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26. Every law shall embrace but one object, which shall be expressed in this title.

27. No law of the General Assembly, of a public nature, shall take effect until the same shall be published and circulated in the several counties of this State, by authority. If the General Assembly shall deem any law of immediate importance, they may provide that the same shall take effect by publication in newspapers in the State.

28. No divorce shall be granted by the General Assembly.

29. No lottery shall be authorized by this State, nor shall the sale of lottery tickets be allowed.

30. Members of the General Assembly shall, before they enter upon the duties of their respective offices, take and subscribe the following oath or affirmation: I do solemnly swear or affirm (as the case may be), that I will support the Constitution of the United States, and the Constitution of the State of Iowa, and that I will faithfully discharge the duties of senator (or representative as the case may be), according to the best of my ability. And members of the General Assembly are hereby empowered to administer to each other the said oath or affirmation.

31. Within one year after the ratification of this Constitution, and within every subsequent term of two years, for the term of eight years, an enumeration of all the white inhabitants of this State shall be made, in such manner as shall be directed by law. The number of senators and representatives shall, at their first regular session of the General Assembly after such enumeration, be fixed by law, and apportioned among the several counties according to the number of white inhabitants in each; and shall also, at every subsequent regular session, apportion the House of Representatives, and every other regular session the Senate, for eight years; and the House of Reprepentatives shall never be less than twenty-six, nor greater than thirty-nine, until the number of white inhabitants shall be one hundred and seventy-five thousand; and after that event, at such ratio that the whole number of representatives shall never be less than thirty-nine nor exceeding seventy-two.

32. When a congressional, senatorial, or representative district shall be composed of two or more counties, it shall not be entirely separated by any county belonging to another district; and no county shall be divided in forming a congressional, senatorial, or representative district.

33. In all elections by the General Assembly, the members thereof shall vote viva voce, and the votes shall be entered on the journal.

34. For the first ten years after the organization of the government, the annual salary of the Governor shall not exceed one thousand dollars; Secretary of State, five hundred dollars; treasurer, four hundred dollars; auditor, six hundred dollars; judges of the Supreme and district courts, each one thousand dollars.

ARTICLE V.-Executive Department. Sec. 1. The supreme executive power of this State shall be vested in a chief magistrate, who shall be styled the Governor of the State of Iowa.

2. The Governor shall be elected by the qualified electors at the time and place of voting for members of the General Assembly, and shall hold his office four years from the time of his installation, and until his successor shall be qualified.

3. No person shall be eligible to the office of Governor, who has not been a citizen of the United States, and a resident of the State two years next preceding the election, and attained the age of thirty years at the time of said election.

4. The returns of every election for Governor shall be sealed up and transmitted to the seat of government, directed to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, who shall, during the first week of the session, open and publish them in presence of both houses of the General Assembly. The person having the highest number of votes shall be Governor; but in case any two or more have an equal and the highest number of votes, the General Assembly shall, by joint ballot, choose one of said persons so having an equal and the highest number of votes, for Governor.

5. The Governor shall be commander-in-chief of the militia, the army, and pavy of this State.

6. He shall transact all executive business with the officers of government, civil and military, and may require information in writing from the officers of the executive department, upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices.

1. He shall see that the laws are faithfully executed.

8. When any office shall from any cause become vacant, and no mode is provided by the Constitution and laws for filling such vacancy, the Governor shall have power to fill such vacancy, by granting a commission, which shall expire at the end of the next session of the General Assembly, or at the next election by the people.

9. He may, on extraordinary occasions, convene the General Assembly by proclamation, and shall state to both houses, when assembled, the purpose for wbich they shall have been convened.

10. He shall communicate by message to the General Assembly, at every session, the condition of the State, and recommend such matters as he shall deem expedient.

11. In case of disagreement between the two houses, with respect to the time of adjournment, the Governor shall have power to adjourn the General Assembly io such time as he may think proper, provided it be not beyond the time fixed for the meeting of the next General Assembly.

12. No person shall, while holding any other office under the United States, or this State, execute the office of Governor, except as hereinafter expressly provided.

13. The Governor shall have power to grant reprieves and pardons, and commute punishments after conviction, except in cases of impeachment.

14. The Governor shall, at stated times, receive for his services a compensation which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the time for which he shall have been elected.

