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STATE LEGISLATION IN 1901-Continued.
mining operations, so far as underground work is concerned, applied the eight-hourlimit of the working day to individual employers as well as corporations, with a criminal penalty for a violation of the law.
The Colorado eight-hour law, so-called, passed in 1899, was held invalid by the Supreme Court of the State on the ground that it provided for the health of the miner and no other class of citizens, and was class legislation, and in violation of the State bill of rights. This led to the submission to the people, by virtue of an act of the Legislature of the present year, of an amendment to the State Constitution intended to remove the obstacles which led the court to hold the former act invalid.
A further law of Colorado provided that all private corporations doing business in the State, except railroads, shall pay their employés in cash, or checks convertible into cash on demand, the fifth and twentieth day of each month, and railroads are required to pay once a month. Another provision of the same law enacted that whenever any employé is discharged from the service of such corporation, then all the unpaid wages of such employé shall immediately become due, and that any contract between any corporation or any parties in its employ the provisions of which shall be in violation or contravention of the act shall be unlawful and void. By a separate act, a former law prohibiting boycotting and blacklisting was repealed.
It was provided in Indiana that the minimum wage of unskilled labor upon all public works shall be 20 cents an hour, and Texas passed an act prohibiting any person, firm, or corporation from issuing any obligation redeemable in goods or merchandise in payment of labor rendered by any servant or employé whomsoever.
In regard to the liability of employers, Colorado passed an act making an employer an insurer of his employés to the extent that he is liable for any injury or death suffered by an employé because of the omission of duty or negligence of a co-employé, in the same manner as if it had been the negligence of the employer, and by a law of Indiana all pre-contracts between the employer and employé, releasing the employer or third person from liability from negligence, were declared null and void.
Minnesota authorized any city of the State of over 50,000 inhabitants to establish and conduct employment offices, and Kansas established an employment bureau and free employment agencies through the State to be maintained at the public expense. Oregon passed a sweeping law for the protection of union labels.
Utah, Illinois, Missouri, and Idaho passed laws creating or regulating the powers of Boards of Mediation and Arbitration, and in Missouri the violation of the conditions of the decision of the Board where both parties have agreed to arbitration was made a misdemeanor.
Creditors' Rights and Protection of Title to Property.-Kansas by an amendment act made it larceny to injure, destroy, or conceal personal property covered by a mortgage or to sell or dispose of the same without the consent of the mortgagee, and to execute a release of a chattel mortgage with intent to defraud the mortgagee is made a felony.
Laws for the registration and protection of trade marks were passed by Illinois, Nebraska, Penusylvania, Utah, and Wisconsin, and the Torrens ystem of registration for the better securing the title to real estate was adopted by Minnesota, and a commission to investigate that system was provided for by the Legislature of Nebraska.
Taxation -Minnesota provided for the appointment of a tax commission to make a complete code of taxation and recommend such constitutional amendments as may be necessary to carry out the system.
Inheritance tax laws were passed by Arkansas, Nebraska, and Utah. Colorado provided that the inheritance tax shall extend to any property which shall be transferred by deed, grant, sale, or gift made in comtemplation of the death of the grantor, and Maine raised its inheritance tax from 236 to 4 per cent.
* New York imposed a franchise tax on savings banks of 1 per cent annually on the par value of their surplus and undivided earnings, and a similar tax upon the capital stock, surplus, and undivided profits of every domestic trust company authorized to do a trust business in the State, but with large exemptions from all other taxation.
As regards the taxation of mortgages, a law of Missouri provided that the value of the mortgaged property, less the value of the mortgage, shall be assessed and taxed to the owner of the property, and the value of the mortgage shall be assessed and taxed to the mortgagee or owner thereof." This law was adopted as an amendment to the Constitution by a vote of the people in November, 1900, and the same principle was thereafter enacted into a law by the Legislature in 1901. The provision was. however, declared unconstitutional in the cases of Russell vs. Croy and Holmes vs. Croy (63 S. W. Rep. 849), on the ground that the amendment does not offer the equal protection of the laws guaranteed by the Fourteenth Amendment of the Federal Constitution, the inequality consisting in the exception as to railroad and other quasi-public corporations, whose securities are excepted from the operation of the law by the terms thereof.
