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Schmoller, Gustav, I, 20, 26, 27.
Schulze-Delitzsch, system of Co-
operation, see Co-operation.
Schwab, Justus, revolutionary so-
cialist, II, 291.

Schwab, Michael, pardoned, II, 393.
Scranton, elects Powderly mayor, II,
245.

Seamen's Protective Union, under
Roney's leadership, II, 266.
Seamen's Safety Bill, and Richard
Powers, II, 327.

Shaw, Justice, Commonwealth

V.

Hunt decision, I, 411, 412.
Sherman Anti-Trust Act, Danbury
Hatters' Case, II, 530; Debs
case, II, 502, 503, 508; injunc-
tions, II, 505; unions, II, 508,
509.

See also, Conspiracy.
Ship-builders, strike, I, 110.
Ship Carpenters' and Caulkers' Na-

tional Union, and Knights of
Labor, II, 200.

Shoe Industry, cheap labour stage,
I, 103; collective bargaining, I,
121; cordwainers controversy,
I, 58; Lynn, I, 102, 105; organ-
isation, I, 109, 114; retail shop
period, I, 62.

See also, Cordwainers; Shoemak-
ers of Boston; Strikes.
Shoemakers' National Assembly, se-

cede from Knights, II, 486.
Shoemakers of Boston, charter, I,
36, 47; fight competition, I, 45,
46.
Silk and Fur Hat Finishers' Union,

established, II, 313.
Simpson, Stephen, I, 211n, 228.
Siney, John, II, 138, 152, 169, 180.
Single-tax, advocated, II, 327; Cath-

olic Church, II, 456; Henry
George, II, 448; socialism, II,
457-460.
Skidmore, Thomas, agrarian, I, 234-

240, 242, 243-245, 269n, 271,
362.
Socialism, Conditions: Chicago, II,
282, 283; depression, I, 619;
factional struggle, II, 233, 270,
449, 515, 516; Franco-Prussian
War and German movement, II,
225; progress since 1900, II,

532, 533; strikes, II, 253, 276,
277.
Connection with: American Fed-
eration of Labor, II, 512; Com-
munist Club, II, 206, 207; Gen-
eral German Workingmen's
Union, II, 207, 208; Knights of
Labor, II, 519; New York cen-
tral labour bodies, II, 517;
Pittsburgh convention, 1881, II,
322; Progressive Labor Party,
II, 460; Radical Labor Party,
II, 467, 468; Red Interna-
tional, II, 300n; Strasser, II,
309n; trade unions, II, 202,
308n,
225, 226, 279n, 281,
514; United Hebrew Trades,
II, 518; Weydemeyer, I, 617,
618.

Theories: anarchism, II, 290-300;
eight-hour movement, II, 391;
evolution, I, 14, 21; II, 196,
204, 354; German forty-eight-
ers, II, 204; greenbackism, II,
237, 239, 286-289; Henry George
movement, II, 454-457; Las-
salle, II, 205, 206; Marx, II,
205, 214, 215; militarism, II,
280, 281; political action versus
trade union action, II, 218, 219,
271, 272-275, 278-280, 283, 284,
287n, 301-309; voluntary, II,
210.

See also, Becker, Johann; Berger,
Victor; Carl, Conrad; Commu-
nist Club; De Leon, Daniel;
Douai,
Eberhardt,
Adolph;
Karl; German Workingmen's
Union, General; German So-
cial Democratic Workingmen's
Union; Grottkau, Paul; Las-
Lassallean-
salle, Ferdinand;

ism; Marx, Karl; Meyer, Sieg-
fried; National Labor Union;
Rosenberg, V. L.; Social Party;
Sorge, F. A.; Strasser, Adolph;
Weydemeyer, Joseph.
Socialist, established in Chicago, II,
282.

