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of the denomination to which he belongs before his profession-as Meth. for Methodist, R.C. for Roman Catholic, O.S.P. for Old School Presbyterian, or other appropriate initials, as the fact may be. When a person follows several professions or occupations the name of the principal one only is to be given. If a person follows no particular occupation, the space is to be filled with the word "none."

might give offence, the assistants had better refer to the county record for information on this head, and not make the inquiry of any family. With the county record and his own knowledge he can seldom err. Should a poorhouse, asylum for the blind, insane or idiotic, or other charitable institution, or a penitentiary, a jail, house of refuge, or other place of punishment, be visited by the assistant marshal, he must number such building in its regular order, and he must write after the number, and perpendicularly in the same column (No. 1) the nature of such institution—that it is a penitentiary, jail, house of refuge, as the case may be; and in column 13, opposite the name of each person, he must state the character of the infirmity or misfortune, in the one case, and in the other he must state the crime for which each inmate is confined, and of which such person was convicted; and in column No. 3, with the name, give the year of conviction, and fill all the columns concerning age, sex, color, etc., with as much care as in the case of other individuals.

1850 QUESTIONNAIRE-SLAVE INHABITANTS (12 1/2" X 171/2," printed on two sides with space for 40 entries on each side) The 1850 questionnaire relating to slave inhabitants collected the names of slave owners; number of slaves; the slaves color, sex, age, and whether deaf and dumb, blind, insane, or idiotic; the numbers of fugitives from the state; and the number manumitted.

8. Under the heading 8 insert the value of real estate

owned by each individual enumerated. You are to obtain the value of real estate by inquiry of each individual who is supposed to own real estate, be the same located where it may, and insert the amount in dollars. No abatement of the value is to be made on account of any lien or encumbrance thereon in the

nature of debt. 9. Under the heading 9, Place of birth.” The marshal

should ask the place of birth of each person in the family. If born in the State or Territory where they reside, insert the name or initials of the State or Territory, or the name of the government or country if without the United States. The names of the several States may be abbreviated.

Where the place of birth is unknown, state "unknown.” 10. Under heading No. 10 make a mark, or dash, opposite

the name of each person married during the year pre

vious to the 1st of June, whether male or female. 11. Under heading 11, entitled "At school within the last

year." The marshal should ask what member of this family has been at school within the last year; he is to insert a mark, thus, (1), opposite the names of all those, whether male or female, who have been at educational institutions within that period. Sunday

schools are not to be included. 12. Under the heading 12, entitled "Persons over 20 years

of age who can not read and write.” The marshal should be careful to note all persons in each family, over 20 years of age, who can not read and write, and opposite the name of each make a mark, thus, (1). The spaces opposite the names of those who can read and write are to be left blank. If the person can read and write a foreign language, he is to be considered as

able to read and write. 13. Heading 13, entitled “Deaf and dumb, blind, insane,

idiotic, pauper, or convict." The assistant marshal
should ascertain if there be any person in the family
deaf, dumb, idiotic, blind, insane, or pauper. If so,
who? And insert the term "deaf and dumb," "blind,"
"insane," and idiotic,“ opposite the name of such per-
sons, as the fact may be. When persons who had been
convicted of crime within the year reside in families
on the 1st of June, the fact should be stated, as in the

Explanation of Schedule 2-Slave Inhabitants This schedule is to be filled up in the following manner: Insert in the heading the number or name of the district, town, city, and the county or parish, and of the state in which the slave inhabitants enumerated reside, and the day of the month upon which the enumeration was taken. This is to be attested on each page of each set, by the sig. nature of the assistant marshal. The several columns are to be filled up as follows:

1. Under heading 1, entitled “Name of slave holders,"

insert, in proper order, the names of the owners of slaves. Where there are several owners to a slave, the name of one only need be entered, or when owned by a corporation or trust estate, the name of the trustee or corporation.

2. Under heading 2, entitled "Number of slaves," insert,

in regular numerical order, the number of all slaves of both sexes and of each age, belonging to such owners. In the case of slaves, numbers are to be substituted for names. The number of every slave who usually resides in the district enumerated is to be entered, although he may happen to be temporarily absent.