Colorado provided that mortgaged property shall be assessed as a unit at full value, disregarding the mortgage, which shall not be otherwise returned or assessed, while Idaho wholly exempted from taxation all dues and credits secured by mortgage, trust deed, or other lien. This legislation holds out a promise of the gradual abolition, wherever it exists, of the double taxation of both the mortgage and the mortgaged property, each without regard to the tax paid upon the other, a mode of taxation as inexpedient as it is unjust.
Connecticut appointed a special tax commissioner to examine the whole operation of the tax laws throughout the State, and to report thereon to the General Assembly with such recommendations as he may have to offer, and Idaho and Colorado passed comprehensive revenue laws dealing with the subject of taxation and much the same in their general provisions. The Idaho law is especially stringent in some particulars, for it not only makes it a misdemeanor to assess property at a lower rate than its actual cash value, but provides that if any property shall escape taxation for any year, and the fact be thereafter discovered, the amount shall be deducted from any unpaid salary due or to become due at the time of such discovery to the assessor during whose administration such property was not assessed, with the right to the assessor to be subrogated to the State so that he may collect the tax for himself if he can.
'The Colorado act provided, among other things, that on the first of January of every year each assessor is to leave with every inhabitant of his county blanks for making a return of his property for the purpose of taxation, and every such inhabitant is required to make upon such blank a full and detailed statement of all his or her personal property at its cash value, and all his or her real estate
STATE LEGISLATION IN 1901-Continued.
situated in the county, and all property held in a fiduciary capacity. This return must be under oath, and elaborate regulations are made to secure its fulness and accuracy. The obligation extends to all, and the return must include the particulars of property claimed to be exempt, and must be made not only by those who have taxable property but by those who have none, who are obliged to swear to their exemption on this account.
This act has been declared unconstitutional by one of the district courts of the State on the ground of failure to comply with certain constitutional requirements as to its mode of passage.
Municipal OwnershipThe extension of municipal ownership was provided for by acts of the Legislatures of Minnesota and Wyoming authorizing municipalities to construct and operate electric light and power plants and, in the case of Wyoming, plants for the furnishing of heat as well.
Elections.-As to the qualification of voters, an amendment to the Constitution of the State of Texas was directed to be submitted to the voters at the next general election, making the payment of a poll tax on the part of all those subject to the payment of such tax a necessary prerequisite to the right to vote at any election, and an act of the Legislature of Rhode Island, passed in pursuance of a constitutional amendment, provides that no person shall vote in the election of the City Council of any city, or on any proposition to impose a tax or for the expenditure of money in any town or city, unless he shall, within the year next preceding, have paid a tax assessed upon his property thereon valued at at least $131.
As regards the extension of the suffrage, Texas now includes among its qualified voters aliens who have resided a year in the State and have declared their intention of becoming citizens, and a joint resolution of the State of Wyoming, after reciting the experience of that State, recommended the enfranchisement of women in every State and Territory of the American Union as a measure tending to the advancement of a higher and better social order.
Primary election laws or important amendments thereof were passed in the States of Indiana, Minnesota, Missouri, Oregon, and Kansas. The general features of these laws were much the same. They transfer to the party primary or caucus, as far as practicable, the prevailing system of registration and voting at general elections, and seek to restrain and, in some cases, to supersede the action of the political convention. The preamble to the Oregon act declared that the evils and vices of the convention system of nominations and of declaring principles and policies have become and are so flagrant and oppressive as to deprive the great majority of our citizens of that fulness of political liberty which our constitutions were designed to secure.
The act of Indiana applying to political parties in counties of the State in which there is located a city with a population of 50,000 or more, provided for a preliminary election of precinct committeemen, who shall determine whether candidates shall be nominated by direct vote at a primary election or by delegate convention.