Socialist Labor Party, convention,
II, 284, 285; De Leon, II, 517,
518; ebb, II, 300; factions, II,
291, 450, 516; greenbackism,
II, 286-288; New York Central
labour bodies, II, 517; organ-
ised, II, 278, 519; political ac-
tion, II, 277-290, 401; princi-
ples, II, 278, 279, 446; Red In-

ternational, II, 300n; United
Labor Party, II, 451.
See also, Workingmen's Party of
the United States.
Social Democratic Party, dissatis-
fied, II, 278; factional differ-
ences, II, 271; first labour con-
vention, II, 202; Milwaukee
election, II, 273, 277; organ-
ised, II, 218, 271; Union Con-
gress, II, 270.

Social Democratic Party of North
America, conventions, II, 231,
233, 235, 237, 238; organised,
II, 230; unionism, II, 232.
See also, Sozial-Demokrat.
Social Party, failure and re-or-
ganisation, II, 209; of New
York, II, 207; programme, II,
208.

Social-Republicans,

and General
German Workingmen's Union,
II, 207.

"Society," term for trade union, I,

14.

"Sojourners," in Knights of Labor,
II, 198, 342.
Solidarisme, I, 17.
Sons of Vulcan, Amalgamated Asso-

ciation of Iron and Steel Work-
ers, II, 174; bargaining advan-
tage of puddler, II, 80; growth,
II, 47; sliding scale agreement,
II, 80.
Sorge, F. A., I, 19, 207n, 209, 209n,
210, 211, 214-216, 216n, 221,
270, 276, 302, 304.
Sovereign, James R., II, 494, 495,
519.

Sovereigns of Industry, activities,

II, 173, 174; constitution, II,
173; co-operation, II, 171, 172;
failure, II, 175; Industrial Con-
gresses, II, 163, 175; member-
ship, 1874-1877, II, 173; origin,
II, 172, 196; purposes, II, 172;
trade unions, II, 174.
Sozial-Demokrat, advocates Lassel-

lean platform, II, 234; becomes
Arbeiterstimme, II, 271; Otto
Walster editor, II, 233; party
organ, II, 232.

See also, Arbeiterstimme.
Sozialist, Der, advocates political ac-

tion, II, 449; eight-hour move-
ment, II, 515.
Speyer, Carl, and International La-
bor Union, II, 302.

Speyer, J. G., and Trades and La-
bour Council, II, 226.
Spies, August, anarchist, II, 290,
291n, 294, 296, 387, 392-394.
St. Louis, central labour union, II,
389n; socialism, II, 282;
strikes, II, 367n; tailors organ-
ise, I, 352, 353.

St. Patrick's Benefit Society, I, 85.
Standard, The, and Catholic Church,
II, 456.

Stanton, Elizabeth Cady, at Labor
Congress, 1868, II, 127.
Stevens, Uriah Smith, II, 197, 197n,
244, 247, 335, 347.

Steward, Ira, II, 16, 56, 86, 87, 89,
91, 92, 106, 138, 139, 140, 143,
280, 302, 303.

Stiebling, George C., II, 210, 216,
217, 232.

Stone Cutters' Company, established,
I, 69; protects quality of goods,
I, 83.
Stove Founders' National Defense
Association, policy, II, 480, 481.
Stove Manufacturers, National Asso-
ciation of, arbitration, II, 480.
Strasser, Adolph, II, 217, 217, 218,

231, 270, 271, 274, 302, 305, 306,
308, 309, 309n, 325, 400, 403,
404.

Streeter, A. J., II, 468, 469, 490.
Strikes, Conditions: Chinese, II, 146,

149; funds, I, 123, 124, 442; II,
59, 70, 311; immigration, I,
488, 597; injunction, II, 505-
508;
markets, I, 440, 441;
store-order payment, I, 488;
violence, I, 412; walking dele-
gates, I, 126.

