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Opposite to the inquiry numbered 1 on the schedule are to be entered the names of all persons whose usual place of abode on the 1 st day of June, 1890, was in the family enumerated.

The census law furnishes no definitions of the phrase "usual place of abode;" and it is difficult, under the American system of protracted enumeration, to afford administrative directions which will wholly obviate the danger that some persons will be reported in two places and others not reported at all. Much must be left to the judgment of the enumerator, who can, if he will take the pains, in the great majority of instances satisfy himself as to the propriety of including or not including doubtful cases in his enumeration of any given family. In the cases of boarders at hotels or students at schools or colleges the enumerator can by one or two well directed inquiries ascertain whether the person concerning whom the question may arise has at the time any other place of abode within another district at which he is likely to be reported. Seafaring men are to be reported at their land homes, no matter how long they may have been absent, if they are supposed to be still alive. Hence, sailors temporarily at a sailors' boarding or lodging house, if they acknowledge any other home within the United States, are not to be included in the family of the lodging or boarding house. Persons engaged in internal transportation, canal men, expressmen, railroad men, etc., if they habitually return to their homes in the intervals of their occupations, will be reported as of their families, and not where they may be temporarily staying on the 1 st of June, 1890.

In entering the members of a family the name of the father, mother, or other ostensible head of the family (in the case of hotels, jails, etc., the landlord, jailor, etc.) is to be entered in the first column. It is desirable that the wife should be enumerated in the second column, and the children of the family proper should follow in the order of their ages, as will naturally be the case. The names of all other persons in the family, whether relatives, boarders, lodgers, or servants, should be entered successively in subsequent columns.

The Christian name in full and initial of middle name of each person should be first entered and the surname immediately thereunder, as shown in the illustrative example.

1. Whether a soldier, sailor, or marine during the civil war (United States or Confederate), or widow of such person.

Write "Sol" for soldier, "Sail" for sailor, and "Ma" for
marine. If the person served in the United States
forces add "U.S." in parentheses, and if in the Confed-
erate forces add "Conf." in parentheses, thus: Sol
(U.S.); Sail (U.S.); Sol (Conf.), etc. In the case of a
widow of a deceased soldier, sailor, or marine, use the

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letter "W" in addition to the above designations, as W. Sol (U.S.), W. Sol (Conf.), and so on.

The enumeration of the survivors of the late war, including their names, organizations, length of service, and the widows of such as have died, is to be taken on a special schedule prepared for the purpose, as provided for by the act of March 1, 1889, and relates only to those persons, or widows of persons, who served in the Army, Navy, or Marine Corps of the United States in the late war. The inquiry concerning the survivors of both the United States and Confederate forces is made on the population schedule so as to ascertain the number now living and the number who have died and have left widows.

2. Relationship to head of family.

Designate the head of a family, whether a husband or
father, widow or unmarried person of either sex, by
the word "Head;" other members of a family by wife,
mother, father, son, daughter, grandson, daughter-in-
law, aunt, uncle, nephew, niece, servant, or other
properly distinctive term, according to the particular
relationship which the person bears to the head of the
family. Distinguish between boarders, who sleep and
board in one place, and lodgers, who room in one
place and board in another. If an inmate of an institu-
tion or school, write inmate, pupil, patient, prisoner,
or some equivalent term which will clearly distinguish
inmates from the officers and employees and their
families. But all officers and employees of an institu-
tion who reside in the institution building are to be
accounted, for census purposes, as one family, the
head of which is the superintendent, matron, or other
officer in charge. If more than one family resides in
the institution building, group the members together
and distinguish them in some intelligible way. In addi-
tion to defining their natural relationship to the head
of the institution or of their own immediate family,
their official position in the institution, if any, should
be also noted, thus: Superintendent, clerk, teacher,
watchman, nurse, etc.

COLOR, SEX, AND AGE

4. Whether white, black, mulatto, quadroon, octoroon, Chinese, Japanese, or Indian.

Write white, black, mulatto, quadroon, octoroon, Chinese, Japanese, or Indian, according to the color or race of the person enumerated. Be particularly careful to distinguish between blacks, mulattoes, quadroons, and octoroons. The word "black" should be used to describe those persons who have three-fourths or more black blood; "mulatto," those persons who have from three-eighths to five-eighths black blood; "quadroon," those persons who have one-fourth black blood; and "octoroon," those persons who have oneeighth or any trace of black blood.

