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establishments in and near Paris. who intended, 'when the insurrec. According to one declaration, all tion was over, 'to sacrifice many of foreigners were to surrender them their affociates who were not initi. selves at a place appointed, on pain ated in their secret proje&ts, and to of being instantly put to death; spare some perfons who now ap. according to another, they were to pear to have been involved in the be mu dered without that previous common profeription. This vast formality. The foldiers from the machine of conspiracy was organeighbouring camp were to be in: nized with fo much ingenuity, that vited to come into the town' in thể agents were not to know cach finall bands, without officers, and other; so that if one was unfaithe without colours, and were to be ful, or discovered and seized, it paid, upon their arrival, the price was only necesary to affallinate his of their horses, &c. The persons iminediate superior in order to conwho were to compose the new le: ceal effe&tually all traces of the gillative body, were Gxty-eight of conspiracy from the government. the ex-conventional members, who The names of the secret directory had not been re-elected, a depury were to remain unknown; and they from each department, and proba were to issue their orders by means bly a few mountaineers of the pre- of a seal, without any fignatures. fent legislative body.
as Many of their papers, which were The fignal for che infurre&tion read 'in' general committees of the would have been involuntarily council of five 'hundred, were found given through the whole extent of hid in a wall." the city by the police itself; being “ There is no doubt, but; had the the sound of the bell which is every conspirators prevailed, Paris would morning rung in each section at the have become a scene of, horrors be. time appointed for cleanfing the yond any which it has yet experi. ftreets. At that found the confpi- enced in the course of a fanguinary rators were co form themselves in- revolution. But there are many to bands of font or five persons, reasons to believe that these affari to enter the houfes which they had fins might have failed in their enmarked, and stab those whom they terprize, even if they had been sufhad destined to perifh; then join- fered to make the attenipt. "They ing their forces' at a place of gene had not, ; as in the infurrection of ral rendezvous, they were to march the 31st of May, 1793, the conftiin confiderable numbers upon the tuted authorities on their fide, and directory, who had no other de. thoogh they might have committed fence than the conftitutional guard, many murders, it is not probable reinforced by one battalion of ina that they would have been able to fantry, and a small body of horfe.' accomplish the masacre of all the
The aim of the conspiracy was persons in power, residing in dif to overthrow the government alto- ferent quarters of a great city; and gether; but it appears that there every good citizen would tave in. were two plans, one known to all stantly rallied arvund those who the conspirators, and the other only survived. Some of the foldiers had to a small number; and those latter been seduced ; but it is believed had formed what they called an in- that the greater part would have furrectional secret directory of pubi refifted the confpirators; and alt lic safety, consisting of four perfons, the field-officers were faithful to
the government. Incalculable mis- jected would not be prevented, me. ehiels, however, were prevent. naces them with death if they did ed by the failure of this exe- not retract all they had pubiilhed crable plan of ferocious madness, respecting it, and promiles them, which, had it succeeded, would if they behaved in a becoming man. have completed the ruin of the ner, five places in the future execountry, would have deftroyed all cutive council. that is left of estimable citizens, The trial of thefe conspirators and all that it itill poselies of was delayed for a confiderable time, wealth and of refouices. For als partly through the flow and lenient though they certainly would not forms which the constitution had have succeeded in establishing the prescribed in such cases, and partconstitution of 1793, a few hours ly, we fufpect, through motives of of success would have fufficed for policy. In the mean time Drouet pillage and massacre. This defpe- (through some connivance of the rate enterprise appears indeed to executive power or its agents, as have been less a project of revolu- is generally supposed) effected his tion or of conquest, than of exter. escape; but Babeuf and Darthe have mination; and one idea publithed been condemned to death by the in the papers of the conspirators, high criminal court at Vendome, that of engaging the people to come appointed to try the conspirators. mit such crimes as would make it The discovery of this conspiracy impoffible for them to retrograde, produced, as might be expected, the seems worthy of the internal re- most general satisfaction throughout gions. Had the designs of these France, except among the royalists miscreants indeed not been baffled, and the jacobins. When the point in there would have been the war of question is that of overthrowing pillage against property; of fainine, the republican government, thote which would have been without two extremes are found to meet, remedy, against fubfiftence; and of this being alike the aim of both the most hideous and bloody ty- parties. After the discovery of the ranny againt freedom.
