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EXPLANATION. -The white spaces show the amount of moonlight each night. January 9, February 8, etc., show the time of new moon, when there is no moonlight during the whole night; January 16, February 15, etc., the moon sets at or near midnight, when the former half of the night has moonlight; January 23, February 22, etc., the time of full moon, when moonlight lasts the whole night. January 31, February 28, March 30, etc., the moon rises at or near midnight, when the latter half of the night has moonlight.

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Facts About the Earth. ACCORDING to Clark, the equatorial semi-diameter is 20, 926, 202 feet-3963. 296 miles, and the polar semi-diameter is 20, 854,895 feet=3950. 738 miles. One degree of latitude at the pole=69. 407 miles. One degree of latitude at the equator=68. 704 miles.

POPULATION OF THE EARTH BY CONTINENTS.
(From Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society for January, 1891.)
CONTI-

INHABITANTS.
CONTI-

INHABITANTS.
A rea in

A rea in
NENTAL
Per Sq. NENTAL

Per Sq.
Number.
Square Miles.
DIVISIONS.

Number.
Mile.

Square Miles.
DIVISIONS.

Mile. Africa 11,514,000 127,000,000 11.00 Europe......

3,555,000 380, 200,000 106.90 America, N.. 6,446,000 89, 250,000 13.80 Polar Reg...

4,888,800

300,000 0.07 America, S.. 6,837.000 36, 420,000 5.30

Total......

51,238,800 1,487,900,000 14,710,000 850.000.000

29.00 Asia ...

57.70 Australasia 3. 288.000 4.730.000 1. 40

The above estimate was made by Ernest George Ravenstein, F.R.G.S., the geographer and statistician, and is for 1890. The population of North America, 1900, had increased to over 100,000,000.

An estimate of population of the earth, made by Drs. Wagner and Supan, editors of "Bevolkerung der Erde' (Perthes, Gotha, 1891), is as follows: Europe, 357, 379, 000, Asia, 825, 954,000; Africa, 163, 953, 000; America, 121, 713,000; Australia, 3, 230,000; Oceanic Islands, 7,420,000; polar regions, 80, 400. Total, 1,479, 729, 400. The estimate of area of the continents and islands by the same authorities is 52,821, 684.

Ravenstein's estimate of the earth's fertile region, in square miles, is 28, 269, 200; steppe, 13, 901,000; desert, 4, 180,000; polar regions, 4,888, 800.

The population of the earth at the death of the Emperor Augustus, estimated by Bodio, was 54,000,000. The population of Europe hardly exceeded 50,000, 000 before the fifteenth century. - Mulhall.

The area and cubic contents of the earth, according to the data of Clark, given above, are: Surface, 196, 971,984 square miles; cubic contents, 259, 944, 035,515 cubic miles.

Murray (Challenger expedition) states the greatest depth of the Atlantic Ocean at 27,366 feet; Pacific Ocean, 30,000 feet; Indian Ocean, 18, 582 feet; Southern Ocean, 25, 200 feet, Arctic Ocean, 9,000 feet. The Atlantic Ocean has an area, in square miles, of 24,536,000; Pacific Ocean, 50,309,000; Indian Ocean, 17,084,000; Arctic Ocean, 4, 781,000, Southern Ocean, 30, 592, 000. The highest mountain is believed to be Deodhunga, one of the Himalayas, 29, 002 feet. For population of the earth according to creed, see RELIGIOUS Statistics.

POPULATION OF THE EARTH ACCORDING TO RACE.

(Estimated by John Bartholomew, F.R.G.S., Edinburgh.)
RACE
Location. Number.

RACE.

Location. Number. Indo - Germanic or Europe, Persia,

Hottentot and BushAryan (white)...... etc.......

545,500,000 man (black).. South Africa 150,000 Mongolian or Turain

Malay and Polynes- Aust ralasia ian (yellow and Greater part of

ian (brown)

& Polynesia 35,000,000 brown).

