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@pon wine were immediately pro- to be brought against it. On put. du&tive. The amount of the taxes ting the previous question, which had and the estimate were, he stated, been moved by lord Hawkesbury, in the first year nearly equal; in the it was carried without a division. fecond, the produce exceeded the e- The subject of the game laws, ftimate; and what they might prove which underwent considerable in in the present, could not be ascer- vestigation in both the houses of pained. What would be the peace parliament, was introduced to the establishment at the end of the war, notice of the house of commons, muft entirely depend on the fecu: February 16, by Mr. Coke of Nora rity and permanency of the treaty; folk, who moved for leave to bring but whatever it was, the sinking in a bill to amend the game act. fund would still continue to be The principal object of this bill paid, together with the interest of was to defer the commencement of 3,500,000l. at four per cent. His the season for shooting partridges lordship drew a very Aattering pic- till the 14th of September, in order ture of the revenue and resources to prevent injury to the farmers ; of the country; that one per cent. which was carried. Mr. Curwen less was paid for interest than in brought forward a motion for the former wars; that in 1792 only total repeal of all the game laws; twenty-nine navigation bills were upon which the subject was warmpassed, and last year there were ly agitated in the house of comforty-seven ; but one hundred and mons, and the motion thrown out nine inclosure bills in 1792, and by a considerable majority. Little last year two hundred and seventeen. worthy of remark occurred, howOur commerce had gone to an un- ever, in the debate, excepting the paralleled extent, and, though de extraordinary and truly Jacobinical stroyed with Holland, had increased observation of the chancellor of the with Germany, and last year a. exchequer, that property was the mounted to fix millions.

creature of law." The resolutions and statements On the 18th of February, Mr. of the earl of Lauderdale were ap- Wilberforce again moved for the proved and enforced by the mar- abolition of the slave trade, and quis of Lansdowne, and opposed by prefaced the motion by a speech of lord Grenville. Lord Lauderdale, great length, and replete with every in reply, commented upon the argument calculated to support the ftatements which had been made of humane measure he proposed. He the revenue and expenditure, which observed that the ist of January had materially differed in the con- 1796 was the period allotted by the clufion. He contended, that the ex- house for the abolition of this inpenditure of the last year of the war, famous traffic ; - that this time had from the papers on the table, was however elapsed, and this demuch greater than ministers al. teftable business proceeded with lowed, in the navy, army, and ex- undiminished fpirit. Independent traordinary estimates; and parti- of justice and humanity, it was, he cularly considered the arrears and obferved, further incumbent upon extraordinaries of the ordnance as the legislature to terminate the a novelty; as the noble duke who trade, on account of the preserbately presided there had left his vation of our West-India islands, office without any extraordinaries Had the abolition-act palled sooner,



the enemy, he said, would never the quakers, and moved for leave have obtained such firm hold in to bring in a bill for their relief, as Guadaloupe, Grenada, and St. Vin- to the imprisonment of their percents. The motion was opposed fons for tythes, and for making by general Tarleton, Sir W.Younge, their solemn affirmation evidence in NÍr. Dundas, and a very consider criminal as well as in civil cases. able number of gentlemen. It The bill was ably supported by was ably fupported by the chan- Mr. Adair, by Mr. Wilberforce, cellor of the exchequer, Mr. Smith, Mr. Francis, Mr. Martin, Mr. Pitt, Mr. serjeant Adair, &c. and in a Mr. Lechmere, and Mr. Wigley, very animated and eloquent speech and passed the house of commons, by Mi. Fox, In all its various but was thrown out by the lords. ftages, the measure called forth the A bill for the relief of curates whole of the talents of the house, met with confiderable opposition 'either in attack or defence; but in the house of commons, from its the arguments adduced have been being considered as a money bill, fo frequently before the public which had originated in the upper during the repeated discussions up- house. This objection was, hovon this subject, as to render any ever, removed, by recurring to a further detail of them unnecessary. variety of cases, in which the lords The real friends to humanity will exercised the right of introducing learn with concern, that the narrow clauses for payment of money views of interest and policy pre- and the present bill certainly did vailed over every confideration of not attempt to levy any new imreligion and justice. On the con- poft, but merely enacted a new dirfideration of the reports, general tribution of sums already applied Tarleton moved to postpone con- by parliament to particular pursidering the slave-trade abolition poses. The bill therefore passed. bill for four months; and the bill The earl of Moira, in the course was lost by a majority of four. of the sessions, brought in a bill for On reading the flave-carrying bill, mitigating the rigours experienced Mr. Wilberforce attempted to in- by debtors; which was strongly troduce a regulation of flaves in opposed by the law lords, and proportion to the tonnage; but, thrown out. On the 2d of May, upon a division being called for, colonel Cawthorne entered into a and the house being at different very elaborate defence of his contimes counted out, the number of duct, relative to the charges admembers were found inadequate to vanced against him by a late courtcompose a house; and the motion martial. It was then moved by was consequently thrown out, general Smith, that, being found