The law of Missouri, which does not apply to any organization formed solely for the election of city officers in cities of over 300,000 inhabitants, but is otherwise general in its application, among other matters, imposed strict regulations upon party .conventions, providing for the appor. tionment of delegates, that the meeting room of the convention shall have ample seating capacity for all delegates and alternates, prescribing who shall call the convention to order, that the roll call for the election of a temporary chairman shall not be delayed for more than an hour after the time specified for the opening of the convention, provided a majority of the delegates are present; and further providing that the rules and regulations of parties and of the conventions and committees thereof shall not be contrary to or inconsistent with the provisions of the act. The courts are given summary jurisdiction to review any infraction of the act by any officer or member of a political convention or committee, and in reviewing such ac ion the court shall consider, but need not be controlled by, any action or determination of the regularly constituted party authorities upon the questions arising in reference thereto.
The primary laws of Oregon were made to apply to cities having a population of over 10,000 and to counties having a population of 50,000 and upward and such other counties as may by voluntary action adopt the provisions of the act. It was provided that the act shall govern political parties in all their operations within the confines of a single county, and that not only nominations of candidates for public office, but the election of all delegates and party officers, the making of all the rules for party government, and the adoption of all party policies and principles, within said limits, shall be done at primary elections under the act, and that the name of a candidate of any political party shall not be printed unless the candidate be selected at a primary election, and that no person whose name has been proposed and voted on as that of a candidate for nomination at such primary election and has not received a nomination thereby, shall be nominated as a candidate for public office at the ensuing election in any other manner. Any proposition may be submitted at a primary which is a statement of political party principle or policy, or a resolution affecting party government or organization. It shall be brief and concise in terms, shall cover a single point or question, and shall not exceed fifty words in length, and the voters shall vote upon it yes or no, and any person publishing or representing any declaration of party policy or principle as being adopted or established by any political party, when not adopted or established by vote at such primary election, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and liable to a fine of not more than $500 or imprisonment for not more than six months or both,
The movement for the election of United States Senators by direct vote of the people received the adherence of nine States during the year: Arkansas, Colorado, Georgia, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, South Carolina, South Dakota, and Idaho, the Legislatures of which passed acts or joint resolutions in favor of the adoption of an amendment to the Constitution for bringing about that result.
Oregon went further, and its Legislature passed a bill whereby candidates for the office of United States Senator are voted for at a general election and the returns certified to the State Legislature, "and it shall be the duty of each House to count the votes and announce the candidate for Senator having the highest number, and thereupon the House shall proceed to the election of a Senator as required by the act of Congress and the Constitution of the State.”
The use of voting machines was sanctioned by the laws of Maine, while Indiana, Kansas, and Rhode Island revised their laws in relation to the subject, introducing provisions intended to extend and improve this method of voting.
Provision was made in Oregon to submit to the people the adoption of the initiative and referendum, whereby 8 per cent of the voters may propose any amendment to the Constitution or any desired law to be voted upon at a general election, and upon the petition of 5 per cent of the voters, the approval or disapproval of any act of the Legislature, with the exception of a few emergency laws, is, in like manner, left to popular vote.
STATE LEGISLATION IN 1901-Continued.
The Administration of the Law.-By a law passed by Wyoming legal service of all papers in civil actions or proceedings may be made by copies transmitted by telegraph or telephone. Missouri adopted the rule of majority yerdicts in civil cases, providing that a verdict may be rendered by three-fourths of the jury in such cases in courts of record, and in courts not of record by two-thirds.
To insure promptness of decision, a rather strenuous measure was adopted by the Minnesota Legislature providing that, in case any judge shall delay for over five months to decide any matter submitted to him, unless prevented by actual disability or the time be extended by consent of counsel, the State Auditor is peremptorily directed to issue no warrant for his salary after the expiration of said five months and as long as he remains in default, and, as bearing upon the enforcement of judicial decisions when rendered, especially as regards injunctions, an amendment to the code of procedure of Colorado provided that all cases of alleged contempt, not committed in the view and presence of the court, may, upon demand, be tried by a jury.
It was a criminal offence in Alabama for an attorney to employ another person to search for or procure him clients, and a like offence in Texas to seek employment in any suit or action either by procuring another to solicit for him or by personal solicitation of his own. Several of the States passed acts in relation to the disbarment, and several acts of more or less elaboration in regard to the admission, of attorneys.
