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tion on the ancient laws and consti- room to doubt of this fact. A still tution of the realm, could not fail stronger circumstance is their hav. to convince them that the measure ing never yet dared to trust a jury was impracticable; and they pro- with a finale decision upon these bably would have retracted, could new acts, though cases have certhey have done it with a becoming tainly occurred in which indietgrace. The alterations which they ments m:ght have been framed upon admitted in the bills, the limitation them. The acts remain, therefore, in one of them as to the time of its

as was predicted (we think by lord continuing in force, and the mo- Thurlow), a dead letter upon the derate tone assumed by their sup- statute-book; and will undoubtedly porters without doors, particularly be brushed away as useless lumber, by the affociated merchants and on any change of administration. bankers of London, leave little

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CHAP. II. Abftract of his Majely's Speech at the Opening of the Sffion. Debates on

ike Addrifs-- In the Commons - In the Lords. Committee on the high Price of Corn. Bill renewed for allowing a free Importation. Motions of the Chancellor of the Exchequer ref, citing the Corn Lacus, &C. Debate on these Motions. Report of the Committee on the high Price of Grain. Bounty on Importation of Corn mover for by Jlr. Pitt. Bill enabling Overfiers to extend Rrlief to the poor at their own Houfes. Mr. Whitbread's Motion for raising the Wages of Labourers. Negatived by the Interference and influence of Mr. Pitt. Engagement entered into by several Members of both Houses to reduce the Consumption of Wheat Flour in their Families. Motion of Sir John Sinclair for the Cultivation of waste Lands. N the preceding chapter, the appeared to have produced in them

meeting of prliament, on the an impresion, that their only re29th of Oercber, wag noticed, as lief must result from peace and a well as t'e extraor 'inary circum- Stitled government. The crisis in stances which aitended his majesty's which they now were, muit probaprogrefs to and from the house of bly produce confequences imporlords. The speech from the throne 'tant to the in:erests of Europe. . If opened by ftäting his majesty's fa- this crisis terminated in any thing tisfaction that the general situation affording a reasonable expectation of affairs, notuit finding many of fecurity in any treaty, the appearevents unfavourable to the common ance of a disposition to treat for cause, 'was materially improved. peace on juft. and suitable terms The Fr nch had in Italy been driv. would, his majesty added, be met er back, and were checked on the on his part with an earnest desire fide of Germany. Their fucceffis, to give it the speedieft effect. The and the treaties of peace they had accel ration of this desirable end entered into, were far from com- required, however, that we thould penfating the evils they futfered prove our ability to prosecute the from the continuance of war; and war, till we could conclude it in a the unparallel: { embarrafinent and peace suited to the justice of our diuess of their internal situation cause, and the fituation of the ene. my. To this end the most vigor- important. The finances and the ous naval preparations were making energy of France were stated by Mr. for securing our fuperiority, and Stewart to be nearly exhausted their carrying on our exertions in the expences so enormous, as nor long West Indies. The hostilities com- to be supported; and their means mitted by the United Provinces of raising supplies to the dilbursehad, his majesty observed, obliged ment, 'exactly in the ratio of sehim to treat them as at war with this venty to one. The system of terror country. The northern fleet had he considered as no longer exitting received the most active assistance under the present government of from the empress of Ruflia. Treaties France. Our last campaign had not of defensive alliance had been en- been indeed attended by brilliant fuctered into with the two imperial cess; but our exertions had been usecourts, and the American treaty of fulin forcing the enemy to adopt uncommerce had beenexchanged. The justifiable means for the support of commonswere informed, that,"fur- an unjustifiable system, which nether additions to the heavy burders ceffarily tended to its own destrucwhich had been unavoidably im- tion, and to weaken them by the posed on the people," would be ne. victories it enabled them to obtain! cessary. But this pressure would be Their incapacity to injure was our alleviated by the fiouriling state of best guarantee; and to this point we commerce and manufactures, and were reducing them! He next derour expences being letlened by the canted, in moit extraordinary terms, present circumstances of the war. upon the unimpaired situation of The address to both houses of par- our resources. Nowhere were our liament concluded with a fhort view people deprived of the comforts of of the measures necessary to be taken life by the effects of war! Monied respecting the deficiency of grain. men were ready to lend the sums