Asia...

630,000,000 American Indian North & So. Semitic or Hamitic North Africa,

(red)....

America..... 15,000,000 (white)..

Arabia

65,000,000 Negro and Bantu

Total.......

1,440,650,000 (black)...

Central Africa.... 150,000,000 The human family is subject to forty-two principal governments. As to their form they may be classified as follows: Absolute monarchies, China, Korea, Morocco, Persia, Russia, Siam, Turkey; Limited monarchies, Austria-Hungary, Belgium, British Empire, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Portugal, Roumania, Servia, Sweden and Norway, Spain ; Republics, Argentine Republic, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, France, Guatemala, Xayti, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Peru, Salvador, San Domingo, Switzerland, United States of America, Uruguay, Venezuela. Besides these are the undefined despotisms of Central Africa, and a few insignificant independent States.

The average duration of human life is about 33 years. One-quarter of the people on the earth die before age 6, one-half before age 16, and only about 1 person of each 100 born lives to age 65. The deaths are calculated at 67 per minute, 97, 790 per day, and 35, 639, 835 per year; the births at 70 per minute, 100, 800 per day, and 36, 792,000 per year.

EUROPEAN LANGUAGES SPOKEN.
PROPOR-

PROPOR-
NUMBER OF PERSONS TION OF

NUMBER OF PERSONS TION OF
LAN-
SPOKEN BY.

LAN
SPOKEN BY.

THE GUAGES.

WHOLE.
GUAGES.

WHOLE.
1801.
1890. 1801. 1890.

1801.

1890. 1801. 1890. English 20,520,000 111,100.000 12.7 27.7 Portuguese 7,480,000 13,000,000 4.7 3.2 French 31,450,000 51,200.000 19.4 12.7 Russian 30,770,000 75,000,000 19.0 18.7 German. 30,320,000 75, 200.000 18.7 18.7 Italian 15.070.000 33, 400.000 9.3

8.3

Total 161,800,000 401,700,000 100.0 100.0 Spanish 26, 190.000 42.800.000 16.2 10.7

These estimates by Mulhall (1891) exhibit the superior growth of the English language in the last ninety years. Another authority (see "English Speaking Religious Communities") estimates the number using the English language in 1895 at over 124,130,000. English is fast becoming the polite tongue of Europe.

THE

The Geological Strata.

THE strata composing the earth's crust is divided by most geologists into two great classes : 1. Those generally attributed to the agency, of water. 2. To the action of fire; which may be subdivided as follows: (a) Aqueous formations, stratified, rarely crystalline (sedimentary or fossiliferous rocks; metamorphic or unfossiliferous). (6) Igneous formations, unstratified, crystalline (volcanic, as basalt; platonic, as granite).

The geological record is classified into five main divisions or periods: 1. The Archæan, lifeless and dawn of life. 2. The Palæozoic (ancient life). 3. The Mesozoic (middle life). 4. The Cenozoic (recent life). 5. Quaternary, the age in which man's first appearance is indicated.

[blocks in formation]

Mesozoic
Period,

4. Laramie. Upper Chalk.
Cretaceous

3. Colorado. Lower Chalk. Chalk Marl.
Era.
2. Dakota.

Gault.
1. Lower.

Neocomian. Lower Greensand.

Wealden.
Age of Reptiles.

3. Purbeck.

Purbeck, Portland, Kimmeridge. Jurassic 2. Qölite.

Oxford Oölites. Lower or Bath Oölite. Jura1. Lias.

1. Lower Lias. 2. Marlstone. 3. Upper

Lias.
Trias.

4. Rhætic. Kössen beds, Dachstein beds;. Alpine 7. Trias- 3. Upper. Keuper.

(Trias, in part. sic. 2. Middle.

Muschelkalk Bunter-Sandstein. 1. Lower,

2. Magnesian Limestone. 3. Permian. 1. Lower Red Sandstone, or Rothli

(gendes.
Age of Coal
Carboniferous 2. Carboniferous. 3. Upper Coal-Measures.