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5. Sex.

Write male or female, as the case may be.

6. Age at nearest birthday. If under one year, give age in months.

Write the age in figures at nearest birthday in whole
years, omitting months and days, for each person of
one year of age or over. For children who on the 1 st of
June, 1890, were less than one year of age, give the
age in months, or twelfths of a year, thus: 3/12, 7/12,
10/12. For a child less than one month old, state the
age as follows: 0/12. The exact years of age for all
persons one year old or over should be given when-
ever it can be obtained. In any event, do not accept
the answer "Don't know," but ascertain as nearly as
possible the approximate age of each person. The
general tendency of persons in giving their ages is to
use the round numbers, as 20, 25, 30, 25, 40, etc. If
the age is given as "about 25," determine, if possible,
whether the age should be entered as 24, 25, or 26.
Particular attention should be paid to this, otherwise it
will be found when the results are aggregated in this
office that a much more than normal number of per-
sons have been reported as 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, etc.,
years of age , and a much less than normal at 19, 21,
24,26,29, 31, etc.

CONJUGAL CONDITION AND CHILDREN
AND CHILDREN LIVING

7. Whether single married, widow, or divorced.

Write single, married, widowed, or divorced, according to the conjugal condition of the person enumerated. No matter how young the person may be, the conjugal condition, if "single," should be always stated.

8. Whether married during the census year (June I, 1889, to May 31, 1890).

Write yes or no, as the case may be.

9. Mother of how many children, and number of these children living.

This inquiry is to be made concerning all women who
are or have been married, including those widowed or
divorced. The answers should be given in figures, as
follows: 6 5; that is, mother of six (6) children, of
which five (5) are living. If a woman who is or has
been married has had no children, or if none are liv-
ing, state the fact thus: 0 0 or 3 0, as the case may be.

Place of Birth and Parent Nativity

10. Place of birth.

Give the place of birth of the person whose name appears at the head of the column opposite inquiry 1, and for whom the entries are being made.

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1 1. Place of birth of father.

Give the place of birth of the father of the person for whom the entries are being made.

12. Place of birth of mother.

Give the place of birth of the mother of the person
for whom the entries are being made.
If the person (inquiry 10), or father (inquiry 11), or
mother (inquiry 1 2) were born in the United States,
name the state or territory, or if of foreign birth name
the country. The names of countries, and not of cit-
ies, are wanted. In naming the country of foreign
birth, however, do not write, for instance, "Great Brit-
ain," but give the particular country, as England,
Scotland, or Wales.

If the person, or father, or mother were born in a for-
eign country of American parents, write the name of
the country and also the words "American citizen." \f
born at sea write the words "At sea;" if in the case of
the father or mother the words "At sea" be used, add
the nationality of the father's father or mother's
father.

If born in Canada or Newfoundland, write the word "English" or "French" after the particular place of birth, so as to distinguish between persons born in any part of British America of French and English extraction respectively. This is a most important requirement, and must be closely observed in each case and the distinction carefully made.

NATURALIZATION

Inquiries 13, 14, and 1 5 should be made concerning only those adult males of foreign birth who are 21 years of age or over.

1 3. Number of years in the United States.

Give the answer in figures as 1, 2, 3, 6, 10, etc., according to the number of years such person (as stated above) may have resided in the United States.

14. Whether naturalized.

Write "Yes" or "No," as the case may be.

1 5. Whether naturalization papers have been taken out.

If naturalized (Inquiry 14), use the symbol X; if not
naturalized (Inquiry 14), write "Yes" or "No," as the
case may be, in answers to this inquiry (1 5).

