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necessary for the preservation of the peace and good order in the same. After the General Assembly shall be organized, the powers and duties of magistrates and other civil officers shall be regulated and defined by the said assembly ; but all magistrates and other civil officers, not herein otherwise directed, shall, during the continuance of this temporary government, be appointed by the Governor.
For the prevention of crimes and injuries, the laws to be adopted or made shall have force in all parts of the District, and for the execution of process, criminal and civil, the Governor shall make proper divisions thereof; and he shall proceed from time to time, as circumstances may require, to lay out the parts of the District in which the Indian titles shall have been extinguished, into counties and townships, subject, however, to such alterations as may thereafter be made by the Legislature.
So soon as there shall be five thousand free male inhabitants, of full age, in the District, upon giving proof thereof to the Governor, they shall receive authority, with time and place, to elect Representatives from their coun ties or townships, to represent them in the General Assembly ; provided that, for every five hundred free male inhabitants, there shall be one Representative, and so on, progressively, with the number of free male inhabitants, shall the right of representation increase, until the number of Representatives shall amount to twenty-five; after which the number and proportion of Representatives shall be regulated by the Legislature ; provided, that no person be eligible or qualified to act as a Representative, unless he shall have been a citizen of one of the United States three years, and be a resident in the District, or unless he shall have resided in the District three years ; and in either case, shall likewise hold in his own right, in fee simple, two hundred acres of land within the same ; provided also, that a freehold in fifty acres of land in the District, having been a citizen of one of the States, and being resident in the District, or the like freehold and two years residence in the District, shall be necessary to qualify a man as an elector of a Representative.
The Representatives, thus elected, shall serve for the term of two years; and in case of the death of a Repretative, or removal from office, the Governor shall issue a writ to the county or township, for which he was a mem ber, to elect another in his stead, to serve for the residue of the term.
The General Assembly, or Legislature, shall consist of the Governor, Legislative Council, and a House of Representatives. The Legislative Council shall consist of five members, to continue in office five years, unless sooner removed by Congress; any three of whom to be a quorum : and the members of the Council shall be nominated and appointed in the following manner, to wit : As soon as Representatives shall be elected, the Governor shall appoint a time and place for them to meet together, and when met, they shall nominate ten persons, residents in the District, and each possessed of a freehold in five hundred acres of land, and return their names to Congress ; five of whom Congress shall appoint and commission to serve as aforesaid : and whenever a vacancy shall happen in the Council, by death or removal from office, the House of Representatives shall nominate two persons, qualified as aforesaid, for each vacancy, and return their names to Congress ; one of whom Congress shall appoint and commission for the residue of the term : And every five years, four months at least before the expiration of the time of service of the members of Council, the said House shall nominate ten persons, qualified as aforesaid, and return their names to Congress ; five of whom Congress shall appoint and commission to serve as members of the Council five years, unless sooner removed. And the Governor, Legislative Council, and House of Representatives, shall have authority to make laws, in all cases, for the good government of the District, not repugnant to the principles and articles in this Ordinance established and declared. And all bills, having passed by a majority in the House, and by a majority in the Council, shall be referred to the Governor for his assent; but no bill or legislative act whatever, shall be of any force without his assent, The Governor shall have power to convene,
prorogue, and dissolve, the General Assembly, when in his opinion it shall be expedient.
The Governor, Judges, Legislative Council, Secretary, and such other officers as Congress shall appoint in the District, shall take an oath or affirmation of fidelity, and of office; the Governor before the President of Congress, and all other officers before the Governor. As soon as a Legislature shall be formed in the District, the Council and House assembled, in one room, shall have authority, by joint ballot, to elect a Delegate to Congress, who shall have a seat in Congress, with a right of debating, but not of voting during this temporary government.
And for extending the fundamental principles of civil and religious liberty, which form the basis whereon these republics, their laws, and constitutions, are erected ; to fix and establish those principles as the basis of all laws, constitutions, and governments, which forever hereafter shall be formed in the said Territory ; to provide, also, sor the establishment of States, and permanent government therein, and for their admission to a share in the Federai councils on an equal footing with the original States, at as early periods as may be consistent with the general inter
It is hereby ordained and declared, by the authority aforesaid, That the following Articles shall be considered as articles of compact, between the original States and the People and States in the said Territory, and forever remain unalterable, unless by common consent, to wit :
Art. 1. No person, demeaning himself in a peaceable and orderly manner, shall ever be molested on account of his mode of worship or religious sentiments, in the said Territory.