2. Lower ('oal-Measures.
Plants.
Era.

1. Millstone Grit.
1. Subcarbonifer-

Lower Carboniferous. Mountain Lime-
Ous.

stone.
5. Catskill and Catskill Red Sandstone.

Chemung. Chemung.
4. Portage.

Portage.
Age of Fishes. Devonian Era.

Genesee Slate.
3. Hamilton.

Old Red Hamilton beds.

Sandstone. Marcellus Shale. 2. Coniferous,

Upper Helderberg, Scho1. Oriskany.

harie, Grit.

Oriskany Sandstone.
3. Lower
Helderberg.

Lower Helderberg.

Onondaga Salt Group. Salina beds.
Upper 2. Onondaga.

Water Lime.
Silurian,

3. Niagara Group. Wenlock Group. 1. Niagara 2. Clinton Group.

Upper

1. Medina Sandstone. Llandovery. Age of Invertebrates.

3. Hudson River beds. Cincinnati

Group. Lower Llandovery.

2. Utica Shales.
3. Trenton, 1. Trenton Limestone.
Lower

Caradoc and
Silurian.

Bala Limestone.

Black River Limestone. 2. Chazy.

(hazy Limestone. 1. Calciferous.

s Calciferous Sandrock. Magnesian

stone.

Palæozoic

Period.

Cambrian.

Lower, Middle, and Upper Cambrian.

Archæan Period.

Eozoic (dawn of life). 1. Laurentian. Huronian.
Azoic (lifeless).

Thermometers. Rules for Foretelling the weather.

52

40

COMPARATIVE SCALES.

ADAPTED FOR USE WITH ANEROID BAROMETERS.

A RISING BAROMETER. Reau Centi Fahr.

A RAPID rise indicates unsettled weather, mur, grade, en heit,

A gradual rise indicates settled weather. 80° 1000 212°. WATER BOILS

A rise with dry air and cold increasing in Summer indicates

wind from the northward; and if rain has fallen, better weather

AT SEA76 95 203 LEVEL.

may be expected. 72 90 194

A rise with moist air and a low temperature indicates wind and 68 85 185

rain from the northward. 63. 1 78.91 174

A rise with southerly winds indicates fine weather. 60 75 167 Alcohol Boils.

A STEADY BAROMETER, 56 70 158

With dry air and seasonable temperature indicates a continuance 65 149

of very fine weather. 48 . 60 140 44 55

A FALLING BAROMETER. 131 42. 2 52.8 127 Tallow Melts.

A rapid fall indicates stormy weather. 40 50 122

A rapid fall with westerly wind indicates stormy weather from 36 45

the northward. 113 33.8 42.2 108

A fall with a northerly wind indicates storm, with rain and hail 32 104

in Summer, and snow in Winter. 29.3 36,7 98 Blood Heat.

A fall with increased moisture in the air, and heat increasing, 28 35 95

indicates wind and rain from the southward. 25.8 32. 2 90

A fall with dry air and cold increasing in Winter indicatessnow. 24 30

A fall after very calm and warm weather indicates rain with 21.3 26.7 80

squally weather. 20 25 77

The barometer rises for northerly winds, including from north16 20 68

west by north to the eastward for dry, or less wet weather, for less 12.4 15,3 60 Temperate.

wind, or for more than one of these changes, except on a few 10. 2 12.8 55

occasions, when rain, hail, or snow comes from the northward with 8 50

strong wind. 5.8 7. 2 45

The barometer falls for southerly wind, including from south4 5 41

east by south to the westward, for wet weather, for stronger wind 1.3 1.7 35

or for more than one of these changes, except on a few occasions, 0 0 32 WATER

when moderate wind, with rain or snow, comes from the north

ward. -- 0.9 1.1 30 FREEZES. 5 23

The above printed rules are in use by the Seawanhaka-Corin- 5.3 20

thian Yacht Club of New York. -8 -10 14 - 9.8 -12.2 10

DURATION OF DIFFERENT KINDS OF WEATHER IN THE SEVERAL 12 --15 5

STORMS--VICINITY OF NEW YORK. -14.2 17.81 O ZERO Fahr. 16 -20 - 4

CRITICAL WINDS.