Measuring America

1-Inhabitants) Numbering. Dwelling houses and families will be numbered consecutively, in order as visited, until the town. ship, borough, or parish (or ward or a city) is completed, when a new numbering will begin, as is the case with the numbering of pages.

bers it need not be repeated, provided a clear horizontal line be drawn in the place it would occupy, thus:

Smith, John

- Elizabeth.

Place of abode.-By "place of abode" is meant the house or usual lodging place. All persons temporarily absent on journey or visit are to be counted as of the family; but children and youth absent for purposes of education on the 1st of June, and having their home in a family where the school or college is situated, will be enumerated at the latter place.

Dwelling houses.By "dwelling house" is meant a house standing alone, or separated by walls from other houses in a block. Only such buildings are to be reckoned as dwelling houses as have been used as the entire habitation of a family. But houses only temporarily uninhabited are to be returned and numbered in order. In that case a dash, thus (-), will be drawn through column No. 2, and the remaining spaces on the line be left blank. Hotels, poorhouses, garrisons, asylums, jails, and similar establishments, where the inmates live habitually under a single roof, are to be regarded as single dwelling houses for the purpose of the census. The character of such establishments should be written longitudinally in the columns.

Seafaring men are to be reported at their land homes, no matter how long they may have been absent, if they are supposed to be still alive. Hence, sailors temporarily at a sailors' boarding or lodging house, if they acknowledge any other home within the United States, are not to be included in the family of the lodging or boarding house. Persons engaged in internal transportation, canal men, expressmen, railroad men, etc., if they habitually return to their home in the intervals of their occupation, will be reported as of their families, and not where they may be temporarily staying on the 1st of June.

Personal Description

Columns 4, 5, and 6 must, in every case, be filled with the age, sex, or color of the person enumerated. No return will be accepted when these spaces are left blank.

Eating houses, stores, shops, etc.-Very many persons, especially in cities, have no other place of abode than stores, shops, etc.; places which are not primarily intended for habitation. Careful inquiry will be made to include this class and such buildings will be reckoned as dwelling houses within the intention of the census law; but a watchman, or clerk belonging to a family resident in the same town or city, and sleeping in such store or shop merely for purposes of security, will be enumerated as of his family. Families.- By “family" (column 2) is meant one or more persons living together and provided for in common. A single person, living alone in a distinct part of a house, may constitute a family; while, on the other hand, all the inmates of a boarding house or a hotel will constitute but a single family, though there may be among them many husbands with wives and children. Under whatever circumstances, and in whatever numbers, people live together under one roof, and are provided for at a common table, there is a family in the meaning of the law.

Ages.-The exact age, in figures, will be inserted in column 4, wherever the same can be obtained; otherwise, the nearest approximation thereto. Where the age is a matter of considerable doubt, the assistant marshal may make a note to that effect. Children, who, on the 1st of June, 1870, were less than a year old, will have their age stated by the fractional part of the year, as (1 month) 1-12, (3 months) 3-12, (9 months) 9-12, etc. In all other cases, months will be omitted. The age taken is the age at last birthday.

Names of individuals.-n column 3 will be entered the name of every person in each family, of whatever age, including the names of such as were temporarily absent on the 1st day of June, 1870. The name of any member of the family who may have died between the 1st day of June, 1870, and the day of the assistant marshal's visit is be entered, and the person fully described, as if living; but the name of any person born during that period is to be omitted. The name of the father, mother, or other ostensible head of the family (in the case of hotels, jails, etc., the landlord, jailor, etc.) is to be entered first of the family. The family name is to be written first in the column, and the full first or characteristic Christian or "given" name of each member of the family in order thereafter. So long as

Color.-t must not be assumed that, where nothing is written in this column, "White" is to be understood. The column is always to be filled. Be particularly careful in reporting the class Mulatto. The word is here generic, and includes quadroons, octoroons, and all persons having any perceptible trace of African blood. Important scientific results depend upon the correct determination of this class in schedules 1 and 2. (For reporting occupation, see remarks at the close of the instructions in regard to this schedule.) Property.-Column 8 will contain the value of all real estate owned by the person enumerated, without any deduction on account of mortgage or other encumbrance, whether within or without the census subdivision or the

