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to execute the laws of the State, to suppress insurrection and repel invasion.

5. The General Assembly shall provide, by law, for the protection and safe keeping of the public arms.

ARTICLE X.—County and Township Organizations. Sec. 1. The General Assembly shall provide, by law, for the election of such county and township officers as may be necessary.

2. County officers shall be elected on the second Tuesday of October, until otherwise directed by law, by the qualified electors of each county, in such manner, and for such term, not exceeding three years, as may be provided by law. 3. No person shall be eligible to the office of Sheriff

, or County Treasurer, for more than four years, in any period of six years.

4. Township officers shall be elected on the first Monday of April, annually, by the qualified electors of their respective townships, and shall hold their offices for one year, from the Monday next succeeding their election, and until their successors are qualified.

5. No money shall be drawn from any county or township treasury, except by authority of law.

6. Justices of the peace, and county and township officers, may be removed, in such manner and for such cause, as shall be prescribed by law.

7. The Commissioners of Counties, the trustees of Townships, and similar boards, shall have such power of local taxation, for police purposes, as may be prescribed by law.

ARTICLE XI.-Apportionment. Sec. 1. The apportionment of this State for members of the General Assembly, shall be made every ten years, after the year one thousand eight hundred and fifty one, in the following manner : The whole population of the State, as ascertained by the federal census, or in such other mode as the General Assembly may direct, shall be divided by the number “One hundred," and the quotient shall be the ratio of representation in the House of Representatives, for ten years next succeeding such åpportionment.

2. Every county, having a population equal to one half of said ratio, shall be entitled to one representative; every county, containing said ratio, and three-fourths over, shall be entitled to two Representatives; every county, containing three times said ratio, shall be entitled to three Representatives: and so on, requiring after the first two, an entire ratio for each additional Representative.

3. When any county shall have a fraction above the ratio, so large, that being multiplied by five, the result will be equal to one or more ratios, additional Representatives shall be apportioned for such ratios, among the several sessions of the decennial period, in the following manner: If there be only one ratio, a Representative shall be allotted to the fifth session of the decennial period; if there

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are two ratios, a Representative shall be allotted to the fourth and third sessions, respectively; if three, to the third, second, and first sessions, respectively; if four, to the fourth, third, second, and first sessions, respectively.

4. Any county, forming with another county or counties, a Representative district, during one decennial period, if it have acquired sufficient population at the next decennial period, shall be entitled to a separate representation, if there shall be left, in the district from which it shall have been separated, a population sufficient for a Representative; but no such change shall be made, except at the reguiar decennial period for the apportionment of Representatives.

5. If, in fixing any subsequent ratio, a county, previously entitled to a separate representation, shall have less than the number required by the new ratio for a Representative, such county shall be attached to the county adjoining it, having the least number of inhabitants; and the representation of the district, so formed, shall be determined as herein provided.

6. The ratio for a Senator shall, forever hereafter, be ascertained, by dividing the whole population of the State, by the number thirtyfive.

7. The State is hereby divided into thirty-three Senatorial districts, as follows: the county of Ilamilton shall constitute the Senatorial district; the counties of Butler and Warren, the second; Montgomery and Preble, the third ; Clermont and Brown, the fourth ; Greene, Clinton and Fayette, the fifth ; Ross and Highland, the sixth ; Adams, Pike, Scioto and Jackson, the seventh; Lawrence, Gallia, Meigs and Vinton, the eighth: Athens, Hocking and Fairfield, the ninth; Franklin and Piekaway, the tenth; Clark, Champaign and Madison, the eleventh; Miama, Darke and Shelby, the twelfth ; Logan, Union, Marion and Hardin, the thirteenth; Washington and Morgan, the fourteenth ; Muskingum and Perry, the fifteenth; Delaware and Licking, the sixteenth; Knox and More row, the seventeenth; Coshocton and Tuscarawas, the eighteenth; Guernsey and Monroe, the ninetenth; Belmont and Harrison, the twentieth ; Carroll and Stark, the twenty-first; Jefferson and Columbiana, the twenty-second ; Trumbull and Mahoning, the twentythird; Ashtabula, Lake and Geauga, the twenty-fourth; Cuyahoga, the twenty-fifth ; Portage and Summit, the twenty-sixth; Medina and Lorain, the twenty-seventh; Wayne and Holmes, the twentyeighth ; Ashland and Richland, the twenty-ninth; Huron, Erie, Sandusky and Ottawa, the thirtieth; Seneca, Crawford and Wyandot, the thirty-first; Mercer, Auglaize, Allen, Vanwert, Paulding, Defiance and Williams, the thirty-second; and Hancock, Wood, Lucas, Fulton, Henry and Putnam, the thirty-third. For the first decennial period, after the adoption of this constitution, each of said districts shall be entitled to one Senator, except the first district, which shall be entitled to three Senators.

