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in and the tenant as hiring the farm he cultivates. If the owner simply boards with the tenant, no account is to be made of the owner.
ants, or by owner and one or more tenants, it is to be
regarded as a home to each family. 2. If a person owns and cultivates what has been two or
more farms and lives on one, they are not to be taken
as more than one farm. 3. If a person owns and cultivates what has been two or
more farms and all are not mortgaged, the several farms are to be counted as one farm and as mort
gaged. 4. If a person hires both the farm he cultivates and the
home he lives in, or owns both, the home is to be con
sidered as part of the farm. 5. If a person owns the home he lives in and hires the
farm he cultivates, or owns the farm he cultivates and hires the home he lives in, both farm and home are to
be entered upon the schedule, and separately. 6. If the tenant of a farm and its owner live upon it,
either in the same house or in different houses, the
7. If the same person owns and cultivates one farm and
hires and cultivates another farm, he is to be entered
upon the schedule as owning the farm he cultivates. 8. The head of a family may own and cultivate a farm
and his wife may own another farm which is let to tenant, perhaps to her husband. In such case only the farm which is owned by the head of the family is to be considered, but the rented farm is to be taken account
of when its tenant's family is visited. 9. A person who cultivates a farm is not to be regarded
as hiring it if he works for a definite and fixed compensation in money or fixed quantity of produce, but he is to be regarded as hiring it if he pays a rental for it or is to receive a share of the produce, even though he may be subject to some direction and control by the owner.
(Name and Relationship)
108. Column 3. Name of each person enumerated.—Enter the name of every person whose usual place of abode (see paragraph 111) is in the family or dwelling place for which the enumeration is being made. The census day, that is, the day as of which the enumeration is made, is June 1, 1900. Include, therefore, every person living on June 1, 1900, or during any part of that day, and omit children born after that date.
109. It is intended that the name of every man, woman, and child whose usual place of abode on the first day of June, 1900, was within your district shall be entered on the population schedule,but no entry is to be made of a child born between the first day of June, 1900, and the day of your visit, say June 5, June 1 5, etc., as the case may be.
110. On the other hand, every person who was a resident of your district upon the first day of June, 1900, but between that date and the day of your visit shall have died, should be entered on the schedule precisely as if still living. The object of the schedule is to obtain a list of the inhabitants on the first day of June, 1900, and all changes after that date, whether in the nature of gain or loss, are to be disregarded.
111. The census law furnishes no definitions of the phrase "usual place of abode;" and it is difficult to guard against the danger that some persons will be reported in two places and others not reported at all. Much must be left to the judgement of the enumerator, who, if he will take the pains, can satisfy himself, in the great majority of instances, as to the propriety of including or not including doubtful cases in his enumeration of any given family.
112. In the case of boarders at hotels, students at schools or colleges, and inmates of institutions, ascertain whether the person concerning whom the question may arise has at the time any other place of abode within another district at which he is likely to be reported. Seafaring men are to be reported at their land homes, no matter how long they may have been absent, if they are supposed to be still alive. Hence, sailors temporarily at a sailors' boarding or lodging house, if they acknowledge any other home within the United States, are not to be included in the family of the lodging or boarding house.
1 1 3. Persons engaged in internal transportation, canal men, expressmen, railroad men, etc., if they habitually return to their homes in the intervals of their occupations, will be reported as of their families, and not where they may be temporarily staying on June 1, 1900.
merated as of the hotel, unless they are likely otherwise to be omitted from the enumeration; but the proprietor and his family, and those boarders, employees, and servants who regularly sleep there are to be so included.
11 5. The inmates of transient lodging-houses are to be so enumerated, if they claim no other home or have no other place of abode.
116. All inmates of hospitals or other institutions are to be enumerated; but if they have some other permanent place of residence, write it in the margin of the schedule on the left-hand side of the page.
117. If a soldier, sailor, or marine (officer or enlisted man), or civilian employee in the service of the United States at a station at home or abroad, is a member of a family living in your district, he should be enumerated as a member of that family, even though he may be absent on duty at the time of the enumeration.
11 8. Summer boarders at hotels or country houses and persons temporarily residing in foreign lands should be enumerated as part of their family at their home or usual place of abode.