California adopted a revised and amended Code of Civil Procedure. Idaho established a commission to which is intrusted the duty of codifying the laws of the State, continuing the work in that behalf of a former commission for the same purpose. A similar provision for the codification of the laws of South Carolina and of South Dakota was made by the respective Legislatures of those States, and Minnesota passed a statute for the revision and codification of the general laws of the State, besides the statute already
adverted to appointing a commission to make a complete code of taxation and recommend such constitutional amendments as may be necessary to carry out the system. New Hampshire provided for a convention to meet in December, 1902, for the revision of the State Constitution.
In regard to the administration of the criminal law, the experiment of placing convicts upon a probationary term was undertaken in New Jersey, Connecticut, and New York. The Connecticut act provided for sentences imposing a maximum and minimum term of imprisonment, and after the expiration of the minimum term the prisoner may, for the rest of his sentence, be allowed to go at large on parole, while by the New York act sentence may be suspended and the convict placed on probation, revocable in the discretion of the court.
In regard to graver crimes, late instances of kidnapping and holding for ransom led to new or amended laws in regard to that crime in no less than twenty States, imposing punishments of varying severity, from long terms of imprisonment to the death penalty. À law of Indiana in regard to lynching provided that in case any person shall be taken from the hands of the sheriff
or his deputy and lynched, it shall be conclusive evidence of failure on the part of such sheriff to do his duty, and his office shall thereupon and thereby immediately be vacated. In Pennsylvania it was made a felony to take the waste or packing from any journal box of a locomotive, an act apparently aimed at violence to prevent the running of trains.
Among the lesser offences it was made a misdemeanor in Illinois to engage in the practice of hazing; in Pennsylvania for any one to distribute free samples of medicine, dye, ink, or polishing.compounds where children may get hold of them; in Rhode Island to distribute "trading stamps', as is done in many stores to attract custom; in Washington and other States to operate a nickel-in-theslot machine wherein there enters an element of chance; and in Virginia to expectorate in church.
Education.-South Dakota passed a general education law, providing an extensive system of free common schools, and minutely regulating public education throughout the State.
Attendance at schools was made compulsory as to children between the ages of eight and fourteen years. Besides the ordinary elementary branches, instruction is to be given in physiology and hygiene, with special instruction as to the nature of alcoholic drinks and their effect upon the human system, and prescribing that moral instruction intended to impress upon the mind of the pupils the importance of truthfulness, temperance, public spirit, patriotism, respect for honest labor, obedience to parents, and due deference for old age shall be given by every teacher in the public service of the State.
A law of Wyoming provided that in addition to other branches there shall be taught in the public schools a system of humane treatment of animals; Idaho and Minnesota established free kindergartens in connection with their public school system, and Idaho, in addition, made provision for furnishing free libraries and reading rooms in every city and village throughout the State. Pennsylvania provided that a branch of the Courts of Quarter Sessions and Oyer and Terminer is designated to sit as a Juvenile Court to consid the cases of dependent and neglected children, and committing such children to the care of some suitable institution or person or training school, and power is giyen to compel the parent to contribute to its support.
Husband and Wise.-A law of New York provided certain regulations for marriage, and that a certificate of the solemnization thereof, or a written contract thereof, shall be duly filed and entered, and that no marriage claimed to have been contracted after January 1, 1902, otherwise than as in the act provided, shall be valid for any purpose whatsoever, except that the marriage shall not be invalidated on account of the want of authority in any person solemnizing the same where the parties were married under the full belief that the marriage was lawful. This act was intended to do away with the so-called common-law marriage, in the belief that such abolition is in the interest of morality and the purity of the family, and a bar to false claims and many great and flagrant abuses.
A law of Minnesota prohibited the marriage of the epileptic or feeble-minded, and Pennsylvania forbade the marriage of first cousins.
Minnesota provided that no chattel mortgage of property exempt from execution or attachment can be made by a married person unless both husband and wife join in the mortgage, and a law to the same effect was passed in Kansas.
Wilfully to neglect to support wife and children, where the ability to so exists, was made a misdemeanor in West Virginia, and in Minnesota a felony, but as somewhat of an offset to this, the same State provided that where husband and wife are living together they shall be jointly and severally liable for all necessary household articles and supplies furnished the family.
STATE LEGISLATION IN 1901-Continued.
