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INTRODUCTION.

ON ORTHOGRAPHY AND PUNCTUATION. As the principal requisite of a letter is, that it should be written without orthographical errors, we here give a few concino rules on Orthography and Punctuation.

OF THE LETTERS.
Orthography teaches the nature and powers of letters.

A letter is the first principle, or least part of a word, and strictly speaking, should be produced by a simple articulation.

The letters of the English language, called the English Alphabet, are twenty-six in number.

These letters are the representatives of certain articulate sounds, the elements of the spoken language. An articulate sound is the sound of the human voice, formed by the organs of speech.

Letters are either vowels or consonants. Vowels are those letters which are produced by the simple emission of the voice. There are only five actual vowel signs in the English language, a, e, i, o, u; y and w, being mere substitutes for i and u, but the number of vowel sounds is much larger. According to Walker, there are four represented by the letter a :

a in fate, paper,
a in far, father.
a in fall, water.

a in fat, mat, marry Two represented by e.

in me, here.

e in met, hen. Two represented by i.

i in pine, title

i in pin, pit. Four represented by o.

in no, note.
o in move, prove

in nor, for, or.
o in not, hot.

Einleitung

INTRODUCTION.

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ON ORTHOGRAPHY AND PUNCTUATION.
As the principal requisite of a letter is, that it should be
written without orthographical errors, we here give a few oper
rules on Orthography and Punctuation.

OF THE LETTERS.
Orthography teaches the nature and powers of letters.
A letter is the first principle

, or least part of a word, and
strictly speaking, should be produced by a simple articulation

The letters of the English language, called the English
Alphabet, are twenty-six in number.

These letters are the representatives of certain articulate sounds
the elements of the spoken language. An articulate soundis the
sound of the human voice, formed by the organs of speech.

Letters are either vowels or consonants. Vowels are thos
letters which are produced by the simple emission of the proces
There are only five actual vowel signs in the English languge;
a, e, i, o, u; y and w, being mere substitutes for i and ~, but the

26
number of vowel sounds is much larger. According to Walka,
there are four represented by the letter a :

a in fate, paper, a in far, father. a in fall, water.

a in fat, mat, marry Two represented by e.

e in me, here.

e in met, hen. Two represented by i.

i in pine, title

i in pin, pit.
Pour represented by o.

o in no, note.
o in move, prove
o in por, for, or.
. in not, hot

Ueber Orthographie und Interpunktion. Da ed ein Haupterforderniß eines guten Briefes ist, daß er feine orthographischen Fehler enthält, so schicken wir unsern Musterbriefen Die nöthigen Winke über Orthographie (Recytsdreibung) und Interpunktion (Zeichenfeßung) voraus.

Die Orthographie ist der Inbegriff der Regeln, nadi denen das Hochdeutsche schriftlich dargestellt werden muß. Die wichtigsten derselben sind:

1. Schreibe jedes Wort so, wie es im Hochdeutschen aus gesprochen wird, dann wirst du mit Leichtigkeit folgende so häufig vorkommende Fehler vermeiden; du wirst: 1. feinen Buchstaben zu viel feßen, z. B. nicht: Vatter statt

Bater; 2. keinen Buchstaben zu wenig feßen, z. B. nicht: Schue statt

Schuhe, Futer statt Futter; 3. feinen Buchstaben an eine falsche Stelle feßen, z. B. nicht .

handlen statt handeln, Bauren statt Bauern; 4. keinen Buchstaben mit einem andern verwechseln, z. B. nicht :

Tady statt Dach, Freinde statt Freunde, Ntebe statt Rübe. II. Wenn du im Zweifel bist, wie du ein Wort zu schreiben hast, so besinne dich, von welchem Worte es abstammt und schreibe es demgemäß. Schreibe also z. B. Handlung, nicht Hantlung, denn es kommt von „handeln" her; Herrschaft

, nicht Herschaft, denn es kommt von „Herr“ und „herrschen“ her.

Viele von andern berstammende Wörter erhalten einen Umlaut.
So kommt das Wort räuchern von Rauch her; das a erleidet den
Umlaut ä. Man darf also nicht reuchern, oder gar raidhern schrei-
ben. Rühmen von Ruhm, böhnisch von Hohn, häuslich von Haus.

III. Bei solchen Wörtern, deren Abstammung du nicht aufzufin-
den vermagft, richte sich einfach nach dem Schreibgebrau,
b. 5. merke genau darauf, wie diese Wörter von gebildeten Menschen
geschrieben werden oder in guten Büchern gedrukt sind. Solche
Wörter sind z. B. behende, emsig, Becher 26.
1

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Three represented by u.

u in tube, cupid.
u in tub, but,

u in bull, put, butcher. Besides the above, there are two pure diphthongs, or double sounds, oi and ou.

oi in oil.
ou, in pound

OF CONSONANTS. Consonants are letters which cannot be produced without the assistant of a vowels' sound; thus in the letter b, we hear th: vowel e; in the letter k, we hear the vowel a; in the letter y we hear the i. The number of single and double consonants is twenty-three

b

as in but, tub.

as in dog, god. f

as in fog, off. (hard) as in go, egg:

as in hop, hail.

as in kill, oak. 1 as in lap, pail.

as in man, name.

as in no, nun.
P as in pit, top.

as in read, door.
as in so, loss.
zero,

buzz.
as in top, mat.
as in vale, dove.
as in wo, will.

as in yes, yet.
sh

as in shy, ash.
th (hard) as in thin, bath.
th (soft) as in thee, bathe.
sh as in pleasure.

j as in joy.

ch as in charm, march. C has either the sound of s, as in cease, or of k, as in call. 6 before e and i, has the same sound as j, as in nage, page., has the same sound as k. X is a compound sound, either of ks, as in expect, or of gs, as in example.

Wand y are consonants, when they begin a syllable as in wera when, yet, yes; they are vowels under all other circumstances.

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