List: Baldwin Locomotive Works,
II, 9; bakers, 1741, I, 53, 54;
bookbinders, I, 399; bricklayers,
II, 33, 123, 152, 312; Burling-
ton, II, 474, 475, 507; carpen-
ters, I, 69, 127, 128, 158-162,
186-189, 388, 389, 430, 466; II,
476, 477; cartmen, I, 55; cigar
makers, II, 71, 72, 177, 178, 306,
363, 400; closed shop, I, 412;
coal heavers, I, 417; collateral,
I, 126; cordwainers, I, 105, 109,
128, 140, 144, 398, 399; during
Civil War, II, 23; early, I, 25,
109, 111; eight-hour, II, 156,
385, 476-478; factory opera-
tives, I, 419, 420; freight
handlers, II, 349; general, I,

616

389-392; II, 298, 366; hatters,
I, 338; Homestead, II, 473, 495-
497; in 1833-1837, I, 478-484;
in 1850-1852, I, 576, 597; in
1853, 1854, I, 607n; in 1877, II,
276; in 1880, 1881, II, 316; in
1886, II, 417, 417n, 418; in
1888, II, 474; longshoremen, II,
420-422; miners, II, 184, 185,
334, 363, 478, 497, 498, 499, 501,
508, 525, 528; moulders, I, 565;
II, 7, 51, 52, 316; navy yards,
I, 394, 395; packing industry,
II, 419; printers, I, 136, 137,
412n, 450, 552, 612; quarrymen,
II, 367; railroad, I, 622; II, 64,
382-
186-190, 196, 334, 367-369,
384, 502, 503, 508, 528; stove
mounters, II, 363, 481; switch-
men, II, 498; sympathetic, I,
585; tailors, I, 163, 164, 337,
368, 408, 409, 576; telegraphers,
II, 384; ten-hour, I, 386, 387;
textile, I, 183; II, 178, 304, 362,
363, 418, 420-423, 523, 524;
wage, I, 156, 157, 381-383, 395-
399; weavers, I, 313; women,
356, 418, 420-423.
Opinions agrarianism, I, 522;
employers' associations, II, 31,
51, 52; Greeley, Horace, I, 576;
Knights of Labor, II, 347-350;
labour congresses, II, 98, 123,
129, 160; public, II, 190; St.
Crispin, II, 77-78; socialism,
II, 253, 276; trades' union, I,
363, 364, 371, 375, 377.
Suffrage, caucus system, I, 233;

I,

democracy, I, 177, 178; exten-
sion, I, 175, 318, 319; man-
hood, I, 5, 20; personal rights
versus property rights, I, 12;
woman's, I, 297; II, 129, 211.
Sunday laws, repeal advocated, II,
208.

Syndicalism, Central Labor Union,

II, 387, 388; German trade
unions, II, 386, 387; Spies and
Parsons, II, 297.

See also, International, Black.
Sweating, introduction, I, 7, 102-
104-107;
I,
104; unions,
women, I, 354.
Swinton, John, I, 19; II, 220, 363,
364, 365, 446, 447, 461.
Sylvis, Ben F., at industrial con-
vention, 1871, II, 154.
Sylvis, William H., II, 6, 7, 11, 12,

23, 25, 39, 49, 51, 53, 82n, 96,
111, 115, 116, 118, 119, 124, 125,
126, 129, 130, 131, 133, 137,
237n.
Syndicalism, meaning, I, 15, 16.
See also, Anarchism.

Tageblatt,

T

Philadelphia,

daily, II, 278.

labour

Tailors, organise in St. Louis, I,-
352; strike, 1850, I, 597.
See also, Tailors, Benevolent Soci-
ety of Journeymen.
Tailors, Benevolent Society of Jour-
neymen, employment, I, 339;
transformation, I, 337.

Tailoresses of New York, strike, I,
156.

Tanners' and Curriers' Union, Na-
tional, II, 318.

Tariff, see Protectionism.

Tax Exemptions, stimulate business,
I, 37.

Taylor, Daniel B., at New York In-
dustrial congress, I, 554n.
Teamsters' Union, I, 8.

Telegraphers, aided by Knights of
Labor, II, 345.

Tenement House, cigar making, II,
178.

Tennessee, coal miners' strike, II,

498, 499; unions, in 1864, II, 19.
Terre Haute, conference, II, 318-
320.

Textile workers, organise, I, 111.
Thompsonville, conspiracy case, I,
313, 314.

Townsend, Robert, I, 411, 425, 427,
429, 463.