8. The same rules shall be applied, in apportioning the fractions

of Senatorial districts, and in annexing districts, which may hereafter have less than three-fourths of a Senatorial ratio, as are applied to Representative districts.

9. Any county forming part of a Senatorial district, having acquired a population equal to a full senatorial ratio, shall be made a separate Senatorial district, at any regular decennial apportionment, if a full Senatorial ratio shall be left in the district from which it shall be taken.

10. For the first ten years, after the year one thousand eight hundred and fifty-one, the apportionment of Representatives shall be as provided in the schedule, and no change shall ever be made in the principles of representation, as herein established, or in the Senatorial districts, except as above provided. All territory, belonging to a county at the time of any apportionment, shall, as to the right of representation and suffrage, remain an integral part thereof, during the decennial period.

11. The Governor, Auditor, and Secretary of State, or any two of them, shall, at least six months prior to the October election, in the year one thousand eight hundred and sixty-one, and, at each decennial period thereafter, ascertain and determine the ratio of representation, according to the decennial census, the number of Representatives and Senators each county or district shall be entitled to elect, and for what years, within the next ensuing ten years, and the Governor shall cause the same to be published, in such manner as shall be directed by law.

JUDICIAL APPORTIONMENT, Sec. 12. For Judicial purposes, the State shall be apportioned as follows:

The county of Ilamilton, shall constitute the first district, which shall not be subdivided; and the Judges therein, may

hold separate courts, or separate sittings of the same court, at the same time.

The counties of Butler, Preble and Darke, shall constitute the first subdivision, Montgomery, Miami and Champaign, the second, and Warren, Clinton, Greene, and Clark, the third subdivision, of the second district; and, together, shall form such district.

The counties of Shelby, Auglaize, Allen, Hardin, Logan, Union and Marion shall constitute the first subdivision, Mercer, Van Wert, Putnam, Paulding, Defiance, Williams, llenry and Fulton, the second, and Wood, Seneca, Hancock, Wyandot and Crawford, the third subdivision, of the third district; and, together, shall form such district. The counties of Lucas, Ottawa, Sandusky, Erie and Huron, shall

, , constitute the first subdivision, Lorain, Medina and Summit, the second, and the county of Cuyahoga, the third subdivision, of the fourth district; and, together, shall form such district.

The counties of Clermont, Brown and Adams, shall constitute the first subdivision, Highland, Ross and Fayette, the second; and Pickaway, Franklin and Madison, the third subdivision, of the fifth dis. trict; and, together, shall form such district.

The counties of Licking, Knox and Delaware, shall constitute the first subdivision, Morrow, Richland and Ashland, the second, and Wayne, Holmes and Coshocton, the third subdivision, of the sixth district; and, together, shall form such district.

The counties of Fairfield, Perry and locking, shall constitute the first subdivision, Jackson, Vinton, Pike, Scioto and Lawrence, the second, and Gallia, Meigs, Athens and Washington, the third subdivision, of the seventh district; and, together, shall form such district.