my. flow

From the business which, imme- necessary for the exigencies of godiately after the delivery of his ma- vernment. There were still many jestv's speech, took place in the good objects of taxation for the prehouse of lords, respecting the out. sent year; and the exiji ing taxes, torages he had that day received, the gether with the national de't, were debate on the address first took in a state of liquidation! While he place in the commons. The address lamented the defection of some of was moved by lord Dalkeith, and our allies from the general cause, seconded by the honourable Mr. some argument might be used in Stewart. These gentlemen con- their justification ; they had not curred with the speech of his ma- made peace till France had abanjesty respecting the improved fitu- doned her system of interference ation of public affairs. The ad- in foreign states. Close to the vantages gained by the enemy on frontiers of an enemy on one hand, the continent were, they conceived, and with a suspicious friend on the pretty equally balanced by their other, their existence was endanlosses in other quarters. And though, gered. This had been the situation in the West Indies, our prosperity of Hanover : the different situation had not been eminently conspicu- of that country from this, requirous, yet the prospect there was ed a different system of policy. promising; and in the East Indies Fortune, not the arms of France, our successes had been uniform and had conquered Holland; and the


flow operation of the principles of any cordial co-operation, but to the French in that country indi- eat English meat, and to iearn Engcated their probable short poffeffion lith difcipline. If, as had been stated, of it.

general discontent would produce The word sat sfaction, which had some change in the situation of occurred so early in the speech from French affairs, and lead to a better the th one excited the lurprize of order of things, the people of EngNir. Sheridan. As the speech of land were, by their suiterings and the nnifer, he profefled his in- calamity, in a high road to its attention to exercise his right, as a tainment. Mr. Sheridan next cenmember of parliament, io examine fured the delay in the failing of the it free.y. To be fatisfied cuith every West India armament, and the disthinz, was esteemed a mark of piety afters encountered by the emigrants ani chriftian refignation; certainly, in their expeditions to Noirmontier then, ministers were the inot pious and Poitou. British blood did not, men in the world. They were fa- indeed, flow in these expeditions; tisfied with the improvement of our but British honour bled at every fituation since last year. It was stat- pore. A desperate effort was, he edtha: a check had been received by observed, to be made for saving the French in Italy; but it was for the islands. In Martinique there gotten that at that period the repub-, was only one regiment of effective licans had not penetrated into Italy. men, though the nominal force was It was likewife faid, though only fix regiments. He doubted the poon the authority of a French news- licy of extending our West India paper, that the army on the Rhine poffeffions, as draining this country had been forced to redre. The ar- of what it could least Ipare,- men. my, however, had not last year Fifteen thousand troops had been crossed the Ruine, and now were landed in St. Domingo, of which only preventee from advancing to one thousand five hundred had been the Danube, and olsijged to limit fent to Grenada ; and of these, in their progress on the German fide four months, fourteen officers and of the Rhine. The war with Hol four hundred men had been loft. land night perhaps be confidered, They were packed in hospitals, in by minitters, as an improvement the most deplorable situations; and, of our situation! The feceflions by unaccountable negligence in the from the confederac; agair it France, different departments, were deprivand the pro refs from scarcity, ed of the aid both of medicines with which we were formerly and surgeons. From inattention in treatened, to an acknowledged fa- providing transports, nineiy instead mine, might increase tre latisac- of forty were put on board each tion of the miniser.

From a re

fhip. It was in vain, he said, to view of the speeches made by his connect the poflibility of negotia. majefty at the opening of the two tion with any new occurrences: iati and of the present feilion, Mr. this pretext thewed that the object Sheridaniuferred, that peaceappear of the contest was to restore the deed more than ever at a distance. He spotism of France. He called upon ridiculed the idea of the afliitance ministers to discover, like the king to be expected from the ficet of the of Pruflia, what government the emprefs, which came not to atiord French armies obeyed, and to ne.

gotiate gotiate with that as he had done, upon the sentiments of the prople as Spain had done, and as the elec- in the interior, or by the preilure tor of Hanover had done.

of an external torce effecting a The declaration of Louis XVIII. change in their temper and incliwas supposed to be penned in this nations. The latter of these objects country, with the concurrence and had succeeded; and the principles under the direction of ministers. of the new conftitution had fixed He thought those who advised his civil liberty upon much more reainajesty to spill the blood of this fonable foundations than it itood at country for the restoration of de- the commencement of the war. spotifin in France, were as great Should it be reduced to practice, traitors to their country as the mi- the objections to the fluctuating nister of Charles II. who advised nature of their government would him to enter into the pay of that be removed. That we had fuc. country Leagues with the de. ceeded in repelling the dangers spotic monarchs of France,expelled which threatened us, was certain. the house of Stuart from this coun- The fuccelles of the war had excited try: and indeed, could any league various royalist insurrections; and be more destructive to its interests from these one of three alternatives than one with the house of Bour- ,was to have been expected, either bon, which had ever been the in- that the enemny would have been veterate enemy of Great Britain, of unable to oppose the allies,—that a its liberty, and its commerce? He counter revolution would have been could not, he faid, move any a- eflected, or that a civil war w