119. The floating population in vessels, steamboats, and house boats at wharves and piers or river landings should be enumerated on the morning of June 1, as far as possible, by the enumerators of the districts contiguous to the water front, including in the enumeration all persons who claim to be residents of the United States, even though they have no other home than on board the craft where they are found; but the officers and crew of a foreign ship only temporarily in the harbor are not to be enumerated.
120. It is important to ascertain beyond a doubt whether the information given by the person supplying the same covers all the persons in the family, including not only the immediate members of the family, as the head, wife, and children, but also other relatives living with the family, servants (if they sleep in the house), and persons who live with the family, as boarders, lodgers, etc.
121. In the case of families reported "out" at the first visit, but enumerated at a later visit, no spaces should be left blank on the population schedule for the entries concerning the members of such a family, as you can have no knowledge, in most cases, of the number of members constituting the family, and hence of the number of lines to be left blank. The enumeration of the family is to be made on that sheet of the population schedule on which you are at work on the day when the information concerning such family is finally obtained by you.
122. In the case, however, of boarders, lodgers, or other persons living in a family, for whom no information can be obtained at the first visit, but which is supplied later, either in person or through the lady of the house, you should duly enter the name of such person as a member of the family so enumerated, and arrange to secure by a second or third visit, if necessary, the information needed to complete the record for such person. It is important that the person should be recorded by name at least as a member of the family with whom he resides, as otherwise the enumeration of that family will be incomplete, and if omitted from its proper place on the population schedule, such person is likely to be counted, when finally enumerated, as a family of one, which is not the fact.
123. Enter the members of each family in the following order, namely: Head first, wife second, children (whether sons or daughters) in the order of their ages, and all other persons living with the family, whether relatives, boarders, lodgers, or servants.
124. Enter first the surname, then the given name in full, and the initial of the middle name, if any. Where the surname is the same as, that of the person on the preceding line indicate this by drawing a horizontal
line ( ) thereunder, as shown in illustrative
125. Column 4. Relationship to head of family. Designate the head of the family, whether a husband or father, widow or unmarried person of either sex, by the word "Head;" for other members of a family write wife, mother, father, son, daughter, grandson, daughter-in-law, aunt, uncle, nephew, niece, boarder, lodger, servant, etc., according to the particular relationship which the person bears to the head of the family. Occupants of an institution or school, living under a common roof, should be designated as officer, inmate, pupil, patient, prisoner, etc., and in case of the chief officer his title should be used, as warden, principal, superintendent, etc. Institutions whose inmates occupy different buildings should be enumerated as though they occupied one institution building. If more than one family resides in the institution building or buildings, group the members together and distinguish them in some intelligible way. If two or more persons share a common abode as partners, write "head" for one and "partner" for the other or others.
126. Column 5. Color or race. Write "W" for white; "B" for black (negro or negro descent); "Ch" for Chinese; "Jp" for Japanese, and "In" for Indian, as the case may be.
127. Column 6. Sex. Write "M" for male and "F" for female, as the case may be.
128. Column 7. Date of birth. The object of this question is to help in getting the exact age in years of each person enumerated. Many a person who can tell the month and year of his birth will be careless or forgetful in stating the years of his age, and so an error will creep into the census. This danger can not be entirely avoided, but asking the question in two forms will prevent it in many cases.
129. Enter in the first division of column 7 the name or abbreviation of the month in which the person was born, thus: Jan., Feb., Mar., Apr., May, June, July, Aug., Sept., Oct., Nov., or Dec.
1 30. Enter in the second division the year in which the person was born, thus: 1841, 1897, etc.
131. Column 8. Age at last birthday. The object of this question is to get the age of each person in completed years, or in the case of a child under one year of age in completed months.
1 32. For each person of one year of age or over, enter the age at last birthday in whole years, omitting months and days. For children who, on the first day of June, 1900, were less than one year of age, enter the age in months, or twelfths of a year, thus 3/1 2, 7/12, 8/12. For a child less than one month old, enter the age as follows: 0/12.
133. Endeavor to ascertain in each case the month and year of birth called for in column 7, but where this is impossible get as nearly as possible the exact years of age. An answer given in round numbers, such as "about 30," "about 45," is likely to be wrong. In such cases endeavor to get the exact age.