Clear Cloudy Rain Clearing --20 -25 -13

Hours. Hours. Hours Hours -24 -30 -22 South to Southwest........

9

8 8.3 14 -35 -31 South to Southeast.

14 13.4 15.6 15.4 -40 East to Northeast...

20 17.6 31 20.6

88

10

6.7

-28

32

40

LINE OF PERPETUAL SNOW.
The line of perpetual snow varies with latitude, and is as follows in feet above sea-level:

LATITUDE.

Feet.

LATITUDE.

Feet.

LATITUDE.

Feet.

15, 260 30
11,484 60

3,818 10 14,764 40

9,000 70

1,278 20 13,478 50

6,334
OBJECTS VISIBLE AT SEA-LEVEL IN CLEAR WEATHER.
The following table shows the distance at sea-level at which objects are visible at certain elevations:
ELEVATION-FEET.

Miles.
ELEVATION-FEET.

Miles.
ELEVATION--FEET.

Miles.

1 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 25

1.31 2.96 3. 24 3. 49 3. 73 3. 96 4.18 5.92 6.61

30 35 40 45 50 60 70 80

7. 25 7.83 8.37 8. 87 9.35 10. 25 11.07 11.83

90
100
150
200
300

500
1,000
1 mile.

12. 25 13. 23 16. 22 18. 72 22.91 29.58 33. 41 96.10

STRENGTH OF ICE. Recently formed ice (and on the surface) one inch and a half thick will support a man; four inches thick will support cavalry; five inches thick will support an eighty-four pound cannon; ten inches thick will support an army; eighteen inches thick will support a railroad train.

THICKNESS OF ICE. Maximum thickness Winter of 1899-1900 in rivers as reported by the United States Weather Bureau: Inches.

Inch-s. Moorehead, Minn. 36.5 Topeka, Kan.. 6.5 Bangor, Me...

170 Bismarck, N. Dak.. 26.0 Pittsburgh, Pa.. 4.0 Albany, N. Y

8.5 St. Paul, Minn. 24.0 Parkersburg, W. Va. 2.0 Philadelphia, Pa.

2.0 La Crosse, Wis. 15.5 Louisville, Ky. 5.0 Washington, D. C.

50 Dubuque, Iowa..

18.0

Inch s.

Table of Magnetic Declinations, OR VARIATIONS OF THE COMPASS FOR THE EPOCH JANUARY, 1900-WITH THE ANNUAL CHANGE

FROM 1895 To 1900 FOR THE PRINCIPAL PLACES IN THE UNITED STATES. A plus (+) sign denotes West Declination; a minus (-) sign East Declination. For the annual change a plus sign denotes increasing West or decreasing' East declination, and a minus sign the reverse. (Specially prepared for THE WORLD ALMANAC from reports of the United States Coast and Geodetic

Survey.)

[blocks in formation]

0 1 1

O

1 Ala. Montgomery.... 32 22 86 18 2 36 + 3.6 Miss.... Oxford.... 34 22 89 33 5 24+ 4.0 Mobile... 30 42 88 3 4 20

4.3 Mo...

Jefferson City... 38 35 92 9 7 12+ 4.2 Florence. 34 48 87 43 3 48 + 3.2

St. Louis. 38 38 90 16 50+ 4.2 Alaska... Sitka.... 57 3135 20 -29 45 - 2.0

Kansas City 39 7 94 38 8 48 + 4.0 St. Paul.... 57 48 152 22 --24 15 + 5.0 Mon.... Helena....... 46 37 112 2 -19 6+ 1.9 St. Michael. 63 29 162 1 -22 6+ 7.0 Neb.. Lincoln......

