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wilful, fulfil, which are compounded of, all and ready, to fall well, full of will; also the words wherever, Christmas, lammas

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ON PUNCTUATION.

1

Punctuation in letter-writing, is almost as essential as correst spelling; by omitting one of the signs of punctuation

, or by placing it in the wrong place, we frequently change the intendai meaning of the sentence entirely. It is

, therefore, necessary that proper attention should be paid to this subject by every cu who wishes to express his ideas properly in epistolary language.

I.—THE COUMA (,) separates those parts of a sentence, which, though rer closely connected in sense, require & pause between them.

2. Two or more nouns in the same case, two or more adjectives belonging to the same noun, two or more verbs having the same nominative, two ur more adverbs, qualifying the same verb or adjective, should be separated by commas. When two of these parts of speech are connected by & conjuntion, the comma should be omitted. Examples. Health, fortune, honor, all is lost. A bandsome, virtuous

, loving wife, blessed his existence.

He walked, danced, skated and rode better than any of his countrymen.
He is good, handsome, and intelligent.
Hearing these reproaches weekly, daily, hourly, she became indiferent

But without the comma: Health and fortune are lost. He walked and danced well. He is good and handsome.

3. When a conjunction is separated from a phrase to which it naturally belongs, by an intervening sentence, that sentence should stand between commas. Ex. They ran towards the river, and, unconscious of their danger

, they plunged into the water. 4. Nouns in opposition, are separated by commas. Ex. Charles XL Iing of Sweden, the greatest warrior of his time, died young 5. After comparatives, the comma is introduced frequently

. Ex. The nore we exercise our body and mind, the stronger they will become.

6. Nouns in a direct address should be followed by commas. Ex. word, voucbsafe to 'listen to us. 7. Sometimes a comma is introduced before the relative pronoun : sometimes is omitted. When the connection is very close, and the relative inseparable om its antecedent, the comma should be omitted. Ex. He, who disregards 10 good opinion of the world, must be atterly abandoned. But without the imma: I have examined the exercise which you sent me. II.THE SEMICOLON (;) is used to separato parts of a sentence, less closely nnected, than those separated by a comma; also before the words, for, cer

, , nor, etc. Ex. This man rises in the morning; he performs his daily toil

; eats his daily meals, and lies down to rest at night. Straws swim upon 2 surface; but pearls lie at the bottom. Experience teaches us, that 20 tire retreat from worldly affairs, is not what religion requires; nor does it ?n enjoin a long retreat from them. II.-The Colon (:) is used when a member of a sentence is complete in :lf, but followed by some supplementary remark: 28, Nature confesseth le atonement to be necessary: the gospel discovers that the necessary nement is made."

After one or more semicolons have been used, and a still greater power 100essary: as “A divine Legislator, uttering his voice from heaven; w

vor allen beziehenden Fürwörtern und den meisten Binbewörtern, 3. B.: so, damit

, daß, weil 2c. Die Bindewörter und und oder leiden nur dann ein Komma bor fich, wenn ihnen ein neues Subjekt oder Gegenstandswort der Rebe nachfolgt. Es steht ferner vor und nad eingeschobenen Anreden und verkürzten Sägen. 3. B.:

Das Baus, das ich gestern faufte, ist schön. Joh habe es Jhnen, iheuerster Freund, schon vor zwei Monaten geschrieben u.

Wenn sich die Sache so berhält, oder er bezeugt Reue über seinen Febler, dann 2c.

3h grüßte ihn böflidst, und er dankte mir freundlichst.

Dort fand er, kaum angelangt, zwei alte Freunde, die sich seiner auf das Kräftigste annahmen 2c.

2. Das Semitolon oder der Strti punkt (;) trennt Vorder- und Nachfäße, die Grund und Folge enthalten, von einander und steht überhaupt da, wo ein Komma zu wenig und ein Punkt zu viel sein würde; besonders gebraucht man es vor den Bindemörtern denn, aber, álein, daher, also, dagegen, vielmehr, indessen, dennod.