Art. 2. T'he inhabitants of the said Territory shall al ways be entitled to the benefits of the writ of habeas corpus, and of the trial by jury ; of a proportionate rep resentation of the people in the Legislature, and of jud cial proceedings according to the course of the commor law. All persons shall be bailable, un ess for capital of fences, where the proof shall be evident, or the presump
All fines shall be moderá te ; and no cruel
or unusual punishment sha.] be inflicted. No man shall be deprived of his liberty or property, but by the judgement of his peers, or the law of the land, and should the public exigencies make it necessary, for the common preservation, to take any person's property, or to demand his particular services, full compensation shall be made for the same.
And, in the just preservation of rights and property, it is understood and declared, that no law ought ever to be made, or have force in the said Territory, that shall, in any manner whatever, interfere with, or affect, private contracts or engagements, bona fide, and without fraud, previously formed.
Art. 3. Religion, morality, and knowledge, being necessary to good government and the happiness of mankind, schools and the means of education shall forever be encouraged. The utmost good faith shall always be observed towards the Indians ; their lands and property shall never be taken from them without their consent; and in their property, rights, and liberty, they never shall be invaded or disturbed, unless in just and lawful wars authorized by Congress; but laws founded in justice and humanity shall, from time to time, be made, for preventing wrongs being done to them, and for preserving peace and friendship with them.
Art. 4. T'he said Territory, and the States which may be formed therein, shall forever remain a part of this Confederacy of the United States of America, subject to the articles of Confederation, and to such alterations therein as shall be constitutionally made ; and to all the acts and ordinances of the United States in Congress assembled, conformable thereto. The inhabitants and settlers in the said Territory shall be subject to pay a part of the Federal debts, contracted or to be contracted, and a proportional part of the expenses of government, to be apportioned on them by Congress, according to the same common rule and measure by which apportionments thereof shall be made on the other States ; and the taxes for paying their proportion, shall be laid and levied by the authority and direction of the Legislatures of the Dis trict or Districts, or new States, as in the original States,
within the tinie agreed upon by the United States in Congress ass mbled. The Legislatures of those Districts, or new States, shall never interfere with the primary disposal of the soil by the United States in Congress assembled, nor with any regulations Congress may find necessary, for securing the title in such soil
, to the bona fide purchasers. No tax shall be imposed on lands the property of the United States; and in no case shall non-resident proprietors be taxed higher than residents. The navigable waters leading into the Mississippi and St. Lawrence, and the carrying places between the same, shal! be common highways, and forever free, as well to the inhabitants of the said Territory, as to the citizens of the United States, and those of any
other States that
be admitted into the Confederacy, without any tax, impost, or duty therefor.
Art. 5. There shall be formed in the said Territory, not less than three, nor more than five States ; and the boundaries of the States, as soon as Virginia shall alter her act of cession, and consent to the same, shall become fixed and established as follows, to wit: the western State in the said Territory, shall be bounded by the Mississippi, the Ohio, and Wabash rivers ; a direct line drawn from the Wabash and Post Vincents, due north, to the Territorial line between the United States and Canada ; and by the said Territorial line to the lake of the Woods and Mississippi. The middle States shall be bounded by the said direct line, the Wabash, from Post Vincents to the Ohio, by the Ohio, by a direct line drawn due north from the mouth of the Great Miami to the said Territorial line, and by the said Territorial line. The eastern State shall be bounded by the last mentioned direct line, the Ohio, Pennsylvania, and the said Territorial line: provided however, and it is further understood and declared, that the boundaries of these three States shall be subiect so far to be altered, that, if Congress shall hereafter find it expedient, they shall have authority to form one or two States in that part of the said Territory which lies north of an east and west line drawn through the southerly bend or extreme of lake Michigan. And whenever any of tho