Profession, Trade, or Occupation, and Months
Employed

16. Profession, trade, or occupation.

This is a most important inquiry. Study these instructions closely, and in reporting occupations avoid the

Measuring America

use of unmeaning terms. A person's occupation is the
profession, trade, or branch of work upon which he
chiefly depends for support, and in which he would
ordinarily be engaged during the larger part of the
year. General or indefinite terms which do not indi-
cate the kind of work done by each person must not
be used. You are under no obligation to give a per-
son's occupation just as he expresses it. If he can not
tell intelligibly what he is, find out what he does, and
describe his occupation accordingly. The name of the
place worked in or article made or worked upon
should not be used as the sole basis of the statement
of a person's occupation. Endeavor to ascertain
always the character of the service rendered or kind
of work done, and so state it.

The illustrations given under each of the general
classes of occupations show the nature of the
answers which should be made to this inquiry. They
are not intended to cover all occupations, but are
indicative of the character of the answers desired in
order to secure, for each person enumerated, prop-
erly descriptive designations of service rendered or
work done by way of occupation and as the means of
gaining a livelihood.

AGRICULTURAL PURSUITS—Be careful to distinguish between the farm laborer, the farmer, and farm overseer, also between the plantation laborer, the planter, and plantation overseer. These three classes must be kept distinct, and each occupation separately returned.

Do not confuse the agricultural laborer, who works on the farm or plantation, with the general or day laborer, who works on the road or at odd jobs in the village or town. Distinguish also between woodchoppers at work regularly in the woods or forests and the laborer, who takes a job occasionally at chopping wood.

Make a separate return for farmers and planters who own, hire, or carry on a farm or plantation, and for gardeners, fruit growers, nurserymen, florists, vine growers, etc., who are engaged in raising vegetables for market or in cultivation of fruit, flowers, seeds, nursery products, etc. In the latter case, if a man combines two or more of these occupations, be careful to so state it, as florist, nurseryman, and seed grower.

Avoid the confusion of the garden laborer, nursery laborer, etc., who hires out his services, with the proprietor gardener, florist, nurseryman, etc., who carries on the business himself or employs others to assist him.

Return as dairymen or dairywoman those persons whose occupation in connection with the farm has to do chiefly with the dairy. Do not confuse them with employees of butter and cheese or condensed milk factories, who should be separately returned by some distinctive term.

Return stock herders and stock drovers separately from stock raisers.

Do not include lumbermen, raftsmen, log drivers, etc., engaged in hauling or transporting lumber (generally by water) from the forest to the mill, with the employees of lumber yards or lumber mills.

FISHING.—For fishermen and oystermen describe the occupation as accurately as possible. Be careful to avoid the return of fishermen on vessels as sailors. If they gain their living by fishing, they should be returned as "fishermen," and not as sailors.

MINING AND QUARRYING.—Make a careful distinction between the coal miners and miners of ores; also between miners generally and quarrymen. State the kind of ore mined or stone quarried.

Do not return proprietors or officials of mining or quarrying companies as miners or quarrymen, but state their business or official position accurately.

PROFESSIONAL PURSUITS—This class includes actors, artists and teachers of art, clergymen, dentists, designers, draftsmen, engravers, civil engineers, and surveyors, mechanical and mining engineers, government clerks and officials, journalists, lawyers, musicians and teachers of music, physicians, surgeons, professors (in colleges and universities), teachers (in schools), and other pursuits of a professional nature. Specify each profession in detail, according to the fact. These are cited simply as illustrations of these classes of pursuits.

Distinguish between actors, theatrical managers, and showmen.

Make a separate return for government clerks occupying positions under the National, State, county, city, or town governments from clerks in offices, stores, manufacturing establishments, etc.; also distinguish government officials.

Return veterinary surgeons separately from other surgeons.

Distinguish journalists, editors, and reporters from authors and other literary persons who do not follow journalism as a distinct profession.

Return separately chemists, assayers, metallurgists, and other scientific persons.

DOMESTIC AND PERSONAL SERVICE.—Among this class of occupations are comprised hotel keepers, boarding-house keepers, restaurant keepers, saloon keepers, and bartenders; housekeepers, cooks, and servants (in hotels, boarding houses, hospitals, institutions, private families, etc.); barbers and hairdressers; city, town, and general day laborers; janitors, sextons, and undertakers; nurses and midwives; watchmen, policemen, and detectives. Specify each occupation or kind of service rendered in detail, according to the fact. The above are given only as

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examples of the occupations which would naturally be included under this general class of work.