3. Dad Rolon oder der. Doppelpunkt (:) wird gefekt 1) um einen aus mehreren gleichartigen Sägen bestehenden Vorberfaß vom Nachsaß, der dann in der Regel mit so anfängt

, ju ideiden (doch seßen hier viele statt des Doppelpunktes ein Semitolon); 2) wenn man seine oder eines Andern Worte wörtlich anführt; 3) wenn Beispiele angeführt oder verschiedene Sachen aufgezählt werden, also namentlich nach den Wörtern: als, nämlich, folgende is. & Obgleich Napoleon fast ganz Europa in Schreden geseßt hatte,

obgleich ihm die Truppen und ungeheure Geldsummen seiner Verbündeten zum beliebigen Gebote standen: so gitterte doch

Rußland nicht us. b. Er sagte zu mir: ,,Ich thue, was in meinen Kräften steht“ 2c. c. Unter den zahmen Thieren sind dem Menschen vorzüglich nüß

lich: das Pferd, der Hund 2c. 4. Das Fragezeiden (?) steht nach einer ausdrüdlichen, direkten. Frage, worauf eine Antwort erwartet wird oder folgen kann. 3. B.: Hat er Dir das wirklich versprochen? Ja. Wird die Frage aur erzählungsweise angeführt

, so bleibt das Fragezeichen weg; z. B. et fragte mich wohl, ob ich diese Arbeit liefern könnte; allein 2.

5. Das A u 8 rufungszeichen (!) wird nach jedem Aus rufe

, einer lebhaften Gemüthsbewegung, der Bitte, des Befehle ico gefeßt, 3. B. O! welch' herrlicher Ånblid ißt dies! Romm mit! ich

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.

almighty Governor, stretching forth ais arm to punish or reward ; infortaing us of perpetual rest, prepared hereafter for the righteous, and of indignation and wrath awaiting the wicked; these are the considerations which overawe the world, which support integrity, and check guilt.”

3. When a direct quotation is made: as, “The general spoko:" “ Soldiers, countrymen, etc."

4. When the conjunction is omitted : as, do not rely upon his word, he A sver told the truth. Here the conjunction for is understood.

IV.—The point of Interrogation (?) stands after a direct question : as, Did he say so? Has he attempted it? When the question is not a direct one, the sign of interrogation should be omitted : as, My brother asked me if he had attempted it.

V.--The note of Exclamation (!) is placed after an expression of sudden emotions. For instance, How beautiful! Horrible! horrible! Bless the Lord, O my soul! What beauty! Be gone!

VI.-The Period, or full stop, () is used to indicate the termination of a sentence, or of a period : as, Fear God. Honor the king. Have charity towards all men.

VII.—The Dash (-). should be used with discretion; it is properly introduced, where the sentence breaks off suddenly; where a significant pause is required. It is placed after a period or full stop, when the pause is to be very long.

Ex.: “If thou art ho so much respected oncebut, oh! how fallen! how degraded."

«Whatever is, is right. This world, 'tis true," Was made for Cæsar- but for Titus too."

VIII.-A Parenthesis is a clause containing some necessary information, or useful remark, introduced into the body of a sentence obliquely, and which may be omitted without injuring the grammatical construction : as, “I have taken care to bave it so marked in the print, that every one may, without trouble, (if he have no mind to read it,) pass it over as a long parenthesis, and go on to the next point.

IX.-The Apostrophe (') supplies the place of one or more letters omitted by contraction. Thus, 'tis for it is; tho' for though; e’en for even; e'er for

It is also used to form the genitive case of nouns: as, Henry's knife; the lady's cap; the soldiers' toils.

X.-A Diæresis (•) is placed over one of two successive vowels, to indicate that these vowels do not form together a diphthong, but are to be pronounced separately. Thus, in creature, the e and a form but one sound, that of ee, but in Creator they form two e and a, this word might therefore be written Creator.

XI.-The Hyphen (-) is used in connecting compound words: as, lap-dog toa-pot, self-love. Also when one or more syllables ars at the end of a kine and the remainder at the beginning of the next line. In this case it stande at the end of the first line.

