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(2) "A record shall be kept of all per- the inmate shall be furnished, on retinent facts brought to light at such hear- quest, writing materials, including a ing, attended by the Superintendent and stamped envelope with the Board's adtwo witnesses.

dress written thereon, and send such let(3) "Not more than fifteen (15) ter without it being read by anyone but strokes shall be administered to any in

himself. Such letter shall be immediately mate in any one day.

deposited in the mail. (4) "Where there is a reasonable (11) "No other instrument shall be doubt as to the physical ability of the used for administering corporal punishinmate to endure corporal punishment, ment than a leather paddle which shal! such punishment shall not in any case be not less than three and one-half inches be administered.

(372) wide, not more than sixteen (16) (5) "If the parents, nearest relatives inches long and not more than oneor guardian of any inmate shall notify twelfth (1-12) of an inch thick. All the Superintendent that the said inmate edges and corners shall be carefully is physically unable to bear corporal pun- rounded to guard against injury. ishment, then such punishment shall not (12) “Every precaution shall be used be administered without an examination to guard against injury from the punishby the visiting physician, and a written ment or from scuffing incidental thereto. report by him to the Superintendent, the (13) "Corporal punishment as underji:dgment of the physician in such case stood by these rules is defined as a to be conclusive.

method by which punishment is admin(6) “An accurate account shall be istered on the buttocks. kept of the time when corporal punish- (14) “In the absence of the Superinment or confinement begins, the time it tendent for more than two consecutive ceases, the number of strokes adminis- days, the Assistant Superintendent may tered, the conditions of the boy before act for him under the above rules. and after punishment, and of any other (16) “In confinement, metal handcuffs facts bearing upon the punishment. shall not be used for holding the hands,

(7) "Corporal punishment shall be ad- but some device of leather or cloth must ministered only in the presence of the be used which will accomplish the result Superintendent. Any officer or employe desired without injury.” of the institution violating this rule shall Rules like the above are beneficial to he dismissed from the service, and a re. the institution for they protect the boys port of the facts shall be made to the and at the same time the Superintendent board of control.

for it still gives him the power to use (8) “When any officer or employe of some stringent method of punishment the institution is discharged because of when it becomes absolutely necessary. At brutality or abuse of inmates, the Su- the same time, however, the rules would perintendent shall, if the facts and the act as a deterrent in that, on account of evidence warrant, make complaint against the proceedings, records and reports necsaid discharged officer or employe in a essary in such cases, it would not be used co:irt of competent jurisdiction.

unless really necessary. In such cases (9) "A report of each offense result- the inmates would be amply safeguarded ing in corporal punishment, confinement, against maltreatment and abuse while at or strapping on the hands shall be made the same time they would know that to the board.

when persuasion fails they could be sub(10) "Any inmate upon whom cor- jected to punishment. Therefore, when poral punishment or confinement is ad- reading the daily papers articles of how niinistered, shall within 2 hours there- an institution should be run we should after be permitted to write to the Board remember that it is one thing to be miles and make complaint as to the justice and away from such institution and build severity of such punishment. Such let- theories and a vastly different propositer or complaint shall not be censured or tion to be in the actual work and manage modified in any way and for this purpose criminally inclined boys.

Shall Sense or Sentiment Prevail in the Treat

ment of Our Juvenile Offenders?