Distinguish carefully between housekeepers, or women who receive a stated wage or salary for their services, and housewives, or women who keep house for their own families or for themselves, without any gainful occupation. The occupation of grown daughters who assist in the household duties without fixed remuneration should be returned as "Housework—without pay."

As stated under agricultural pursuits, do not confuse day laborers, at work for the city, town, or at odd jobs, with agricultural laborer, at work on the farm or plantation or in the employ of gardeners, nurserymen, etc. State specifically the kind of work done in every instance.

Clerks in hotels, restaurants, and saloons should be so described and carefully distinguished from bartenders. In many instances bartenders will state their occupation as "clerk" in wine store, etc., but the character of the service rendered by such persons will readily determine whether they should be classed as "bartenders" or not.

Stationary engineers and firemen should be carefully distinguished from engineers and firemen employed on locomotives, steamboats, etc.

Soldiers, sailors, and marines enlisted in the service of the United States should be so returned. Distinguish between officers and enlisted men, and for civilian employees return the kind of service performed by them.

PURSUITS OF TRADE AND TRANSPORTATION—Distinguish carefully between real estate agents, insurance agents, claim agents, commission agents, etc. If a person is a real estate agent and also an auctioneer, as is often the case, return his occupation as real estate agent and auctioneer.

Return accountants, bookkeepers, clerks, cashiers, etc., separately, and state the kind of service rendered, as accountantinsurance; bookkeeperwholesale dry goods; clerk—gas company; cashier—music store.

Do not confound a clerk with a salesman, as is often done, especially in dry goods stores, grocery stores, and provision stores. Generally speaking, the persons so employed are to be considered as salesmen, unless the bulk of their service is in the office on the books and accounts; otherwise they should be returned as salesmandry goods; salesman—groceries, etc.

Stenographers and typewriters should be reported separately, and should not be described simply as "clerks." Distinguish carefully between bank clerks, cashiers in banks, and bank officials, describing the particular position filled in each case. In no case should a bank cashier be confounded with cashiers in stores, etc.

Distinguish between foremen and overseers, packers and shippers, porters and helpers, and errand, office, and messenger boys in stores, etc., and state in each case the character of the duties performed by them, as foreman wholesale wool house; packercrockery; porter—rubber goods; errand boydry goods; messenger boytelegraph.

State the kind of merchants and dealers, as dry goods merchant, wood and coal dealer, etc. Whenever a single word will express the business carried on, as grocer, it should be so stated.

In the case of hucksters and peddlers also state the kind of goods sold, as peddlertinware. Distinguish traveling salesmen from salesmen in stores, and state the kind of goods sold by them.

Return boarding and livery stable keepers separately from the hostlers and other stable employees.

Distinguish also between expressmen, teamsters, draymen, and carriage and hack drivers.

Steam railroad employees should be reported separately, according to the nature of their work, as baggagemen, brakemen, conductors, laborers on railroad, locomotive engineers, locomotive firemen, switchmen, yardmen, etc.

Officials of railroad, telegraph express, and other companies should be separately returned and carefully distinguished from the employees of such companies.

Boatmen, canal men, pilots, longshoremen, stevedores, and sailors (on steam or sailing vessels) should be separately returned.

Telegraph operators, telephone operators, telegraph linemen, telephone linemen, electric-light men, etc., should be kept distinct, and a separate return made for each class.

MANUFACTURING AND MECHANICAL PURSUITS—In reporting occupations pertaining to manufactures there are many difficulties in the way of showing the kind of work done rather than the article made or the place worked in. The nature of certain occupations is such that it is well nigh impossible to find properly descriptive terms without the use of some expression relating to the article made or place in which the work is carried on.

Do not accept "maker" of an article or "works in" mill, shop, or factory, but strive always to find out the particular work done.

Distinguish between persons who tend machines and the unskilled workman or laborer in mills, factories, and workshops.