XII.-The signs of quotation (“”) are used before and after a passage repeatod after some author or speaker : as, “The proper study of mankind is

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han

GENERAL RULES FOR THE LETTER-WRITER. Every letter should contain a regular series of thoughts, Therefore, before beginning to write, we should consider oui subject well, and arrange our thoughts properly.

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Almighty Governor, stretching forth nis arm to įunish or reward ; informatie us of perpetual rest, prepared hereafter for the righteous, and of indignatia and wrath awaiting the wicked: these are the considerations which ofera: the world, which support integrity, and check guilt."

3. When a direct quotation is made: as, “The general spyke;" "Soldien countrymen, etc."

4. When the conjunction is omitted: as, do not rely upon his word, by Awer told the truth. Here the conjunction for is understood.

IV.-The point of Interrogation (?) stands after a direct question : 88, DE! he say so? Has he attempted it? When the question is not a direct one the sign of interrogation should be omitted : as, My brother asked me il te had attempted it.

1.- The note of Exclamation (!) is placed after an expression of sadde emotions. For instance, How beautiful! Horrible! horrible! Bless the Lord O my soul! What beauty! Be gone!

VL-The Period, or full stop, () is used to indicate the termination of a Bentence, or of a period: as, Fear God. Honor the king. Have charit towards all men.

VII.—The Dash (-) should be used with discretion; it is properly intrduced, where the sentence breaks off suddenly; where a significant pause i required. It is placed after a period or full stop, when the pause is to de very long

Ex.: "If thou art he so much respected once-bat, oh! how fallen! bor degraded.”

" Whatever is, is right - This world, 'tis true," Was made for Cæsar-but for Titus too." VIII.-A Parenthesis is a clause containing some necessary information

, D7 useful remark, introduced into the body of a sentence obliquely, and which may be omitted without injuring the grammatical construction : 28

, “I bara aken care to bave it so marked in the print, that every one may, rouble, (if he have no mind to read it,) pass it over as a long parenthesis

, and ro on to the next point.

IX.-The Apostrophe (') supplies the place of one or more letters omittel y contraction. Thus, 'tis for it is; tho' for though; e'en for even; ver. It is also used to form the genitive case of nouns: as, Henry's knife; he lady's cap; the soldiers' toils.

X.-A Diæresis () is placed over one of two successive vowels, to indicate hat these vowels do not form together a diphthong, but are to be pronounced -parately. Thus, in creature, the e and a form but one sound, that of ee ut in Creator they form two e and a, this word might therefore be writter reator. XI.-The Hyphen (-) is used in connecting compound words: as, lap-dog

-pot, self-love. Also when one or more syllables are at the end of a kine id the remainder at the beginning of the next line. In this case it stand the end of the first line. XII-The signs of quotation (" ") are used before and after a passage da ated after some author or speaker: us, The proper

study of mankind i

9

bitte Did darum! Sogleich entferne Dich! Das Ausrufunge zeichen steht aber auch nach jeder Anrede in Briefen, z. B.: Lieber Freund! Geehrter Herr !

6. Der Punft (.) dient dazu, die Vollendung eines Sabed oder einer Periode anzubeuten, ferner steht er nach Ueberschriften, bei afgekürzten Wörtern und hinter Zahlen, wenn jede einzeln für sich aubgesprochen werden fou.

7. Der Gedankenftridh ) wird gebraucht: a) hinter einem Punkte am Ende einer Periode, mit welcher eine lange Gles bankenreihe geschlossen wird. b) wenn man absichtlich etwas in Gebanken behält und voraussett, daß der Leser das nicht Ausge (prechene verstehen und sich selbst hinzudenken wird ; 3. B. ich wünide reßt nach solchen Erfahrungen, ich wäre nie darauf eingegangen doch

Was hilft nach Geschehenem klagen. Wenn man die Aufmerksamkeit auf das Folgende richten will, um dies besonders hervorzuheben; 2. 'B. der Mensch muß vor allem darauf bebacht sein—vernünftig zu handeln. Was ist's denn, das er gethan hat?-nichts; d) wird es häufig auch statt des Einschlußzeichens oder der Parenthese gebraucht; 3. B. der bescheidene, gute Vater, du kennst ihn ja, — er blieb, wie er war; nichts vermochte seine Gesinnung zu ändern, obschon er oft verkannt wurde.

