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not in the form of an amendment to the question; but as alternative, or successive originals. In all cases of time or number, we must consider whether the larger comprehends the lesser, as in a question to what day a postponement shall be, the number of a committee, amount of a fine, term of an imprisonment, term of irredeemability of a loan, or the terminus in quem, in any other case. Then the question must begin a maximo. Or whether the lesser concludes the greater, as in questions on the limitation of the rate of interest, on what day the session shall be closed by adjournment, on what day the next shall commence, when an act shall commence, or the terminus a quo in any other case, where the question must begin a minimo. The object being not to begin at that extreme, which, and more, being within every man’s wish, no one could negative it, and yet, if he should vote in the affirmative, every question for more would be precluded: but at that extreme which would unite few, and then to advance or recede, till you get to a number which will unite a bare majority. 3 Grey 376, 384, 385. “The fair question in this case is not that to which and more all will agree, but whether there shall be addition to the question.” 1 Grey 365. Another exception to the rule of priority is, when a motion has been made to strike out, or agree to a paragraph. Motions to amend it are to be put to the question before a vote is taken on striking out, or agreeing to the whole paragraph. But there are several questions, which being incidental to every one, will take place of every one, privileged or not; to wit, a question of order arising out of any other question, must be decided before that question. 2 Hats. SS. A matter of privilege arising out of any question, or from a quarrel between two members, or any other cause, supersedes the consideration of the original question, and must be first disposed of 2 Hats. 88. Reading papers relative to the question before the house. This question must be put before the principal One. 2 Hats. SS. Leave asked to withdraw a motion. The rule of parliament being, that a motion made and seconded is in
possession of the house, and cannot be withdrawn without leave, the very terms of the rule imply that leave may be given, and consequently may be asked and put to the question.
When any question is before the house, any member may move a previous question, “Whether that question (called the main question) shall now be put 7” If it pass in the affirmative, then the main question is to be put immediately, and no man may speak any thing further to it, either to add or alter. Mem. in Hakew. 28. 4 Grey 27. The previous question, until it is decided, shall preclude all amendment and debate of the main question, and shall be in this form—shall the main question be now put 2–R. of A. 13. No member shall speak more than once, without leave, upon a previous question. R. of A. 14. This kind of question is understood by Mr. Hatsell to have been introduced in 1604, 2 Hats. 80. Sir Henry Vane introduced it. 2 Grey 113, 114. 3 Grey 384. When the question was put in this form, “shall the main question be put 7” a determination in the negative suppressed the main question during the session; but since the words “now put” are used, they exclude it for the present only. Formerly indeed, only till the present debate was over; 4 Grey 43. but now, for that day and no longer. 2 Grey 113, 114. Before the question “whether the main question shall now be put 7” any person might, formerly, have spoken to the main question, because otherwise he would be precluded from speaking to it at all. Mem. in Hakew. 28. The proper occasion for the previous question is, when a subject is brought forward of a delicate nature, as to high personages, &c. or the discussion of which may call forth observations which might be of injurious consequences. Then the previous question is proposed; and,
in the modern usage, the discussion of the main question is suspended, and the debate confined to the previous question. The use of it has been extended abusively to other cases; but in these it is an embarrassing procedure; its uses would be as well answered by other more simple parliamentary forms, and therefore it should not be favored, but restricted within as narrow limits as possible.