134. Column 9. Whether single, married, widowed, or divorced. Write "S" for single or unmarried persons, "M" for married, "Wd" for widowed (man or woman), and "D" for divorced.
1 35. Column 10. Number of years married. Enter in this column for all persons reported as married (column 9) the number of years married (to present husband or wife), as 5, 9, 29, etc.; for person married during the census year, that is, from June 1, 1899, to May 31, 1900, write "0;" for all other persons leave the column blank. Notice that this question can not be answered for single persons and need not be for widowed or divorced persons.
1 36. Columns 1 1 and 1 2. Mother of how many children and number of these children living. This question applies only to women, and its object is to get the number of children each woman has had, and whether the children are or are not living on the census day. Stillborn children are not to be counted.
of children born to this woman, as 1, 2, 3, 6, 10,
1 38. Column 1 3. Place of birth of person. The object of this question is to get the birthplace of every person living in your district. If the person was born in the United States, enter in column 1 3 the state or territory (not city or town) of the United States in which he was born. A person born in what is now West Virginia, North Dakota, South Dakota, or Oklahoma should be reported as so born, although at the time of his birth the particular region may have had a different name.
1 39. If the person was born outside the United States, enter in column 1 3 the country (not city or district) in which he was born. By country is meant usually a region whose people have direct relation with other countries. Thus, do not write Prussia or Saxony, but Germany. To this rule, however, note the following exceptions.
140. Write Ireland, England, Scotland, or Wales rather than Great Britain. Write Hungary or Bohemia rather than Austria for persons born in Hungary or Bohemia, respectively. Write Finland rather than Russia for persons born in Finland.
141. Note, also, that the language spoken is not always a safe guide to the birthplace. This is especially true of Germans, for over one-third of the Austrians and nearly three-fourths of the Swiss speak German. In case a person speaks German, therefore, inquire carefully whether the birthplace was Germany, Austria, or Switzerland.
142. In case the person speaks Polish, as Poland is not now a country, inquire whether the birthplace was what is now known as German Poland or Austrian Poland or Russian Poland, and enter the answer accordingly as Poland (Gen), Poland (Aust.), or Poland (Russ.).
143. If the birthplace reported is Canada or Newfoundland, ask whether the person is of English or French decent. Write Canada English or Canada French, according to the answer.
1 44. If the person was born abroad of American parents, write in column 1 3 both the birthplace and "Am. Cit.;" that is, American citizen.
146. Spell out the names of states, territories, and countries, and do not abbreviate, except for American Citizen, as mentioned in paragraph 144.
147. Columns 14 and 1 5. Place of birth of father and mother. Apply the instructions for filling column 1 3 to these two columns; but where either the father or mother was born at sea, write in the proper column, besides the words "at sea," the birthplace of the father's father or mother's mother.
148. Column 16. Year of immigration to the United States.—If the person is a native of the United States, leave the column blank. If he was born abroad, enter the year in which he arrived in the United States.
149. Column 1 7. Number of years in the United States.—If the person is a native of the United States, leave the column blank. If he was born abroad, enter the number of years since his arrival in the United States. Disregard all fractions of a year. If the time is less than one year, write "0." Endeavor to get the exact number of years in all cases.
1 50. The question of immigration (columns 16 and 17) applies to all foreign-born persons, male and female, of whatever age. It does not apply to persons born in the United States.
151. Column 1 8. Naturalization.—If the person is a
native of the United States, leave the column blank. If he was born abroad, and has taken no steps toward becoming an American citizen, write "Al" (for alien). If he has declared his intention to become an American citizen and taken out his "first" papers, write "Pa" (for papers). If he has become a full citizen by taking out second or final papers of naturalization, write "Na" (for naturalized).
1 52. The question of naturalization (column 18) applies only to foreign-born males 21 years of age and over. It does not apply to foreign-born minors, to foreign-bom females, or to any person, male or female, who was born in the United States, either of native or foreign parentage.
OCCUPATION, TRADE, OR PROFESSION
1 53. NOTE.—The following instructions concerning the return of the occupation, trade, or profession in column 19 do not, in the main, form a part of the instructions contained in the portfolio or the