8. Die Parenthese oder das Eins d ließungsze eis den () [] dient theils dazu, einen erklärenden Beifaş, der in den eigentlichen Saß eingeschaltet wird, einzuschließen, H. B. die Hans delsregulationen (jo nannte das britische Parlament feine bedrückenben Zougeseßen) wurden eine furchtbare Raft der Colonien; theils gebraucht man sie, wenn man einige erklärende Worte, Ueberseßung u. dgl. beifügt, z. B. Festina lente (eile mit Weile) ist ein vernünftiger Grundias.

9. Der Apostroph, oder das A uelaffung &zeichen (') Meht, wenn theils des Versmaßes, theils des Wohitlangos wegen eine Sylbe ausgelassen wird; vorzüglich in Zusammenziehungen, wie: Zhr reis't, lasit 2c.; die Ebb und Fluth; aư mein Geld ac.

10. Der Trennpuntt(*) zeigt an, daß zwei Vokale nicht in einen laut zusammengezogen werden follen, z. B. A ëron a u

11. Das Theilungszeichen (-) dient zur Theilung mehrfulbiper Wörter am Ende der Zeile. Da

Zeichen wird indessen aus gebraucht, wenn zusammengeseßte Wörter hinter einander so teben, daß der eine Theil des Wortes bei allen folgenden Wörtern berielbe ist Dieser Theil wird dann nicht bei allen Wörtern ges fdrieben, sondern nur bei dem leßten Wort; z. B. alle Spiele

, Rarten-, Würfel- und Schachspiel, oder wie sie alle heißen mögen, ich

without

1

e'er for

e

til .c.

in

GENERAL RULES FOR THE LETTER-WRITER. Every letter should contain a regular series of thoughts erefore, before beginning to write, we should consider our vject well

, and arrange our thoughts properly.

1

The introduction should be short and not far-fetched thes bome.

As the letter takes the place of conversation, it Datural, that is to say, we should write as we are in th thinking and speaking. At the same time we ought more particular ic the selection of our expressions, wher a letter, than in our conversation; for the written wo heavier, and is more substantial, than the spoken w this reason, many words, many expressions, are exclu the epistolary style, which are excusable in common tion. Correspondence requires more application in the and decorating of its thought. It does not admit anyt! dering upon what is low and mean, but when we co to a conversation, we mean a conversation, such as is a by well educated and well behaved persons.

Besides a grammatical, comprehensible and fluent sty writing requires that we should take into proper consi the circumstances under which the letter is written: respecting the person to whom we write. It is therefore that letter-writing requires a certain knowledge of huma When we wish to write a letter, we should first consider we are writing:

1. If the person to whom we are writing is known. 2. If he or she is our superior.

3. If he or she is our friend, or if we have reason to he contrary.

If we write to a person who does not know us, our firs sught to be, to make a favorable impression upon this For this purpose, we might refer, perhaps, to our acqua with his relations or friends; to the same native country larity of calling, etc.

In letters addressed to our superiors and high persona Akould, of course, be more polite than in those to near and relations; this politeness, however, should never deg into servility and base flattery.

On writing to relations and friends, we should make the same language as used to them in conversation. Such contain the true sentiments of the heart, and although all should be written in the language of sincerity, this sh particularly the case in letters addressed to our relations, f and dear ones, because they occupy a place near our Other letters, on the contrarv, must take their tone fro

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Derftebe teins.-- Wollzeug, Leinwand-, Baumwodfabriken find in diesem Ort im lebhaften Betrieb.

12. Das Unführung zeichen (,,") steht, wenn die Worte eines Andern unverändert angeführt werden; z. B. Er sagte. „das Herz macht unsern Werth, nicht Purpur oder Krone;" oder „Thus Recht, scheue Niemand,"i dies Wort werde ich nie vergessen und teto banach handeln.

