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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This publication was prepared by
Jason C. Cauthier. The following
individuals provided valuable information
and and/or reviewed the manuscript:
Michael H. Hovland, Marilyn Huss
Moore, David M. Pemberton, and
JoAnn Sheperd of the U.S. Census Bureau
History Staff; Constance Potter of the
National Archives and Records Administra-
tion; and Ronald E. Green and Steven D.
Leftwood of the U.S. Census Bureau's
library.

Cover art printed by permission of the
Norman Rockwell Family Trust.
Copyright © 1940, the Norman Rockwell
Family Trust.

Kim D. Ottenstein, Bernadette J.
Cayle, Theodora S. Forgione, and
Barbara H. Blount of the Administrative
and Customer Services Division, Walter C.
Odom, Chief, provided publications and
printing management, graphics design and
composition, and editorial review for print
and electronic media. General direction
and production management were
provided by Gary J. Lauffer, Chief,
Publications Services Branch.

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Census Questionnaires and Instructions: 1 790 to 2000 5

1790 Questionnaire 5

1800 Questionnaire 6

1810 Questionnaire 6

1820 Questionnaire 6

Instructions to Marshals 6

1830 Questionnaire 7

Instructions to Marshals 7

1840 Questionnaire 8

1850 Questionnaire—Free Inhabitants 9

Instructions to Marshals and Assistants 9

1850 Questionnaire—Slave Inhabitants 11

1860 Questionnaire 13

Instructions to Marshals and Assistants 13

1870 Questionnaire 13

Instructions to Marshals and Assistants 14

1880 Questionnaire—Schedule 1, "Inhabitants" 17

Instructions to Enumerators 18

1880 Questionnaire—Schedule 1, "Indian Division" 21

1890 Questionnaire 22

1900 Questionnaire—Population 34

Instructions to Enumerators 35

1900 Questionnaire—Indian Population 43

Instructions for Enumerators 43

1910 Questionnaire—General Population 45

Instructions to Enumerators 47

1910 Questionnaire—Indian Population 55

Instructions for Enumerators 56

1920 Questionnaire 58

Instructions to Enumerators 58

1930 Questionnaire—Population 59

Instructions to Enumerators 59

1930 Questionnaire—Census of Unemployment 60

1930 Questionnaire—"Supplemental Schedule for Indian Population" . . . 61

1940 Questionnaire—Population 62

Instructions to Enumerators 64

1940 Questionnaire—Census of Occupied Dwellings 65

1940 Questionnaire—Census of Vacant Dwellings 66

Instructions to Enumerators 66

1950 Questionnaire—Population 66

Instrucions to Enumerators 70

1950 Questionnaire—Housing 71

Instructions to Enumerators—Housing 71

1960 Questionnaire 72

Instruction—Census of 1960 72

Instructions 77

1980 Questionnaire 84

1990 Questionnaire 91

2000 Questionnaire 97

Availability of Population Schedules 110

Electronic Data Processing 110

Microfilm Ill

Availability of the 1930 Census Records 115

Finding Guides 115

The 1840 Census 115

The 1885 Census 115

The 1 890 Records 115

State and Territorial Censuses 115

Mortality Schedules 116

Population Items on Principal Census Questionnaires 119

A History of the Decennial Censuses: 1790 to 2000 125

Censuses of 1790 to 1840 125

Censuses of 1850 to 1890 125

Censuses of 1900 to 2000 126

Stateside Developments 127

Sampling 127

Processing 128

Collecting the data 128

Publishing 129

Individual Histories of the United States Censuses 129

The First Census: 1790 129

The Second Censuses: 1800 129

The Third Census: 1810 129

The Fourth Census: 1820 130

The Fifth Census: 1830 130

The Sixth Census: 1840 130

The Seventh Census: 1850 130

The Eight Census: 1860 131

The Ninth Census: 1870 131

The Tenth Census: 1880 132

Interdecennial Censuses of States and Territories: 1885 133

The Eleventh Census: 1890 133

The Twelfth Census: 1900 133

The Thirteenth Census: 1910 134

The Fourteenth Census: 1920 134

The Fifteenth Census: 1930 134

1930 Census of Unemployment 135

The Sixteenth Census: 1940 135

1940 Census of Housing 135

Use of sampling in the 1940 Census 136

The Seventeenth Census: 1950 136

Procedures to improve coverage 136

Post-Enumeration Survey 137

The Eighteenth Census: 1960 137

Sampling 137

Enumeration procedures 137

The Nineteenth Census: 1970 138

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