Whether a main question may be amended after the previous question on it has been moved and seconded ? 2 Hats. SS. says, If the previous question has been moved and seconded, and also proposed from the chair, (by which he means stated by the speaker for debate) it has been doubted whether an amendment can be admitted to the main question. He thinks it may, after the previous Question moved and seconded ; but not after it has been proposed from the chair. In this case he thinks the friends to the amendment must vote that the main question be not now put ; and then move their amended question, which being made new by the amendment, is no longer the same which has been just suppressed, and therefore may be proposed as a new one. But this proceeding certainly endangers the main question, by dividing its friends, some of whom may ehoose it unamended, rather than lose it altogether: while others of them may vote, as Hatsell advises, that the main question be not now put, with a view to move it again in an amended form. The enemies to the main question, by this manoeuvre of the previous question, get the enemies to the amendment added to them on the first vote, and throw the friends of the main question under the embarrassment of rallying again as they can. To support his opinion too, he makes the deciding circumstance, whether an amendment may or may not be made, to be that the previous question has been proposed from the chair. But as the rule is that the house is in possession of a question as soon as it is moved and seconded, it cannot be more than possessed of it by its being also proposed from the chair. It may be said indeed, that the object of the previous question being to get rid of a question, which it is not expedient should be discussed, this object may be defeated by moving to amend, and, in the discussion of that motion, involving the subject of the main question. But
so may the object of the previous question be defeated by moving the amended question, as Mr. Hatsell proposes, after the decision against putting the original question. He acknowledges too, that the practice has been to admit previous amendment, and only cites a few late instances to the contrary. On the whole, I should think it best to decide it ab inconvenienti, to wit, which is most inconvenient, to put it in the power of one side of the house to defeat a proposition by hastily moving the previous question, and thus forcing the main question to be put unamended; or to put it in the power of the other side to force on, incidentaily at least, a discussion which would be better avoided ? Perhaps the last is the least inconvenience; inasmuch as the speaker, by confining the discussion rigorously to the amendment only, may prevent their going into the main question, and inasmuch also as so great a proportion of the cases in which the previous question is called for, are fair and proper subjects of public discussion, and ought not to be obstructed by a formality introduced for questions of a peculiar character.
On an amendment being moved, a member who has spoken to the main question may speak again to the amendment. Scob. 23. lf an amendment be proposed, inconsistent with one already agreed to it is a fit ground for its rejection by the house; but not within the competence of the speaker to suppress as if it were against order. For were he permitted to draw questions of consistence within the vortex of order. he might usurp a negative on important modifications, and suppress, instead of subserving, the legislative will. Amendments may be made so as totally to alter the nature of the proposition; and it is a way of getting rid of a proposition. by making it bear a sense different from what was intended by the movers, so that they vote against it themselves. 2 Hats. 79, 4, 82, 84. A new bill may be ingrafted by way of amendment, on the words “Be it enacted, &c.” 1 Grey 190, 192. If it be proposed to amend by leaving out certain words, it may be moved as an amendment to this amendment, to leave out a part of the words of the amendment, which is equivalent to leaving them in the bill. 2 Hats. 80,9. The parliamentary question is always, whether the words shall stand part of the bill? When it is proposed to amend by inserting a paragraph, or part of one, the friends of the paragraph may make it as perfect as they can by amendments, before the question is put for inserting it. If it be received, it cannot be amended afterwards, in the same stage; because the house has on a vote, agreed to it in that form. In like manner, if it is proposed to amend by striking out a paragraph, the friends of the paragraph are first to make it as perfect as they can by amendments, before the question is put for striking it out. If, on the question, it be retained, it cannot be amended afterwards: because a vote against striking out, is equivalent to a vote agreeing to it in that form. When it is moved to amend, by striking out certain words, and inserting others, the manner of stating the question is, first to read the whole passage to be amended as it stands at present, then the words proposed to be struck out, next those to be inserted, and lastly, the whole passage as it will be when amended. And the question, if desired, is then to be divided, and put first on striking out. If carried, it is next on inserting the words proposed. If that be lost, it may be moved to insert others, 2 Hats. 80, 7. A motion is made to amend by striking out certain words, and inserting others in their place, which is negatived. Then it is moved to strike out the same words, and to insert others, of a tenor entirely different from those first proposed. It is negatived. Then it is moved to strike out the same words and insert nothing, which is agreed to. All this is admissible; because to strike out and insert A, is one proposition. To strike out and insert B, is a different proposition. And to strike out and insert nothing, is still different. And the rejection