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are two ratios, a Representative shall be allotted to the fourth and third sessions, respectively; if three, to the third, second, and first sessions, respectively; if four, to the fourth, third, second, and first sessions, respectively.

4. Any county, forming with another county or counties, a Representative district, during one decennial period, if it have acquired sufficient population at the next decennial period, shall be entitled to a separate representation, if there shall be left, in the district from which it shall have been separated, a population sufficient for a Representative; bat no such change shall be made, except at the regular decennial period for the apportionment of Representatives.

5. If, in fixing any subsequent ratio, a county, previously entitled to a separate representation, shall have less than the number required by the new ratio for a Representative, such county shall be attached to the county adjoining it, having the least number of inhabitants; and the representation of the district, so formed, shall be determined as herein provided.

6. The ratio for a Senator shall, forever hereafter, be ascertained, by dividing the whole population of the State, by the number thirtyfive.

7. The State is hereby divided into thirty-three Senatorial districts, as follows: the county of Hamilton shall constitute the first Senatorial district; the counties of Butler and Warren, the second; Montgomery and Preble, the third ; Clermont and Brown, the fourth; Greene, Clinton and Fayette, the fifth; Ross and Highland, the sixth; Adams, Pike, Scioto and Jackson, the seventh; Lawrence, Gallia, Meigs and Vinton, the eighth: Athens, Hocking and Fairfield, the ninth; Franklin and Pickaway, the tenth; Clark, Champaign and Madison, the eleventh; Miama, Darke and Shelby, the twelfth ; Logan, Union, Marion and Ilardin, the thirteenth; Washington and Morgan, the fourteenth ; Muskingum and Perry, the fifteenth; Delaware and Licking, the sixteenth ; Knox and Morrow, the seventeenth; Coshocton and Tuscarawas, the eighteenth; Guernsey and Monroe, the ninetenth; Belmont and Harrison, the twentieth ; Carroll and Stark, the twenty-first ; Jefferson and Columbiana, the twenty-second ; Trumbull and Mahoning, the twentythird; Ashtabula, Lake and Geauga, the twenty-fourth ; Cuvahoga, the twenty-fifth ; Portage and Summit, the twenty-sixth; Medina and Lorain, the twenty-seventh; Wayne and Holmes, the twentyeighth ; Ashland and Richland, the twenty-ninth; Huron, Erie, Sandusky and Ottawa, the thirtieth ; Seneca, Crawford and Wyandot, the thirty-first; Mercer, Auglaize, Allen, Vanwert, Paulding, Defiance and Williams, the thirty-second; and Hancock, Wood, Lucas, Fulton, Henry and Putnam, the thirty-third. For the first decennial period, after the adoption of this constitution, each of said districts shall be entitled to one Senator, except the first district, which shall be entitled to three Senators.

8. The same rules shall be applied, in apportioning the fractions of Senatorial districts, and in annexing districts, which may hereafter have less than three-fourths of a Senatorial ratio, as are applied to Representative districts.

9. Any county forming part of a Senatorial district, having acquired a population equal to a full senatorial ratio, shall be made a separate Senatorial district, at any regular decennial apportionment, if a full Senatorial ratio shall be left in the district from which it shall be taken.

10. For the first ten years, after the year one thousand eight hundred and fifty-one, the apportionment of Representatives shall be as provided in the schedule, and no change shall ever be made in the principles of representation, as herein established, or in the Senatorial districts, except as above provided. All territory, belonging to a county at the time of any apportionment, shall, as to the right of representation and suffrage, remain an integral part thereof, during the decennial period.

11. The Governor, Auditor, and Secretary of State, or any two of them, shall, at least six months prior to the October election, in the year one thousand eight hundred and sixty-one, and, at each decennial period thereafter, ascertain and determine the ratio of representation, according to the decennial census, the number of Representatives and Senators each county or district shall be entitled to elect, and for what years, within the next ensuing ten years, and the Governor shall cause the same to be published, in such manner as shall be directed by law.