would mendment to an address which he bave burtt forth. Unfortunately, disapproved in toto, but would se- however, the system of terror under cond one which embraced three Robespierre took place : but that points, first, that the people this gained ground in consequence Ihould not be burthened with taxes of the war, be ítrenuously denied. to support the delusive views of It tended to abridge that system, ministers in the restoration of the and the niseries it produced in monarchy of France, or till fome France. The deterinination of the form of government should be e- French 'o retain Holland, was, he stablished which they may not ima. thought, an insuperable obstacle gine incapable of maintaining the to an immediate peace; and the reaccustomed relations of peace and medy for her enormous acquisitions amity--that a strict inquiry Mhould was to endeavour in another quarbe instituted into the conduct of ter to obtain something to charge ministers in the prosecution of the or to compensate. A few months war—and that the most speedy ter- might place is in a situation to mination Nould be put to it, by treat with greater advantage. At declaring a 'willingnets to treat the beginning of the war, he had with France.

equally willed and expeted the Mr. Jenkinson considered the rittoration of the emisrants, and present time as extremely improper of the monarchy of France; and for negotiation, and recapitulated this he thought, if attainable, a fair the usual arguments for the com- subject of war, but believed it was mencement of the war, the conduct In the courte of his speech, of which was, he said, to be de- Mr. Jenkinson entered into a defended by examining its effects fence of his former assertions re



speeting " the march to Paris," adopt a new system, appoint neir which had been attacked by Mr. ministers, and adopt an energy Sheridan, and did not think the suitable to our embarrassinents. overthrow of the French govern

Mr. Fox censured the speech, ment fo chimerical as had been and the ministers by whom it was inferred: the defeat of the scheme written. It was not, he said, ewas in a great part attributable to nough that they should for three the want of fidelity and exertion in years persist in a war for miserable the allies.

speculation, add one hundred mil. General Tarleton considered the lions of debt to the capital, load speech of his majesty, and the ar- the people with four millions per guments that had taken place upon annum of permanent taxes, and it, as far from fatisfactory. Little make them feel all the miseries of confolation arose, he thought, to scarcity, but they must be insulted us, from the prevention of the in- by the falsehood of being told “their vasion of Italy. The troops lately situation was improved.” How employed against Spain would pro improved? It could not be fhewn bably now be directed against Italy. from the succesles of the Austrian He censured his imperial majesty army. After the loan voted to the for neglecting to fortify Luxem- emperor, and the pretences upon burg. As a military man, he in which it was granted, the people dulged very faint hopes of the were told that it was an improve. Weit-India expedition, and thought meat of their situation, that the it as easy to subdue the united French had been recently obliged ftates of America as St. Domingo. to retrcat from posts of which they He pointedly blamed the conduct were not in poffeffion at the time of the expedition to Quiberon, and of the guarantee. Was it an imthe miniiters, if they had any part provement, that they liad extended in the weakness and infamy of that their dominions beyond the Rhine, transaction. The present scarcity had got Manheim, and over-run the was attributed by the general in a greater part of the Palatinate ? Was great degree to the loss which agri- it because the French had not overcultural errployments sustained run Italy, that our fituation was from the millions of men who were improved ? Mr. Fox spoke in now engaged in war, particularly in strong terms of the lofty disdain Brabant, on the borders of the with which he had been treated the Rhine, and in the fertile fields of preceding sefiions, on occasion of Poland. Our late allies, the king his predictions respecting the scarof Spain and prince of Heffe Caflel, city of grain. When another genhad left us to ruin France by our- tleman (Mr. Hulley), at a later pefelves. To effect this, we muit ruin riod, and upon certain information, ourselves. Away, then,” said the used the same forcible diffuasive general, “ with sophiltry! away with against war, he was rebuked for a delufion! away with all the agents fuggeftion which was treated as of a corrupt and profligate admi. unfounded in fact. Was the verinistration!' A juftly incensed ene. fication of those warnings an iminy would not probably give terms provement ? The lufferings of when we chose to demand them; the poor he stated to be extreme. perha;'s might not even consent to Oh! but France was reduced to unthe measures we propose: we must paralleled distress, and this was our


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