Ordnung.

Pbe introduction should be short and not far-fetched; the cel whes or me.

As the letter takes the place of conversation, it should be datural, that is to say, we should write as we are in the babit d. thinking and speaking. At the same time we ought to be stil more particular ic the selection of our expressions, when we wie a letter, than in our conversation ; for the written word weigh heavier, and is more substantial, than the spoken word. In this reason, many words, many expressions, are excluded fra the epistolary style

, which are excusable in common conversy tion. Correspondence requires more application in the selecting and decorating of its thought. It does not admit anything, be dering upon what is low and mean, but when we compare i to a conversation, we mean a conversation, such as is carried a by well educated and well behaved persons.

Besides a grammatical, comprebensible and fluent style, leta writing requires that we should take into proper consideratie, the circumstances under which the letter is written: namels

, respecting the

person to whom we write. It is therefore evident that letter-writing requires a certain knowledge of human nature When we wish to write a letter, we should first consider to whom we are writing:

1. If the person to whom we are writing is known. 2. If he or she is our superior.

3. If he or she is our friend, or if we have reason to suspen he contrary.

If we write to a person who does not know us, our first objek ought to be, to make a favorable impression upon this persie For this purpose, we might refer, perhaps, to our acquaintance : with his relations or friends ; to the same native country, simarity of calling, etc.

In letters addressed to our superiors and high personages, men

Allgemeine Regeln für den Briefschreiber. In jedem Briefe muß eine vernünftige Gedanken. folge herrschen. Man bedenke daher, ehe man den Brief anfängt, genau, was man schreiben wil und bringe es in eine gehörige

Der Šingang des Briefes sei kurz und nicht weit hergeholt, der Soluß ebenfalls kurz.

Da der Brief die Stelle der mündlichen Unterhaltung vertritt, so muß er natürlich sein, d. 5. man muß gerade so schreiben, wie es Einem um's Herz ist, ganz so, wie man denkt und zu sprechen pflegt. Doch ist zu bedenken, daß man in einem Briefe den Regeln des An ftandes noch ängstlicher Rechnung tragen muß, als in der mündlichen Rede

, denn das geschriebene Wort wiegt schwerer, als das gesprochen Deshalb ist im Briefe auch manches Wort, manche Redensart nicht erlaubt, die man bei einem gewöhnlichen Gespräche verzeiht. Der Briefstyl verlangt mehr Fleiß in Auswahl und Einkleidung der Getanken ; er verträgt sich nicht mit dem an das Niedrige Grenzenben, sondern man muß unter einem Briefe ein solches Gespräch verstehen, wie es gut erzogene und wohlgerittete Menschen unter einander zu führen pflegen.

Außer einer sprachrichtigen, faßlichen und gewandten Schreibart tommt demnach beim Briefschreiben insbesondere die gehörige Berüdsichtigung der Verhältnisse in Betracht, namentlich Berüdsichtigung ber Person, an welche man schreibt, weshalb denn zum Schreiben eines guten Briefes auch Kenntniß des menschlichen Herzens gehört

. Wiù man einen Brief schreiben, so bedenke man kurz, an wen man 1. Ob man von der Person, an die man schreibt, gekannt ist? 2. Ob sie unser Vorgeseß ter ist, oder nicht? 3. Db fie unser Freund ist, oder ob man das Gegentheil zu

vermuthen Ursache hat ? Schreibt man an Jemand, son dem man nicht gekannt ist, so muß man von vornherein einen günstigen Eindruď cuf ihn u machen suchen. Man benuße die etwaige Bekanntschaft mit B

a

dreiben muß:

kould, of course, be more polite than in those to near friends cd relations; this politeness, however, should never degenerska ato servility and base filattery.

On writing to relations and friends, we should make use of he same language as used to them in conversation. Such letter intain the true sentiments of the heart, and although all letter hould be written in the language of sincerity, this should be srticularly the case in letters addressed to our relations, friends d dear ones, because they occupy a place near our hearts. her letters, on the contrarv, must take their tone from the

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