The counties of Muskingum and Morgan, shall constitute the first subdivision, Guernsey, Belmont and Monroe, the second, and Jetlerson, Ilarrison and Tuscarawas, the third subdivision, of the eighth district; and, together, shall form such district.

The counties of Stark, Carroll and Columbiana, shall constitute the first subdivision, Trumbull, Portage and Mahoning, the second, and Geauga, Lake and Ashtabula, the third subdivision, of the ninth district; and, together, shall form such district.

13. The General Assembly shall attach any new counties, that may hereafter be erected, to such districts, or subdivisions thereof, as shall be most convenient.

ARTICLE XII.–Finance and Taxation. Sec. 1. The levying of taxes, by the poll, is grievous and oppressive; therefore, the General Assembly shall never levy a poll tax, for county or State purposes.

2. Laws shall be passed, taxing, by a uniform rule, all moneys, credits, investments in bonds, stocks, joint stock companies, or otherwise; and also all real and personal property, according to its true value in money; but burying grounds, public school houses, houses used exclusively for public worship, institutions of purely public charity, public property used exclusively for any public purpose; and personal property, to an amount not exceeding in value two hundred dollars, for each individual, may, by general laws, be exempted from taxation : but, all such laws shall be subject to alteration or repeal; and the value of all property, so exempted, shall, from time to time, be ascertained and published, as may be directed by law.

3. The General Assembly shall provide, by law, for taxing the notes and bills discounted or purchased, moneys loaned, and all other property, effects, or dues of every description, (without deduction) of all Banks, now existing, or hereafter created, and of all bankers, so that all property employed in banking, shall always bear a burden of taxation, equal to that imposed on the property of individuals.

4. The General Assembly shall provide for raising revenue, sufficient to defray the expenses of the State, for each year, and also a sufficient sum to pay the interest on the State debt.

5. No tax shall be levied, except in pursuance of law; and every

law imposing a tax, shall state, distinctly, the object of the same, to which only, it shall be applied.

6. The State shall never contract any debt for purposes of inter: nal improvement.

ARTICLE XIII.- Corporations.

Sec. 1. The General Assembly shall pass no special act conferring corporate powers.

2. Corporations may be formed under general laws; but all such laws may, from time to time, be altered, or repealed.

3. Dues from corporations shall be secured, by such individual liability of the stockholders, and other means, as may be prescribed by law; but, in all cases, each stockholder shall be liable, over and above the stock by him or her owned, and any amount unpaid thereon, to a further sum, at least equal in amount to such stock.

4. The property of corporations, now existing or hereafter created, shall forever be subject to taxation, the same as the property of individuals.

5. No right of way shall be appropriated to the use of any corporation, until full compensation therefor be first made in money, or first secured by a deposit of money, to the owner, irrespective of any benefit from any improvement proposed by such corporation : which compensation shall be ascertained by a jury of twelve men, in a court of record, as shall be prescribed by law.

6. The General Assembly shall provide for the organization of cities, incorporated villages, by general laws; and restrict their power of taxation, assessment, borrowing money, contracting debts and loaning their credit, so as to prevent the abuse of such power.

7. No act of the General Assembly, authorizing associations with banking powers, shall take effect; until it shall be submitted to the people, at the general election next succeeding the passage thereof, and be approved by a majority of all the electors, voting at such election.

ARTICLE XIV.-Jurisprudence. Sec. 1. The General Assembly, at its first session after the adoption of this Constitution, shall provide for the appointment of three Commissioners, and prescribe their tenure of office, compensation, and the mode of filling vacancies in said commission.

2. The said commissioners shall revise, reform, simplify and abridge, the practice, pleadings, forms, and proceedings of the Courts of record of this State; and, as far as practicable and expedient, shall provide for the abolition of the distinct forms of action at law, now in use, and for the administration of justice by a uniform mode of proceeding, without reference to any distinction between law and equity.

3. The proceedings of the Commissioners shall, from time to time,

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