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Measuring America county. The value meant is the full market value, known or estimated. "Personal estate," column 9, is to be inclusive of all bonds, stocks, mortgages, notes, live stock, plate, jewels, or furniture, but exclusive of wearing apparel. No report will be made when the personal property is under $100. Column 10 will contain the “Place of birth" of every person named upon the schedule. If born within the United States, the State or Territory will be named, whether it be the State or Territory in which the person is at present residing or not. If of foreign birth, the country will be named as specifically as possible. Instead of writing "Great Britain” as the place of birth, give the particular country, as England, Scotland, Wales. Instead of "Germany,” specify the State, as Prussia, Baden, Bavaria, Wurttemburg, Hesse, Darmstadt, etc. The inquiries in columns numbered 11, 12, 15, 16, 17, 19, and 20 are of such a nature that these columns only require to be filled when the answer to the inquiry is "Yes." If the person being enumerated had a father or mother of foreign birth; if he or she attended school during the year; if he or she can not read or can not write; if he is a citizen of the United States above the age of 21 years, and if, being such citizen, his right to vote is denied or abridged on other grounds than participation in rebellion or other crime, then an affirmative mark, thus (), will be drawn in each of the above columns opposite the name.

part of the enumeration should be performed with absolute accuracy. Every male person born within the United States, who has attained the age of 21 years, is a citizen of the United States by the force of the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution; also, all persons born out of the limits and jurisdiction of the United States, whose fathers at the time of their birth were citizens of the United States (act of February 10,1855); also, all persons born out of the limits and jurisdiction of the United States, who have been declared by judgment of court to have been duly naturalized, having taken out both "papers." The part of the enumerator's duty which relates to column 19 is therefore easy, but it is none the less of importance. It is a matter of more delicacy to obtain the information required by column 20. Many persons never try to vote, and therefore do not know whether their right to vote is or is not abridged. It is not only those whose votes have actually been challenged, and refused at the polls for some disability or want of qualification, who must be reported in this column; but all who come within the scope of any State law denying or abridging suffrage to any class or individual on any other ground than the participation in rebellion, or legal conviction of crime. Assistant marshals, therefore, will be required carefully to study the laws of their own States in these respects, and to satisfy themselves, in the case of each male citizen of the United States above the age of 21 years, whether he does not, come within one of these classes. As the fifteenth amendment to the Constitution, prohibiting the exclusion from the suffrage of any person on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude, has become the law of the land, all State laws working such exclusion have ceased to be of virtue. If any person is, in any State, still practically denied the right to vote by reason of any such State laws not repealed, that denial is merely an act of violence, of which the courts may have cognizance, but which does not come within the view of marshals and their assistants in respect to the census.

Education.-t will not do to assume that, because a person can read, he can, therefore, write. The inquiries contained in columns 16 and 17 must be made separately. Very many persons who will claim to be able to read, though they really do so in the most defective manner, will frankly admit that they can not write. These inquiries will be asked of children under 10 years of age. In regard to all persons above that age, children or adults, male and female, the information will be obtained.

At school.-t is not intended to include those whose education has been limited to Sunday or evening schools. Deaf and dumb, Blind, Insane, or Idiotic.-Great care will be taken in performing this work of enumeration, so as at once to secure completeness and avoid giving offense. Total blindness and undoubted insanity only are intended in this inquiry. Deafness merely, without the loss of speech, is not to be reported. The fact of idiocy will be better determined by the common consent of the neighborhood, than by attempting to apply any scientific measure to the weakness of the mind or will.