During this session a bill was guilty of several of the charges, he brought into the house for render- Thould be expelled the house ; ing permanent the Westminster which was feconded by Mr. Pierpolice establishment; which, after point, jun. Mr. Wigley wished much discussion, was negatived; the house to pause, and entered into and an amendment, moved by the a very able vindication of colonel chancellor of the exchequer, to Cawthorne ; who was, however, at continue it for five years, was length, formally expelled. adopted. Mr. serjeant Adair pre- On the 19th of May the fefior sented to the house a petition froin was closed, as usual, by a speech from the throne, which the reader contract for the services of their will find in our Public Papers *; and dependants with the precision of a on the following day the parliament Hessian envoy, or a Swiss comwas diffolved by proclamation. mandant. Hence the violence, CHAP. VIII.


the precipitation of their measures, Thus terminated a parliament, more analogous to the rath coun.' concerning whose conduct a more sels of a detvoric state, than to the impartial and a more unanimous temperate determinations, the graverdiet may be expected from dual and tardy compliances of a pofterity, than from the present deliberating popular assembly. It age. If we look to the advantages would ill become us (who, as priwhich, in the course of their poli- vate men, can have little coinmunitical existence, they conferred on Cation with the individuals who their constituents, - if we inquire composed this august body, and by what new and beneficial laws çonfequently are less acquainted they improved the system of British with their private sentiments) to jurisprudence, or ameliorated the infinuate, with Mr. Burke, that condition of their fellow-subjects, their votes were sometimes at vawe must confine our applauses to riance with their opinions. We two oljects — the bill introduced are rather disposed to conclude by Mr. Fox, which irrevocably that the majority of them had revested in a jury the whole question ally no opinion of their own, but on trials for libel; and the decision modestly afligned the direction of in the same session (1792) for the their faculties to other men: and abolition of the detestable Nave- the appellation with whicli they trade in 1796; a decision, which were ftigmatized, of a confiding they afterwards wanted the virtue parliament, will perhaps descend to enforce. Perhaps no feature in to posterity as the characteristic dethe character of this parliament scription of this particular body of was fo marked and prominent as representatives. If, however, we its devotion to party; perhaps the should be disposed to acquit them spirit of independence I was never of intentional misconduct and of lo little confpicuous in the con- actual corruption, we shall at least duct of any public body. From have long to·lament their unfortuits first assembling, the individual nate mistakes. In the short space members were ranked and arranged of four years, they nearly doubled under their respective leaders, with the national burthens, which were an order and discipline almost as already enormous, and left their regular as in a military establish- fucceffors involved in a conteft, the ment; and, when a certain num- issue of which it is impossible clearber of those leaders negotiated ly to foresee, but which cannot, on with the minister for a change of the whole, be fortunate or happy. principles, they were enabled to

* Page (89). + We mean by independence thic spirit of judging and acting individually for theina selves, independent of party views.

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France.- Preparations for the Campaign of 1796. Revolt of the Chiefs of