Public Health or Welfare.-In Connecticut it was made unlawful for any person to follow the occupation of a barber unless he first obtains a certificate of registration under the act, to obtain which he must pass an examination before a board of examiners and establish to the satisfaction of said board that he is of good moral character, has studied his trade for three years, is possessed of competent skill, and has a certain degree of knowledge concerning the common diseases of the face and skin, Similar acts were passed in California and North Dakota.
A law of Pennsylvania provided that, hereafter, it shall not be lawful for any person to carry on the business of plumbing or house drainage in cities of theysecond class without having obtained a license, to secure which the applicant must pass an examination as to his competency. Indiana passed a law requiring a license and certificate of competency in regard to practitioners of the art of embalming.
Missouri provided that all persons desiring to practise medicine or surgery in the State must first pass an examination as to fitness before the State Board of Health and obtain a license from that body, and that it shall be unlawful for any person, not now a registered physician, to practise medicine:or surgery in any of its departments, or to profess to cure and attempt to treat the sick in the State of Missouri, unless such practitioner is licensed in accordance with the provisions of the act. This law seemed to be especially aimed at the faith cure and Christian Scientists, but it, perhaps, also brings within its prohibition the new system of medical treatment known as osteopathy, although that has received recognition as an established branch of medicine, and provision made for licensing its practitioners by the laws of California, Montana, and Nebraska.
Washington passed a law prohibiting horseshoers from practising their trade in cities without first passing an examination as to fitness and obtaining a license. Idaho provided that no person should be allowed io keep any employment office or agency without the written permission of the County Commissioners and the filing of a bond with good security in the full sum of $5,000, conditioned that he shall well and truly carry out the purposes for which said agency shall have been established, and pay all damages which may result from his actions as such agent.
An act of the New York Legislature created a State Department of Health and the office of Commissioner of Health, the latter to be appointed by the Governor with advice and consent of the Senate, and who shall be a physician, a graduate of an incorporated medical college, of at least ten years' experience in the actual practice of his profession and of skill and experience in public health duties and sanitary science. He is given general powers relating to the health of the people of the State, inquiries as to the cause of disease, especially as to epidemics, effect of localities, employments, and other conditions upon public health, the collection of statistics, power to compel the attendance of witnesses in making investigations, and to reverse or modify orders of local boards of health, thus obtaining the great advantage of harmonious action and comprehensive treatment in regard to this all-important subject. Oregon, following in the same line, created the office of State Bacteriologist, whose duty shall be the scientific investigation of animal and plant diseases, and the recommendations of remedies for their elimination. New York also passed a Tenement-House act, containing elaborate provisions relating to protection from fire, and as to light and ventilation, provisions as to sanitary arrangements, and registration of owners' names, besides many general regulations in the interest of morality and cleanliness. Kansas provided that all places where intoxicating liquors are sold or given away in violation of law, or where persons are permitted to resort for the purpose of drinking intoxicating liquors, and all such liquors, bottles, glasses, kegs, bars, and other property kept in and used in maintaining such a place, are declared to be common nuisances.
ns as such ad agency shan if $5,000,
Good Roads.-Montana passed a law for a uniform system of road government and administration throughout the State. New Jersey adopted a general system for the improvement of her roads, and Texas amended and extended the laws relating to the road system in a large number of counties. California established a license system for bicycles, automobiles, and the like vehicles, the proceeds of the same to be applied to maintaining paths for the use of such vehicles, and also walkways for the use of pedestrians, and Minnesota and Rhode Island established commissions charged with the duty of constructing and maintaining side paths, each one of whom in the last named State must be a cyclist.
Forestry Laws.-Indiana passed a law establishing a State Board of Forestry, consisting of five members, one from the State Forestry Association, one from the Retail Lumbermen's Association, one from the faculty of Purdue University, and one from the wood workers of the state. The duty of the Board is to collect, digest, and classify information respecting forests, timberlands, forest preservation, and timber culture, and to recommend plans for the same and for the establishment of State forest reserves. Pennsylvania created a Forestry Commission with power to purchase, under certain restrictions, any suitable lands in any county of the State that, in the judgment of the Commission, the State 'should possess for forest preservation, Indiana passed an act giving Boardsyof Park Commissioners charge of the planting, culture, and preservation of trees and shrubbery upon the sidewalks, streets, and public grounds of the cities, with special power to prevent their cutting down or removal, while a law of Connecticut provided for the election of three wardens in every town, who shall have, in like manner, the care and control of public shade trees, with provision for a public hearing when a question arises whether any such tree shall be cut down.