Indians.--"Indians not taxed” are not to be enumerated on schedule 1. Indians out of their tribal relations, and exercising the rights of citizens under state or Territorial laws, will be included. In all cases write “Ind." in the column for "Color.” Although no provision is made for the enumeration of "Indians not taxed,” it is highly desirable, for statistical purposes, that the number of such persons not living upon reservations should be known. Assistant marshals are therefore requested, where such persons are found within their subdivisions, to make a separate memorandum of names, with sex and age, and embody the same in a special report to the census office. Occupation. The inquiry, "Profession, occupation, or trade,” is one of the most important questions of this schedule. Make a study of it. Take special pains to avoid unmeaning terms, or such as are too general to convey a

Constitutional Relations

Upon the answers to the questions under this head will depend the distribution of representative power in the General Government. It is therefore imperative that this

Measuring America

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Confine the use of words "glover," hatter," and "furrier" to those who actually make, or make up, in their own establishments, all, or a part, of the gloves and hats or furs which they sell. Those who only sell these articles should be characterized as "glove dealer," "hat and cap dealer," "fur dealer."

definite idea of the occupation. Call no man a "factory hand” or a "mill operative." State the kind of a mill or factory. The better form of expression would be, "works in cotton mill," "works in paper mill," etc. Do not call a man a “shoemaker," "bootmaker," unless he makes the entire boot or shoe in a small shop. If he works in (or for) a boot and shoe factory, say so. Do not apply the word "jeweler” to those who make watches, watch chains, or jewelry in large manufacturing establishments. Call no man a “commissioner," a "collector," an "agent," an overseer," a "professor," a "treasurer,” a “contractor," or a “speculator," without further explanation. When boys are entered as apprentices, state the trade they are apprenticed to, as “apprenticed to carpenter," "apothecary's apprentice." When a lawyer, a merchant, a manufacturer, has retired from practice or business, say “retired lawyer,” “retired merchant," etc. Distinguish between fire and life insurance agents. When clerks are returned, describe them as "clerk in store," "clerk in woolen mill," "R.R. clerk," "bank clerk," etc.

Judges (state whether federal or state, whether probate, police, or otherwise) may be assumed to be lawyers, and that addition, therefore, need not be given; but all other officials should have their profession designated, it they have any, as "retired merchant, governor of Massachusetts," "paper manufacturer, representative in legislature." If anything is to be omitted, leave out the office, and put in the occupation.

As far as possible distinguish machinists as "locomotive builders," "engine builders," etc.

Instead of saying “packers," indicate whether you mean "pork packers” or “crockery packers," or "mule packers." The organization of domestic service has not proceeded so far in this country as to render it worth while to make distinction in the character of work. Report all as "domestic servants."

Describe no man as a "mechanic" if it is possible to describe him more accurately. Distinguish between stone masons and brick masons.

Do not call a bonnet maker a bonnet manufacturer, a lace maker a lace manufacturer, a chocolate maker a chocolate manufacturer. Reserve the term manufacturer for proprietors of establishments; always give the branch of manufacture.

Cooks, waiters, etc., in hotels and restaurants will be reported separately from domestic servants. The term "housekeeper" will be reserved for such persons as receive distinct wages or salary for the service. Women keeping house for their own families or for themselves, without any other gainful occupation, will be entered as "keeping house." Grown daughters assisting them will be reported without occupation.

Whenever merchants or traders can be reported under a single word expressive of their special line, as "grocer," it should be done. Otherwise, say dry goods merchant, coal dealer, etc.

Add, in all cases, the class of business, as wholesale (wh.), retail (ret.), importer (imp.), jobber, etc. Use the word huckster in all cases where it applies.

You are under no obligation to give any man's occupation just as he expresses it. If he can not tell intelligibly what it is, find out what he does, and characterize his profession accordingly. The inquiry as to occupation will not be asked in respect to infants or children too young to take any part in production. Neither will the doing of domestic errands or family chores out of school be considered an occupation. “At home" or "attending school" will be the best entry in the majority of cases. But if a boy or girl, whatever the age, is earning money regularly by labor, contributing to the family support, or appreciably assisting in mechanical or agricultural industry, the occupation should be stated.

Be very particular to distinguish between farmers and farm laborers. In agricultural regions this should be one of the points to which the assistant marshal should especially direct his attention.

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Measuring America

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