JUDICIAL APPORTIONMENT, Sec. 12. For Judicial purposes, the State shall be apportioned as follows:

The county of Ilamilton, shall constitute the first district, which shall not be subdivided; and the Judges therein, may

hold separate courts, or separate sittings of the same court, at the same time.

The counties of Butler, Preble and Darke, shall constitute the first subdivision, Montgomery, Miami and Champaign, the second, and Warren, Clinton, Greene, and Clark, the third subdivision, of the second district; and, together, shall form such district.

The counties of Shelby, Auglaize, Allen, Hardin, Logan, Union and Marion shall constitute the first subdivision, Mercer, Van Wert, Putnam, Paulding, Defiance, Williams, llenry and Fulton, the second, and Wood, Seneca, Hancock, Wyandot and Crawford, the third subdivision, of the third district; and, together, shall form such district. The counties of Lucas, Ottawa, Sandusky, Erie and Huron, shall

, , constitute the first subdivision, Lorain, Medina and Summit, the second, and the county of Cuyahoga, the third subdivision, of the fourth district; and, together, shall form such district.

The counties of Clermont, Brown and Adams, shall constitute the first subdivision, Highland, Ross and Fayette, the second; and Pickaway, Franklin and Madison, the third subdivision, of the fifth dis. trict; and, together, shall form such district.

The counties of Licking, Knox and Delaware, shall constitute the first subdivision, Morrow, Richland and Ashland, the second, and Wayne, Holmes and Coshocton, the third subdivision, of the sixth district; and, together, shall form such district.

The counties of Fairfield, Perry and Hocking, shall constitute the first subdivision, Jackson, Vinton, Pike, Scioto and Lawrence, the second, and Gallia, Meigs, Athens and Washington, the third subdi. vision, of the seventh district; and, together, shall form such district.

The counties of Muskingum and Morgan, shall constitute the first subdivision, Guernsey, Belmont and Monroe, the second, and Jefferson, Harrison and Tuscarawas, the third subdivision, of the eighth district; and, together, shall form such district.

The counties of Stark, Carroll and Columbiana, shall constitute the first subdivision, Trumbull, Portage and Mahoning, the second, and Geauga, Lake and Ashtabula, the third subdivision, of the ninth district; and, together, shall form such district.

13. The General Assembly shall attach any new counties, that may hereafter be erected, to such districts, or subdivisions thereof, as shall be most convenient.

ARTICLE XII.—Finance and Taxation. Sec. 1. The levying of taxes, by the poll, is grievous and oppressive; therefore, the General Assembly shall never levy a poll tax, for county or State purposes.

2. Laws shall be passed, taxing, by a uniform rule, all moneys, credits, investments in bonds, stocks, joint stock companies, or otherwise; and also all real and personal property, according to its true value in money; but burying grounds, public school houses, houses used exclusively for public worship, institutions of purely public charity, public property used exclusively for any public purpose; and personal property, to an amount not exceeding in value two hundred dollars, for each individual, may, by general laws, be exempted from taxation : but, all such laws shall be subject to alteration or repeal; and the value of all property, so exempted, shall, from time to time, be ascertained and published, as may be directed by law.

3. The General Assembly shall provide, by law, for taxing the notes and bills discounted or purchased, moneys loaned, and all other property, effects, or dues of every description, (without deduction) of all Banks, now existing, or hereafter created, and of all bankers, so that all property employed in banking, shall always bear a burden of taxation, equal to that imposed on the property of individuals.

4. The General Assembly shall provide for raising revenue, sufficient to defray the expenses of the State, for each year, and also a sufficient sum to pay the interest on the State debt.

5. No tax shall be levied, except in pursuance of law; and every law imposing a tax, shall state, distinctly, the object of the same, to which only, it shall be applied.

6. The State shall never contract any debt for purposes of inter nal improvement.

ARTICLE XIII.—Corporations.