Describe the proprietor of the establishment as a "manufacturer," and specify the branch of manufacture, as cotton

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Measuring America manufacturer, etc. In no case should a manufacturer be returned as a "maker" of an article.

In the case of apprentices, state the trade to which apprenticed, as apprentice-carpenter, etc.

Distinguish between butchers, whose business is to slaughter cattle, swine, etc., and provisions dealers, who sell meats only.

Distinguish also between glover, hatter, or furrier who actually make or make up in their own establishments all or part of the gloves, hats, or furs which they sell, and the person who simply deals in but does not make these articles.

Do not use the words "factory operative," but specify in every instance the kind of work done, as cotton mill spinner; silk mill weaver, etc.

Do not describe a person in a printing office as a "printer" where a more expressive term can be used, as compositor, pressman, press feeder, etc.

Make the proper distinction between a clock or watch "maker"and a clock or watch "repairer." Do not apply the word "jeweler" to those who make watches, watch chains, or jewelry in large establishments.

Avoid in all cases the use of the word "mechanic," and state whether a carpenter, mason, house painter, machinist, plumber, etc.

Do not say "finisher," "molder," "polisher," etc., but state the article finished, molded, or polished, as brass finisher, iron molder, steel polisher, etc.

Distinguish between cloakmakers, dressmakers, seamstresses, tailoresses, etc. In the case of sewing-machine operators, specify the work done.

OTHER OCCUPATIONS.—When a lawyer, merchant, manufacturer, etc., has retired from practice or business, say retired lawyer, retired merchant, etc.

The distinction to be made between housewives, housekeepers, and those assisting in housework has already been stated under "Domestic and Personal Service." For the large body of persons, particularly young women, who live at home and do nothing, make the return as "No occupation." With respect to infants and children too young to take any part in production or to be engaged in any state occupation, distinguish between those at home and those attending school. For those too young to go to school, or who for some reason did not attend school during the census year, write the words "At home," and for those who attended school during some part of the school year write the words, "At school—public," or "At school—private," according to the kind of school. If taught by a governess or tutor, it should be so stated. The student at college or engaged in special studies should be reported separately from scholars in public or private schools.

The doing of domestic errands or family chores out of school hours, where a child regularly attends school, should not be considered an occupation. But if a boy or girl, whatever the age, is earning money regularly by labor, contributing to the family support, or appreciably assisting in mechanical or agricultural industry, the kind of work performed should be stated.

1 7. Months unemployed during the census year (June I, 1889, to May 31, 1890).

If a person having a gainful occupation was unem-
ployed during any part of the census year it should
be so stated in months and parts of months. If, as
may often happen, a person was unemployed at his
usual occupation for some time during the census
year and yet found other temporary employment for
some part or the whole of the time, this fact should
be clearly stated. For instance, a person's occupation
may be that of "farm laborer," at which he may have
had no employment for three months during the cen-
sus year. During two of these three months, however,
he may have worked in a shoe shop, so that, so far
as actual idleness is concerned, he was only out of
work one month. In all such cases, where the nonem-
ployment returned in answer to inquiry 1 7 does not
represent actual idleness as regards the person's
usual actual occupation given in answer to inquiry
16, indicates the number of months unemployed at
occupation by inserting the figures, in parenthesis,
after the name of the occupation itself. In the case
just cited, and as shown in the "illustrative example,"
the answer to inquiry 16 would appear as "Farm
laborer (3)" and the answer to inquiry 17 as "1." For
all persons not engaged in gainful occupation the
symbol "X" should be used.

SCHOOL ATTENDANCE, ILLITERACY, AND
LANGUAGE SPOKEN

18. Attendance at school (in months) during the census year (June 1, 1889, to May 31, 1900).

For all persons between the ages of 5 and 1 7, inclusive, the attendance at school during the census year should be in all cases stated in months and parts of months. Where a person within the above ages did not attend school at all during the census year write "0," and for all other persons to whom the inquiry is not applicable use the symbol "X."

Inquiries numbered 19 and 20 relate to illiteracy, and are to be made only of or concerning persons 10 years of age or over.

19. Able to read.

Write "Ves"or "No,"as the case may be.

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