15. There shall be a seal of this State, which shall be kept by the Governor, and used by him officially, and shall be called the Great Seal of the State of Iowa.

16. All grants and commissions shall be in the name and by the authority of the people of the State of Iowa, sealed with the great seal of this state, signed by the Governor, and countersigned by the Secretary of State.

17. A Secretary of State, auditor of public accounts, and treasurer, shall be elected by the qualified electors, who shall continue in office two years. The Secretary of State shall keep a fair register of all the official acts of the Governor, and shall, when required, lay the same, together with all papers, minutes, and vouchers relative thereto, before either branch of the General Assembly, and shall perform such other duties as shall be assigned him by law.

18. In case of the impeachment of the Governor, his removal from office, death, resignation, or absence from the State, the powers and duties of the office shall devolve upon the Secretary of State, until such disability shall cease, or the vacancy be filled.

19 If, during the vacancy of the office of Governor, the Secretary of State shall be impeached, displaced, resign, die, or be absent from the State, the powers and duties of the office of Governor shall devolve upon the President of the Senate; and should a vacancy occur by impeachment, death, resignation, or absence from the State, of the President of the Senate, the Speaker of the House of Representatives shall act as Governor till the vacancy be filled.

ARTICLE VI.-Judicial Department. Sec. 1. The judicial power shall be vested in a Supreme Court, district courts, and such inferior courts as the General Assembly may from time to time establish.

2. The Supreme Court shall consist of a Chief-Justice and two associates, two of whom shall be a quorum to hold Court.

3. The judges of the Supreme Court shall be elected by joint vote of both branches of the General Assembly, and shall hold their courts at such time and place as the General Assembly may direct, and hold their offices for six years, and until their successors are elected and qualified; and shall be ineligible 'o any other office during the term for which they may be elected. The Supreme Court shall have appellate jurisdiction only in all cases in chancery, and shall constitute a Court for the correction of errors at law, under such restrictions as the General Assembly may by law prescribe. The Supreme Court shall have power to issue all writs and processes necessary to do justice to parties, and exercise a supervisory control over all inferior judicial tribunals, and the judges of the Supreme Court shall be conservators of the peace throughout the State.

4. The district court shall consist of a judge, who shall be elected by the qualified voters of the district in which he resides, at the township election, and hold his office for the term of five years, and until his successor is duly elected and qualified, and shall be ineligibie to any other office during the term for which

he may be elected. The district court shall be a court of law and equity, and have jurisdiction in all civil and criminal matters arising in their respective districts, in such manner as shall be prescribed by law. The judges of the district courts shall be conservators of the peace in their respective districts. The first session of the General Assembly shall divide the State into four districts, which may be increased as the exigencies require.

5. The qualified voters of each county shall, at the general election, elect one prosecuting attorney and one clerk of the district court, who shall be residents therein, and who shall hold their several offices for the term of two years, and until their successors are elected and qualified.

6. The style of all processes shall be," the State of Iowa,” and all prosecutions shall be conducted in the name and by the authority.of the same.

ARTICLE VII.-Militia. Sec. 1. The militia of this State shall be composed of all able-bodied white male citizens between the ages of eighteen and forty-five years, except such as are or may hereafter be exempt by the laws of the United States or of this State, and shall be armed, equipped, and trained, as the General Assembly may provide by law.

2. No person or persons conscientiously scrupulous of bearing arms, shall be compelled to do militia duty in time of peace: Provided, that such person or persons shall pay an equivalent for such exemption, in the same manner as other citizens.

3. All commissioned officers of the militia (staff-officers excepted) shall be elected by the persons liable to perform military duty, and shall be commissioned by the Governor.

ARTICLE VIII.-State Debts. The General Assembly shall not in any manner create any debt or debts, liability or liabilities, which shall singly or in the aggregate, with any previous debts or liabilities, exceed the sum of one hundred thousand dollars, except in case of war, to repel invasion, or suppress insurrection, unless the same shall be authorized by some law for some single object, or work to be distinctly speified therein, which law shall provide ways and means, exclusive of loans, for the payment of the interest of such debt or liability as it falls due, and also to pay and discharge the principal of such deht or liability within twenty years from the time of the contracting thereof, and shall be irrepealable until the principal and interest thereon shall be paid and discharged; but no such law shall take effect until at a general election it shall have been submitted to the people, and have received a majority of all the votes cast for and against it at such election, and all money raised by authority of such law, shall be applicd only to the specific object therein stated, or to the payment of the debt thereby

created, and such law shall be published in at least one newspaper in each judicial district, if one is published therein, throughout the State, for three months preceding the election at which it is submitted to the people.