plot, the jacobins endeavoured to Babeut, one of the most a&tive circulate the opinion that it was leaders of this conspiracy, acknow" framed by the royalists; but this ledged himself to be the writer of afferrion gained no credit, ince the treasonable papers found in his the persons arrested were renown. apartment. When interrogated by ed chiefs of the terrorist faction, the minister of the police, he re- whose fanguinary principles are but plied with the most undaunted too well ascertained. It is not, firmness; and when asked who however, improbable that some were his accomplices, he answered, emiflaries of foreign powers might that they little knew him who be- insinuate themselves into the coun, lieved he was capable of denounc. cils of the jacobins, and impel them' ing his friends. . Babeuf from his to those ferocious outrages, which, dungeon continued for some time to after producing a scene of the most treat with the executive directory horrible carnage, and destroying As one sovereign power with an. considerable numbers of the repub. other. He addreffed to them a let. licans, might probably end by the ter of four pages, in which he tells wearied people seeking for relief them that the holy insurrection pro. in monarchy' from such intolerable
evils. But although the royalifts
are that rea of blood on which the ready to take advantage.. of that velfel of the state had been nearly hideous anarchy which the jaco: hipwrecked at the very moment bins would renew, there is cer- when it reached an harbour. tainly not, as some would lifinu- . This jacobinical conspiracy beate, any coalition between the two ing discovered, the partial insurparties. On the contrary, in one rections which took place in some of the papers of the late con of the southern departinents and spiracy, is found an express ordet one of the newly-acquired departto put all the royalists to deathe ments in the north, which were The jacobins act' only for them fomented by the fanatical clergy felves, and seek only to establish and returned emigrants, were like their own execrable system. It is wise dissipated. The influence of the general observation, that the the refractorý priests had been sucfailure of a plot adds weight to the cessfully exercised in checking the established power; their last pro- operations of government in vari: jęcted insurrection, therefore, reals ous modes; but in none more than ly served to give new strength to in preventing the sale of national the government, by inspiring new lands, by preaching that the purconfidence in its administration chasers would incur, by that act, The die was then cast. The execu- the pains of eternal damnation. tive directory found it necessary to The legislature bad been in fre: declare open hoftilities against that quent deliberation respecting the daring faction which threw its division of that portion of the pagruntlet at the government from ternal inheritance of which the nawhich it received not only protection became the heir by the emition but favour; and the dire&ory gration of the natural successors. is now bound by every motive of The council of elders had already self-preservation, as well as by every rejected a' resolution sent up by the principle of public virtue, to cruth council of five hundred, which prothat exterminating band, whose posed the immediate division of dangerous excelles was all the ret the property during the life of the public had to fear amid the -in. poffeffor. The discussion on this creasing glories of its victorious question had been conducted with arms. From the royalists, traided much heat on either fide; one parby jacobin infurrections, there is ty confidering the division of the little to apprehend. The people paternal estate during the life-time of France are so. wearied of a fiaté of the parent, as vicenfitutional of revolution, they long fo ardent, and tyrannical; while the other as. ly for repose, that if the present serted it to le conformable to the form of government be tolerably rules of perfc&t justice and equity. well administered, if it affords them on the rejection of the resolution safety and tranquillity, nothing wil for a torced divifion, the council excite them tó insurrection. The of fire hundred formed another rerepublicans wish to maintain the solution (May yılı), which left the conftitution from principle and removal of the sequestration upon choice ; and even the rovalists allierte des belonging to parents themselves, in general, feel, that to whofe children had emigrated, at attempt now the restoration of mo. the will of such as chose to affent narchy, would be to repass again to the immediate surrender of that
. part to which the nation was en- tion, though effentially the same in titled by law. Those who did not principle with the former, was op* consent to the immediate division, posed with great vigour, but was
were to remain under the weight at length approved by the council of the sequestration. This regula- of elders, and passed into a law.