Miscellaneous.-Laws for the protection of song birds or birds valuable for their plumage were passed by Florida, Wyoming, and New York. New Jersey provided for the appropriation of lands along the edge of the Palisades for an interstate park, and the preservation of the scenery of that part of the river.
Minnesota created an Art Commission in cities having over 75,000 inhabitants, and their approval is made a prerequisite to the placing of any works of art in any public grounds or places.
Rhode Island and West Virginia were added to the States which provide that the United States flag shall be displayed over the public schools during school hours, and proper respect for that flag was enforced by acts passed in Colorado, Indiana, North and South Dakota, Oregon, and Wisconsin, forbidding its use for advertising purposes, and providing a criminal punishment for any one who sball publicly deface, defy, or cast contempt upon any flag, standard, color, or ensign of the United States. In regard to 'forbidding the use of the flag for advertising purposes a similar act in Illinois has been held unconstitutional by the Supreme Court of that State. (Ruhtrat vs. People, 185 Ill. 133.)
The Negotiable Instrument act was adopted by Pennsylvania, and the Governor of that State is authorized to appoint three commissioners for the promotion of uniformity of legislation in the United States, and to meet with the conference of commissioners of other States for the same purpose.
Reciprocity Treaties and Agreements Between the
United States and Foreign Countries.
THE following is a list of the reciprocity treaties and agreements between the United States and foreign countries since 1850. Prepared by the Bureau of Statistics of the Treasury Department.
COUNTRIES WITH Which RECIPROCITY TREATIES AND
AGREEMENTS HAVE BEEN MADE,
British North American Possessions (treaty)...
June 5, 1854. March 16, 185....
March 17, 1866, Hawaiian Is an is (treaty).
January 30, 1875... September 9, 1876..
April 30, 1900. Brazil (agreement)....
January 31, 1891 Ap il I, 1891.
June 4, 1891. September 1, 1891..
February 1, 1892.. February 1, 1892.
February 1, 1892.. February 1, 1892. Leeward is ands (agreement),
February 1, 1892.... February 1, 1892.. Trinidad (including Tob.go) (agreement)..
February 1, 1892.... February 1, 1892.. Winuward Islanıls (excepting Grenada) (agreement). February 1, 1892.... February 1, 1892.
August 27, 1894. British Guiana (agreemeut)
February 1, 18:2.... April 1, 1892 Salvador (agreement)..
December 30, 1891.. February 1, 1892 (provisional) Nicaragua (agreement).....
March 11, 1892.... March 12, 1892.. Honduras (agreement)..
April 29, 1892. May 25, 1892 (provisional).... Guatemala (agreement).
December 30, 1891.. May 30, 1892. Spain, for Cuba and Porto Rico (agreement).
June 16, 1891. September 1, 1891 (provisional) Austria Hungary (agreement)....
May 25, 1892. May 26, 1892. France (agreement).
May 28, 1898.. June 1, 18:8.
Still in force. Germany (agreement)
January 30, 1892.. February 1, 1892.
August 24, 1894. July 10, 1900...... July 13, 1900...
Still in torce. Portugal and Azores and Madeira Islands (agreement).. May 22, 1900... June 12, 1900..
Still in force. Italy (agreement)..
February 8, 1900.... July 18, 1900.
Stil in force. Switzerland (treaty of 1850)...
June 1, 1898
March 23, 1900. Great Bri ain: Barbados.
June 16, 1899 Awaiting ratification.. British Guiana.
July 18, 1899. Awaiting ratification.. Jamaica...
July 22, 1899..
Awaiting ratification... Bermuda
July 24, 1899.. Awaiting ratification Argentina..
July 10, 1899.
Awaiting ratification.. France....
uly 24, 1899.. Awaiting ratification... The treaties or agreements named above as awasting ratification are those from which the injunction of secrecy has been removed. Other treaties which have been negotiated have not yet been made public.