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There are quite a few institutions in While I firmly believe that the public the United States given over to the refor- is eníitled to know all about its correcmation of juvenile delinquents. The tive and penal institutions, yet it is neither State of New York alone has more than fair or just to the institutions nor to the five of such Reform Schools. These in- public that a paper should present to its stitutions are known generally as "State readers glowing articles telling of supSchool for Boys," "Industrial School for posed cruelties towards inmates, or the Boys," "State Training School," or inefficiency of this or that Superinten"Houses of Refuge.” It is the intention dent. Only too often these articles are and purpose of these schools to reform absolutely unreliable and the assertions and to train youthful offenders who have have not been substantiated. Sometimes violated the laws, or have been found in- one article will follow the other and each corrigible. Nowadays, however, until one tells of more severe and shocking various other methods have first been brutal punishments meted out in the intried, such as a warning and reprimand stitution which happens to be under disfrom the court or a term of probation cussion, until the people are really led to and after these milder and more persua- believe that a lot of brutes are having sive measures have proved useless, the charge of the inmates of our Reform boy is then finally sent to a Juvenile Re- schools whose only amusement is to cause form School, where he may be under su- suffering to the boys under their charge. pervision while at the same time he is af- Having been connected as an officer forded the opportunity to learn a trade, with three different types of American to improve his physical make-up, and Juvenile Reform Schools, I am in a powhere he may learn obedience and respect sition to speak from experience. I am for law and order. While heretofore he also impartial and unbiased in this matcould perhaps run about as he pleased ter for I will admit that it happens somenow he must learn to obey rules and reg- times that the Superintendents of one of ulations. Of course the boy who has these institutions are deceived when emcome to a school of this kind on account ploying a subordinate officer, and some of unhappy circumstances without being of these men, later on, prove by their depraved or vicious, will not find it hard actions that they should never have been to get along in such an institution, for he entrusted with the care of boys. For will try to obey the rules and show a various reasons are some men out of genial disposition. Punishments in such place in such institutions and can never institutions do not descend, like the rain, hope to attain a success in working with upon the just and the unjust, but only boys and gaining their confidence and upon those who are disobedient and vi- friendship. Some officers are found to cious. Every institution of this kind is be addicted to the use of liquors to such striving to be the best and the most hu- an extent that the boys under their charge mane in its treatment of the boys. The cannot fail but notice it and comment majority of people, however, do not re- upon it. Such men are a good deal worse alize what a thankless and trying position than useless in a Boys' School, for those it is to be Superintendent of one of these officers cause disrespect among the inJuvenile Reform Schools. Of late the mates not only towards the guilty men newspapers in various states of the Union but also towards those men who are contain articles condemning this or that blameless, and thereby the standard of institution or its management.

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siderably lowered. Then again there are of discipline would invite serious trouble, men employed sometimes, having charge we must grant that the institution in such of boys in these institutions who are un- cases has to mete out stringent punishfit for the position for the reason that ment of some kind. Punishment is necthey are apt to lose their temper too essary when admonition fails.

Lawquickly in dealing with the boys. But breakers, old and young, will resort to these are matters which can only be as- falsehood to justify themselves. They certained after the man has been em- are more apt to act from malicious moployed for some time when these faults tives than are the officers whose duty it may be brought to light.

It is only is to deal with these boys. All the innatural, however, to suppose that every mates of these Juvenile Reform Schools Superintendent will try his very best to

are there because of evil heredity, parenemploy only men whom he has reason to tal neglect or degrading environment. believe to be loyal, faithful and capable, While all are to be pitied, it is foolish for the Superintendent is invariably the to suppose that those, who have been acresponsible head of the institution and customed to do evil will immediately any untoward acts on the part of his learn to do well. Saying to those boys, subordinate officers will reflect upon his “Don't, dear,” is not always sufficient to own reputation.

restrain those who are young in years, After having myself been an officer in but old in the ways of vice. three different State Reform Schools and If parents would do their duty as rehaving visited about a dozen others, I gards their children and the public, there can with all sincerity say that the great

would be fewer in our State Reform majority of officers in our Juvenile Re- Schools. form Schools are doing good work. They Now, when the parents have failed, the are trying their best to gain the confi- State steps in and takes those incorrigible dence and respect of the boys under their and delinquent children and tries to make charge. Most of the men are treating men and women out of them, if possible their boys fairly and try to befriend them worthy citizens. One must not think and teach them the better ways in life. that after a boy's parents have failed with A good explanation of the purpose of a love and pleadings and, perhaps, the Reform School is the following:

strap, that these boys can be handled by "It persuades the willing,

strangers without the use of some stern It compels the wilful,

measures to uphold the discipline. The It punishes the obdurate."

number of officers who would punish Let us for a moment try to understand boys for the glory of it is very small inwith just what kind of boys we have to deed. deal in the institutions under discussion. The word discipline is used with varWe must remember that these schools do ious meanings, “A method of keeping not, as a rule, deal with ordinary or aver- order," or "a method whereby a number age boys, but in too many cases with the of people are enabled to co-operate for most vicious and depraved boys in the a common end.” We have to remember State-boys who have been given up by that discipline for these boys must seek all other agencies and are committed to to supply what is wanting in an individual the school as a last resort. A good many from lack of good home influences, good of the offenses committed by inmates in neighborhood, industrial and wider sothese State Schools are nasty, disgusting cial influences. and in some instances murderous. Any Look into the antecedents of some of fair minded man who could actually these boys, and two reasons for their beknow of some of these atrocities would ing in the institution will nearly cover all. feel that the perpetrators of such offenses First, some of these boys were “mother's fully deserve some kind of punishment. darlings," too good to be corrected, conWhen we have to deal with such revolt- sequently went where and when they ing offenses of which some of these boys pleased. Second, the other class of boys are guilty and where too great a laxity were whipped at home, went cold and

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