Sec. 1. The General Assembly shall pass no special act conferring corporate powers.

2. Corporations may be formed under general laws; but all such laws may,

from time to time, be altered, or repealed. 3. Dues from corporations shall be secured, by such individual liability of the stockholders, and other means, as may be prescribed by law; but, in all cases, each stockholder shall be liable, over and above the stock by him or her owned, and any amount unpaid thereon, to a further sum, at least equal in amount to such stock.

4. The property of corporations, now existing or hereafter created, shall forever be subject to taxation, the same as the property of individuals.

5. No right of way shall be appropriated to the use of any corporation, until full compensation therefor be first made in money, or first secured by a deposit of money, to the owner, irrespective of any benefit from any improvement proposed by such corporation : which compensation shall be ascertained by a jury of twelve men, in a court of record, as shall be prescribed by law.

6. The General Assembly shall provide for the organization of cities, incorporated villages, by general laws; and restrict their power of taxation, assessment, borrowing money, contracting debts and loaning their credit, so as to prevent the abuse of such power.

7. No act of the General Assembly, authorizing associations with banking powers, shall take effect; until it shall be submitted to the people, at the general election next succeeding the passage thereof, and be approved by a majority of all the electors, voting at such election.

ARTICLE XIV.-Jurisprudence. Sec. 1. The General Assembly, at its first session after the adoption of this Constitution, shall provide for the appointment of three Commissioners, and prescribe their tenure of office, compensation, and the mode of filling vacancies in said commission.

2. The said commissioners shall revise, reform, simplify and abridge, the practice, pleadings, forms, and proceedings of the Courts of record of this State; and, as far as practicable and expedient, shall provide for the abolition of the distinct forms of action at law, now in use, and for the administration of justice by a uniform mode of proceeding, without reference to any distinction between law and equity.

3. The proceedings of the Commissioners shall, from time to time,

any purpose what.

be reported to the General Assembly, and be subject to the action of that body.

ARTICLE XV.--Miscellaneous. Sec. 1. Columbus shall be the seat of government, until otherwise directed by law.

2. The printing of the laws, journals, bills, legislative documents and papers for each branch of the General Assembly, with the printing required for the Excutive and other departments of State, shall be let, on contract, to the lowest responsible bidder, by such Executive officers, and in such manner, as shall be prescribed by law.

3. An accurate and detailed statement of the receipts and expenditures of the public money, the several amounts paid, to whom, and on what account, shall, from time to time, be published, as shall be prescribed by law.

4. No person shall be elected or appointed to any office in this State, unless he possess the qualifications of an elector.

5. No person who shall hereafter fight a duel, assist in the same as second, or send, accept, or knowingly carry, a challenge therefor, shall hold any office in this State.

6. Lotteries, and the sale of lottery tickets, for ever, shall forever be prohibited in this State.

7. Every person chosen or appointed to any office under this State, before entering upon the discharge of its duties, shall take an oath or affirmation, to support the Constitution of the United States, and of this State, and also an oath of office.

8. There may be established, in the Secretary of State's Office, a bureau of statistics, under such regulations as may be prescribed by law.

ARTICLE XVI.- Amendments. Sec. 1. Either branch of the General Assembly may propose amendments to this constitution; and, if the same shall be agreed to, by three-fifths of the members elected to each house, such proposed amendments shall be entered on the journals, with the yeas and nays, and shall be published in at least one newspaper in each county of the State, where a newspaper is published, for six months preceding the next election for Senators and Representatives, at which time the same shall be submitted to the electors, for their approval or rejection; and if a majority of the electors, voting at such election, shall adopt such amendments, the same shall become a part of the Constitution. When more than one amendment shall be submitted at the same time, they shall be so submitted, as to enable the electors to vote on each amendment, separately.

2. Whenever two-thirds of the members elected to each branch of the General Assembly, shall think it necessary to call a Convention, to revise, amend, or change this Constitution, they shall recommend to the electors to vote, at the next election for members of the

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