-10 12 + 3.5 Fort Yukon...... 66 34 145 18-34 30+ 5.0

Omaha.... 41 16 95 56 - 8 54 + 4.1 Cape Smyth 71 18 156 39 -32 30 +12.0 Nevada... Carson City. 39 10 119 46-16 36 + 1.0 Ariz.. Prescott.....

-13 30 + 1.5

Eureka... 39 31 115 58-16 12 + 1.5 Yuma..... 32 44 114 37 -13 12 + 1.0 N. H. Concord......... 43 12 71 29 +12 24 + 2.0

Nogales.... 31 20 110 56 -12 6+ 1.5 N. J......... Trenton... 40 13 74 44 + 7 54 + 3.0 Ark.. Little Rock....... 34 44 92 16 - 6 36 + 4.3 N. Mex... Santa Fé ..... 35 41 105 57 -12 24 + 1.7 Cal.. Sacramento... 38 36 121 30 -16 0 0.0 N. Y Albany.. 42 40 73 45 +11 6+ 3.2 San Francisco. . 37 48 122 27 -16 42 – 0.1

New York...

40 43 74 0 + 9 6+ 3.6 Los Angeles.. 34 4 118 15 14 18 + 1.0

Ithaca....... 42 27 76 29 4 7 30'+ 5.1 San Diego.. 32 43 117 10-13 42 + 1.3

Buffalo......... 42 55 78 54 16 0 + 4.0 Col

Denver....... ..... 89 45 105 0-13 30 3.5 N. C......... Raleigh. 35 47 78 38 + 1 48 + 3.0 Conn Hartford..... 41 46 72 40 +10 24 + 2.8

Wilmington .. 34 13 77 56 + 1 36 + 2.5 New Haven... 41 1872 55 + 9 54 + 3.1 N. Dak... Bismarck. 46 48 100 47 -14 36 + 3.0 Del.. Dover. 39 975 31 + 6 27 + 3.0

Pembina... 48 58 97 14 -11 6 + 4.8 Dist. of

Ohio... Columbus 40 083 0+ 0 36 + 4.5 Col........ Washington.. 38 53 77 0 + 4 50+ 3.0

Cleveland 41 30 81 42 + 2 30 + 2.7 Florida... Tallahassee 30 26 84 17 - 2 0 + 4.0

Cincinnati. 398 84 25 - 1 18 + 3.3 Jacksonville.. 30 20 81 39 0 54 + 3.5 Okla... .... Guthrie

- 90 + 3.0 Key West..... 24 33 81 48 2 42 + 2.8 Oregon... Portland..... 45 31 122 41 -22 30-0.6 Georgia. Atlanta... 33 44 84 22 1 36 + 3.7 Pa

Harrisburg... 40 16 76 53 + 6 0 + 1.7 Savannah.. 32 5 81 5 - 0 48 + 3.6

Philadelphia 39 58 75 10 + 7 42+ 3.6 Idaho...... Boisé.

18 20 + 1.5

Pittsburgh. 40 28 80 1+ 3 36 + 2.9 Illinois... Springfield. 39 50 89 39 4 12 + 4.5 R. I. Providence. 41 50 71 24 12 0 + 2,5

Chicago. 41 54 87 37 2 54 + 4.4 S. C. Columbia.. 34 0 81 2 - 0 24 + 3.0 Ind. Ter.. Atoka.. 34 24 96 5 8 0+ 3.0

Charleston. 32 47 79 56 + 0 30+ 2.3 Indiana.. Indianapolis.. 39 47 86 8 1 36 + 4.3 S. Dak.... Pierre....... 44 22 100 22 -12 30 + 3.0 Fort Wayne.. .41 3 85 3 0 42 + 4.0

Yankton.. 42 53 97 25 -11 0 + 3.4 Iowa....... Des Moines. 41 36 93 36 7 42 + 5.1 Tenn........ Nashville. 36 986 48 - 3 36 + 4.7 Dubuque.. 42 30 90 44 5 24 + 5.0

Knoxville. 35 58 83 55 + 0 12 + 4.3 Kansas... Topeka....