The reciprocal agreements now in existence between the United States and France, Portugal, Germany, and Italy, respectively, framed under the Dingley Tariff of 1997, inay be suminarized as follows:
France: The United States reduces the rate of duty on crude tartar from France to 5 per cent ad valorem; on brandies or other spirits to $1.75 per gallon; also a reduction on still wines and vermouth, and on paintings to 15 per cent ad valorem; while the French Government gives its minimum tariff rates to canned meats, table fruits, dried fruits, lard, manufactured and prepared pork meats, hops, paving blocks, slaves and logs, and sawed or squared timber and lumber from the United States.
Germany: The United States gives the same tariff rates as those named in the treaty with France on tartar, brandies, still wines, and paintings, and the German Government gives to the United States the same tariff rates as those given to Belgium, Italy, Austria-Hungary, Roumania, Russia, and Switzer'and during the existence of the present tariff treaties with them, and annuls its regulations regarding dried fruits from the United States, providing in their stead a system of inspection on account of the San José scale.
Portugal. The reductions on crude tartar, brandies, wines and paintings accorded to Germany and France are given by the United States to Portugal, and the Portuguese Government gives to the United States as low rates of duty as those accorded to any other country, except Spain and Brazil, on hreadstuffs, lard, mineral oils, agricultural implements, and certain machinery for manufacturing.
Italy: The above-named rates with reference to tartar, brandies, still wines, and paintings are given oy the United States, and a reduction is made by the Italian Government on imports of cottonseed oil, fish, machinery, scientific instruments, fertilizers, and skins.
List of Appropriations by Congress, 1895-1902.
Deficiencies ... $9,450,820 $8,519,981 $13,900,100 $8,594,447.04 347,165,001.82 $46,882,724.75 $13,767,008.75 $13,289,314.99 Legislative, Execu
tive, aud' Judicial.. 21,343,977) 21,885,818 21,519,751 21,690,766.90 21,625,846.65 23,394,051.86 24,175,652.53 24,594,968.85 Sundry Civil...... 25,856,432 85,096,015 29,812,113 34,344,970.47 32,997,752.70 39,381,733.86 49, 94,309.70 54,574,285.21 Support of the Army 23,592,885 23,252,608 28,278,403 23,129,314.30 23,193,392.00 80,130,204.06114,220,095.55 115,734,049.10 Naval Service..... 25,366,827 29,416,077 30,562,661 33,003, 234,19 56,098,783.68 48,099,969.58 61,140,916.67 78,101,791.00 Indian Service..... 10,754,733 8,762,751 7,39,497 7,674,120.89 7,673,854 90 7,504,775.81). 8,197,989.24 9,747,471.09 Rivers and Harbors.. 20,043,180 11,452,115 15,944,147 19,266,112.91 14,492,459.56 25,100,038.94 16,175,605.75 7,046,623.00 Forts & Fortifications 2,427,004 1,904,558 7,371,888 9,517,141.00 9,377,444.00 4,909,902.00 7,383,628.00 7,364,011.00 Military Academy... 406,535 461,262 449,526 479,572.83 458,689.23 575,774.47 674.306.67 772,653.68 Post-Office Depart... Indefinite. Indefinite. Indetinite. Indefinite. Indefinite. Indefinite. Indefinite. Indefinite. Pensions. ...
151,581,570 141,381,570 141,328,580 141,263,880.00 141,233,830.00 1 45,233,830.00 145,245, 230.00 145,245, 230.00 Consular and Diplom. 1,569 787) 1,574,459 1,643,559 1,695,308.76 1,752, 208.76 1,714,533.76 1,771,168.76 1,819,498.76 Agricultural Depart.. 3,221,915 3,303,750 3,255,532 3,182,902.06 3,509,202,00 3,726,022.00 4,023,500.00 4,582,420.00 District of Columbia. 5,544,297 6,745,443 5,900,319 6,186,991.06 6,426,880.07 6,834,535.77 7,577,369.31 8,502,269.94 Miscellaneous.......
623,858 297,668 423,304 1,150,464,596,044,898.26 28,721,653.41 3,205,262.05 7,961,140.93 Totals..... $301,788,820 $ 293,057,105 302,786,386 311,179,557.54.673,060,293.63462,609,750.27 457,152,142.98 479,366,657.56