CHA P. IX. :
Opening of the Campaign on the Rhine.' Obje&t of the Campaign. Battle of
the Sieg. Vieteries of the French at Altenkirchen. Pasage of the Lahn. Attack of the French by Prince Charles. Retreat of the French to their former Positions. "Pasage of the Rhine by the Army under Moreau. Kehl takey, Austrian Army in Italy take Refuge in Mantua. French take Porfeffion of Leghorn. Entrance of the French Army on the Territories of the
Pope. Surrender of Bologna, Ferrara, and Urbino. Armistice concluded zeith Naples and the Pope. Conditions of the Armistice. Petition of the French Artists againft the Removal to Paris of the Monuments of the Arts from Italy. Refusal of the Directory. Operations of the French Army in The Brisgaw. Return of Prince Charles from the Lower Rhine to the Al
fiftance of General Wurmser. Battle of Reuchen. Battle of Radstadt. General Jourdan advances to Frankfort. Battle of Erringen. Retreat of the Imperial Army into Germany. Paffage of the Rhine at Huningue. French in Poffeffion of the Course of the Rhine. Trial of the Murderer's of September 1792. Acquittal of the Insurgents in the Affair of Vendemiaire. Causes and Consequences of that Insurrection. Afairs of Finance. Extinction of the Assignats and Rescripcions. Creation of Mandats. Loans in forcing their Circulation. Great Depreciation of this Paper, « Forced Loans. State of the Public Revenue. Various Modes of granting the Supplieso Suppreifion of religious Houfes in the Low Countries. Expulsion of the Pope's Envoys from Paris. Disiniffion of the Sardinian Ambasador. Dismijion of the Plenipotentiary from the Duke of Tuscany. Expulsion of the Swedish Envoy. URING the events which have of the latter army was intrenched
just been related, the Auttrian at Dusseldorf, on the right side of commander in chief announced to the Rhine. the French general the termination The poffeffion of the city of the armistice on the Rhine (May Mentz, which was the only post 31st). The imperial troops were of importance held by the Austria in possession of the larger portion ans on the west of the river, scem? of ihe palatinate from Landau to ed to be the great object of the Bingen. The army of the Rhine campaign to the French, as the and Moselle, and the right wing of capture of this place would make the army of the Sambre and Meuse, them absolute masters of the whole prevented them from penetrating of the country on the left side of to the banks of the Moselle and to the Rhine. Several armies had al, Luxembourg; while the left wing ready melted away before Mentz;
and for formidable were the addic the Hundfdruck, wbere he had held tions made to its original strength in check the army of the Rhine on the lide which was opposed to and Mofelle, under Moreau; and the French, that no hope of fuccefs leaving Meirtz and Manheim, which was entertained until the commu- he had hitherto covered with the nication could be cut off on the moft confiderable part of his forces, German fide.
with a fufficient number to repel The first operations of the French any sudden attacks, marched across were successful: while the army of the Rhine with rych reinforce. the Rhine and Moselle, and the ments as rendered the Austrian ar, right wing of the army of the Sain. my on the right side, which had bre and Meuse, attacked the Au- been hitherto retreating, greatly ftrians in the Palatinate, the left superior to the affaitants. This wing of this last army, posted at well-concerted scheme was conDuffeldorf, afcending the right fide strued, by the French generals and of the Rhine, attacked the Austri. commiflioners belonging to the ar: ans who were posted on the banks my in the Palatinate, into a fight. of the Sieg (June ift), a river But the army on the right ide, which empties itself into the Rhine, which had hitherto been pursuing nearly opposite to Cologne. The the Austrians towards Mentz, and victory gained at the passage of the which were now advanced within Sieg was followed by another fill a dhort distance of this town, foon more decisive at Altenkirchen ( June "felt the effects of thefe operations ; 4th), a village a few miles dittant fiuce, before Jourdan, who had forefrom the Sieg on the road to Mertz; seen this nanæuvre, could gain where the imperial troops, under time, from the badness of the roads, the prince of Wirtemberg, were and the length of the march, to strongly posted to prevent the dan- strengthen the army, the Austriana gerous progress of the republicans attacked it with great fury, and in that direction.
compelled it, with confiderable lofs, The imperial troops, after have to take its former position, whence ing suffered confiderable lofs, were they had begun their operations. compelled to retreat across the The army of the Sambre and Meuse Lahn, a river emptying itself into retired within the lines of Duflela the Rhine, above the fortress of dorf, and that of the Rhine and Ehrenbreitsein; and still further on Morelle repalled the Rhine at Neuthe road to Mentz. The French wied. The evacuation of the Pa. had crossed this river in pursuit of latinate by the Auftrians, who were the retreating army, and bad in. now employed in pursuit of the yested this fortress, which was a retreating armies of the French on place of uncommon strength; when the right side of the river, left the ihe archduke, perceiving the dan- army of the Rhine and the Moselle, ger of suffering the republicans to which had taken poffeffion of the advance further in the rear of the territory abandoned by the impe. army, found it neceflary to change rialifts, once more in presence of his mode of defence, and concert Mentz and Manheim, without the another plan of operations.
poflibility of gaining any advantage For this purpołe, about the 8th by its position. of June, he withdrew the greater This second defear before Mentz, part of the imperiod troops from though less fatal chan she loss sus.