ARTICLE IX.— Incorporations. Sec. 1. No corporate body shall hereafter be created, renewed, or extended, with the privilege of making, issuing, or putting in circulation, any bill, check, ticket, certificate, promissory note, or other paper, or the paper of any bank, to circulate as money. The General Assembly of this state shall prohibit by law, any person or persons, association, company or corporation, from exercising the privileges of banking, or creating paper to circulate as money.

2. Corporations shall not be created in this state by special laws, except for political or municipal purposes, but the General Assembly shall provide, by general laws, for the organization of all other corporations, except corporations with banking privileges, the creation of which is prohibited. The stockholders shall be subject to such liabilities and restrictions as shall be provided by law. The State shall not, directly or indirectly, become a stockholder in any corporation.

ARTICLE X.-Education and School Lands. Sec. 1. The General Assembly shall provide for the election, by the people, of a superintendent of public instruetion, who shall hold his office for three years, and whose duties shall be prescribed by law, and who shall receive such compensation as the General Assembly may direct.

2. The General Assembly shall encourage, by all suitable means, the promotion of intellectual, scientific, moral and agricultural improvement. The proceeds of all lands that have been or hereafter may be granted by the United States to this State, for the support of schools, which shall hereafter be sold or disposed of, and the five hundred thousand acres of land granted to the new States, under an act of Congress, distributing the proceeds of the public lands among the several States of the Union, approved Å. D. 1841, and all estates of deceased persons, who may have died without leaving a will, or heir; and also such per cent. as may be granted by Congress on the sale of lands in this State, shall be and remain a perpetual fund, the interest of which, together with ali the rents of the unsold lands, and such other means as the General Assembly may provide, shall be inviolably appropriated to the support of common schools throughout the State.

3. The General Assembly shall provide for a system of common schools, by which a school shall be kept up and supported in each school district, at least three months in every year; and any school district neglecting to keep up and support such a school may be deprived of its proportion of the interest of the public fund during such neglect.

4. The money which shall be paid by persons as an equivalent for exemption from military duty, and the clear proceeds of all fines collected in the several counties for any breach of the penal laws, shall be exclusively applied, in the several counties in which such money is paid or fine collected, among the several school districts of said counties, in the proportion to the number of inhabitants in such districts, to the support of common schools, or the establishment of libraries, as the General Assembly shall, from time to time, provide by law.

5. The General Assembly shall take measures for the protection, improvement, or other disposition of such lands as have been or may hereafter be reserved or granted by the United States, or any person or persons, to this State, for the use of a university; and the funds accruing from the rents or sale of such

lands, or from any other source, for the purpose aforesaid, shall be and remain a permanent fund, the interest of which shall be applied to the support of said university, with such branches as the public convenience may hereafter demand, for the promotion of literature, the arts and sciences, as may be authorized by the terms of such grant. And it shall be the duty of the General

Assembly, as soon as may be, to provide effectual means for the improvement and permanent security of the funds of said university.

ARTICLE XI.-Amendments of the Constitution. If, at any time, the General Assembly shall think it necessary to revise or amend this Constitution, they shall provide by law for a vote of the people for or against a convention, at the next ensuing election for members of the General Assembly; in case a majority of the people vote in favor of a convention, said General Assembly shall provide for an election of delegates to a convention, to be held within six months after the vote of the people in favor thereof.

ARTICLE XII.-Miscellaneous. Sec. 1. The jurisdiction of justices of the peace shall extend to all civil cases (except cases in chancery and cases where the question of title to any real estate may arise), where the amount in controversy does not exceed one hundred dollars, and by the consent of parties may be extended to any amount not exceeding five hundred dollars.

2. No new county shall be laid off hereafter, nor old county reduced, to less contents than four hundred and thirty-two square miles.

3. The General Assembly shall not locate any of the public lands, which have been or may be granted by Congress to this State, and the location of which may be given to the General Assembly, upon lands actually settled, without the consent of the occupant. The extent of the claim of such occupant so exempted shall not exceed three hundred and twenty acres.

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