8 48 + 4.3

Memphis. 35 8 90 3 – 5 18+ 4.4 Wichita.. 37 40 97 20 9 30 + 3.0 Tex. Austin..

30 17 97 44 - 754 + 2.8 Ky....... Frankfort....

1 30 + 3.2

San Antonio..... 29 27 98 28 8 18+ 3.8 Paducah. 37 5 88 37 4 24 + 4.4

Houston.... 29 42 95 20 7 12+ 3.5 Louisville.. 38 15 85 46 1 24 + 4.0

Galveston 29 18 94 47 6 54 + 4.0 La..... Baton Rouge.... 30 27 91 11 5 42+ 3.5

El Paso..... 31 46 106 29 -11 30+ 2.7 New Orleans.... 30 0906 5 12 + 4.3 Utah. ...... Salt Lake. 40 46 111 54 -16 6+ 2.1 Shreveport... 32 30 93 45 6 36 + 3.5

Ogden...

41 13 112 0--17 0+ 2.1 Maine.... Augusta...

+16 0 + 1.5 Vt ...... Montpelier. 44 17 72 36 +14 0+ 2.5 Portland.... 43 39 70 17 +14 24 + 2.0

Burlington. 44 28 73 12 +12 30 + 2.2 Eastport... 44 54 66 59 +19 0 0.0 Va......... Richmond.. 37 32 77 26 * 3 42 + 3.2 Annapolis. 38 59 76 29 + 5 30+ 2.8

Norfolk... 36 50 76 177 4 0+ 2.8 Baltimore. 39 16 76 35 + 5 24 + 2.8

Lynchburg. 37 25 79 9 2 12 + 3.5 Mass........ Boston.

42 22 71 4 +12 18 + 1.6 Wash. olympia.... 47 2 122 54 -22 30 – 1.7 Springfield. 426 73 32 +11 12 + 2.5

Walla Walla... 46 4 118 21 -21 6 - 1.5 Mich... Lansing..

+ 0 50 + 4.0 W. Va..... Charleston 38 21 81 38 + 2 0 + 3.5 Detroit.. 42 21 83 3+1 12 + 2.3

Wheeling. 40 3 80 44 +1 6+ 3.5 Marquette.. 46 33 87 22 - 2 24 + 4.0 Wis....... Madison. 43 4 89 25 - 5 12 + 3.8 Minn....... St. Paul.. 44 58 93 5 - 8 42 + 5.2

Milwaukee. 43 4 87 53 3 36 + 5.4 Duluth. 46 46 92 4-12 18 + 2.1

Superior City. 46 40 92 4 9 30 + 2.1 Miss......... Jackson............. 32 19 90 12 - 5 36 + 3.5 | Wyo...... . Cheyenne 41 8 104 49-14 12 + 3.0

EXTREME VALUES. Maine.. Mo. of Green R.

Alaska... Demarcation (Brunswick)./47 19) 68 10+21 18

Point. 69 41 141 0-40 30 +10.0

CONQUESTS. Cuba........ Havana.... 23 81 82 22 - 2 48 + 3.8 Haw' Honolulu ... 21 18 157 52 -10 12 1.8

Santiago...... 20 0 75 50 0 48 + 3.0 Islands Waimea...... 20 2155 38-920 - 1.8 Porto San Juan. 18 29 66 7+ 0 45 + 2.0 PhilipRico. Ponce....... ....... 17 59 66 40 + 0 35 + 2.0 pines ....

Manila.... 14 35

0 58+ 0.9 *Manila, 1200 581 East.

Md............

1.0/

+

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