful occupation, leave the column blank.

222. The law does not contemplate that this question shall apply solely to the principal occupation in which the person may have been engaged during the year, but it is the intent to find out the number of months (or parts of months) during which a person ordinarily engaged in gainful labor was not employed at all.

223. A return is required in columns 19 and 20 for each and every person 10 years of age and over who was engaged in gainful labor during any part of the census year (June 1, 1899, to May 31,1 900, inclusive), or who is ordinarily occupied in remunerative work but during the census year was unable to secure work of any kind. In the latter case enter his customary occupation, as carpenter, bricklayer, etc., in column 19 and the figure "12" in column 20 to show that, although he had an occupation or trade, he was not employed at all during the year at that or any other kind of work.

EDUCATION

224. Column 21.—Attended school (in months). For all persons attending school during the year ending June 1, 1900, enter the number of months (or parts

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