the Vendée. Proclamation of Stoflet. Death of the rebel Chiefs, and final Submifion of the insurgent Departments, Opening of the Campaign in Italy. Command of the Army given to Buonaparte. .Attack of the combined Armies, Victory of the French at the Battle of Monte Norte. Battle of Millefimo. Brave Defence of phe Piedmontese General Rovera. Defeat of the Aufirians with the Loss of ten thousand Men. Surprize and Repulse of the French at Dego by Marshal Beaulieu. Ceva taken by the French. Retreat of Count Colli across the Stura towards Turin. Defeat of the Piedmontese Army at Cherasco. Suspension of Arms demanded by the King of Sardinia, Peace concluded between the French Republic and his Sardinian Majesty at Paris. Conditions of the Treaty. Rejections on the Treaty. Observations on the Mode of conducting the War. Evacuation of Piedmont by Marjhal Beaulieu. Polufion of the Piedmontese Fortresses by the French. Prepa. șations made by Beaulieu to prevent the Passage of the Poat Valenza. PasJage of the Pe by the French at Placentia. Defeat of the Austrians at Fombio. Repulse of the Aufirians at Codogno. Death of General Laharpe, Armistice solicited by the Dukes of Parma and Modena. Defeat of the Aufirians at the Bridge of Lodi. Conquest of Lombardy. Causes of the Discontents bettucen the French Republic and the United States of America. General Wafhington's intercepted Letter to Mr. Morris. Representations made to the French Dirtēlory to prevent an immediate Rupture. Rise and Progress of the Discontents in Holland. Negotiations of the discontented Party with the French Government. Asemtly of the Dutch Convention. State of Parties. Declaration of War against England. Propofitions made at Basle by the English Ambassador for opening a Negotiat on with France. Remonstrances of the French Directory with the Canton of Basic. Envoy Extraordinary sent from Basle to Paris. Appointment of a Minister of the Police. Troubles in the South of France. Insurrection in the Department of the Nievre. Proclamation of the Directory. Jacobin Societies Jlut up. Severe Laws enacted against them. Revolt of the Legion of the Police. Conspiracy of Babeuf. Troubles occafioned by the refractory Clergy. Laws respecting the Division of the Estates of Emigrants. THILE the contending pow. France drew near to a close. This ers on the Rhine were col

war had proved more hostile to the lecting their forces to open the establishment of the republic than campaign of 1796 as foon as the the combinations of all its foreign time limited for the armistice fhould enemies. The fertile country of expire, - and the French army in the Vendée, where nature had Italy, which posessed only a few poured forth its riches in such proposts on the thores of the Medi fusion, but which the horrors of terranean, between Nice and Get this terrible conflict had so long hoa, 'was recruiting its fhattered covered with ruin and defolation, forces to attempt once more the had enjoyed but for a moment the conquest of Piedmont, – the civil perspective of happier days. The war in the western departments of chiefs of the royalifts, who had


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made their formal submission to the pacification entered into with the republic, and who had been ad- republic was a necessary measure mitted to the privilege of treating in order to renew the war with with the government as with a vigour, again issued proclamations, foreign power, again seduced the calling the people to arms, and assurinhabitants of those departinents ing them that the intention of the from their allegiance; and the exe- republic in making peace was only cutive power found that it was to deliver them over individually indispensably necessary to rid it to destruction. Although this infelf of this domestic enciny, before vitation was disregarded by the it entered on the operations of the people in general, fill the intiuence campaign. The zeal of the direc• of the chiefs encouraged numbers tory was ably feconded by general to revolt; and the plunderers being Hoche, to whom the task of termi- now released from every restraint, nating this war was entrusted, and not only the western departments, who had already given ample proofs which had been already the scene of courage and ability.

of war, were again desolated, but This conteit, which had hitherto the departments nearer to the feat been carried on with address and of government became also the intelligence on the Gde of the in- theatre of pillage and terror.' surgents, now degenerated into a I his confiict was, however, but war of rapine and plunder. The of short duration; for, after several chiefs of the Vendée, whose aim defeats of the various rebel arinies, was the restoration of royalty, had and the capture and death of their felt the neceflity of good order and leaders Charette aud Stoflet (29th discipline while that object was March), the remainder of the inthought attainable, and had con- furgents, comprehended under the ducted their troops with the address names of Chouans and Vendéans, and prudence nece!!ary to its fuc- harased on every lide, submitted cess; but perceiving that the paci- to the forces of the republic, or to fication lately concluded with the the magistracies of the different republic had alienated the minds communes; and peace was finally of the great mass of the people in restored to these desolated departthe infurgent countries froin ai- ments. tempting to plunge themselves a The campaign opened in the second time into the horrors from south on the oth of April. During which they had just escaped, they the three former campaigns, the let loose the remainder of their French had attempted in vain to bands to indiscriininate pillage and pierce through Piedmont into Italy. murder. The Vendéan had now. That country of mountains seemed returned to his peaceful occupa. to oppose an insurmouplable barrier tions; the interchanges of com- to their progress. The republican merce had taken place with the armies had hitherto only scaled the inhabitants of the neighbouring van-guard of the Alps, from whence departments, and the desolated also they had been driven, after communes began to feel the com- having viewed, in perspective, the forts of regular government, when immense difficulties they had to this new irruption took place. encounter before they could sucStoflet, who had previously inti- ceed in achieving the conquest of mated to his confidents that the Italy. The French had poffeflion

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