Trade agreements, anthracite min-

ers, II, 525; arbitration versus,
II, 527; bituminous miners, II,
179-181, 425; building trades,
II, 479, 480; employers, II, 33,
415, 416, 424; "exclusive," II,
32; impossibility, II, 359; Na-
tional Civic Federation, II, 528;
puddler's sliding scale, II, 80,
179; spread, II, 524; stove
moulders, II, 480, 481, 482;
theory, I, 14, 15; II, 520; trust,
II, 526; unions, II, 33, 36.
See also, Bargaining Power.
Trade Courts, early protective or-
ganisations, I, 80, 81.

Trade Societies, date of appearance,
1833-1837, I, 472-477.

Trades' and Labor Council of New

York, organised, II, 226.
Trades' Assemblies, boycott, II, 22,

23, 24; convention, II, 35, 36,
38, 95; co-operation, II, 23;
disappearance, II, 177; employ-
ers' associations, II, 26, 27;
federation, II, 34, 38, 39, 94, 96;
functions, II, 23, 311, 312; In-
ternational Industrial, II, 36-
39; multiplication, II, 310;
Philadelphia, II, 24-26, 39;
politics, II, 38.
Trades' Union, beginning, I, 12, 358,
365-368, 424; child labour, I,
428, 432; conspiracy, I, 408,
409; conventions, I, 424, 430-
437, 469-471; co-operation, I,
468; education, I, 427, 432;
employers, I, 368, 371, 372; fac-
tory workers, I, 374, 418, 428,
429; finances, I, 434; growth,
I, 358, 359, 379, 380; hours of
labour, I, 433, 536; influence, I,
438; jurisdictional disputes, I,
376, 377; land policy, I, 428;
labour press, I, 360; Mechanics'
Union, I, 375; membership, I,
424; need, I, 357; organisation,
I, 427, 431; politics, I, 361, 362,
426, 427; prison labour, I, 369-
371; riots, I, 377, 378; specu-
lation, I, 435; strikes, I, 363,
371, 390; Tammany, I, 461, 462;
term, I, 14; women's labour, I,
436, 437.

Trainmen's Union, organised, II,

186.
Transcendentalism, colonies, I, 505;
forms, I, 494.
See also, Anarchism.
Transportation, see Markets, Exten-
sion of.

Trevellick, Richard, II, 16, 29, 29n,

35, 115, 118, 122, 124, 126, 129,
130, 131, 133, 137, 150, 152, 153,
168, 170, 244.

Tribune, New York, boycotted, II,
317.

Troup, Alexander H., II, 97, 99, 126,
133, 170.

Truck and order system, abolition,
II, 324.

Truth, The, Haskell, II, 299.
Tucker, Benjamin R., individualistic
anarchist, I, 17.

Tucker, Gideon J., greenback candi-
date, II, 246, 247.

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Typographia, German American,
Cleveland convention, 1882, II,
326; established, II, 313; so-
cialism, II, 226.

See also, Fowitz, Gustav.
Typographical Association, National,
cause for organisation, I, 340.
Typographical Society, Albany, I,
113; Baltimore, I, 115.
Typographical Society, Franklin, I,
109; aided, I, 112; wage scale,
I, 126.
Typographical Society, National, ap-
prenticeship policy, I, 451;
book publisher, I, 447, 448; cap-
italism, political, I, 444-446;
conventions, I, 450, 452; lo-
cals, 1836, I, 443; organisation,
I, 620, 621; "two-thirders," I,
448, 449; wage policy, I,

451.

Typographical Society, New York,
apprenticeship. I, 116; benefits,
I, 124, 125, 137; collective bar-
gaining, I, 603; depression, I,
136, 456; education, I, 249, 250;
employers, I, 119; evolution, I,
335, 336; grievances, I, 114,
115; incorporation, I, 86, 109;
minimum wage, I, 131; scabs, I,

131.

See also, Strikes.
Typographical Society, Philadelphia,
apprenticeship, I, 116; benefits,
I. 85; collective bargaining, I,
120, 121; competition of women,
I, 343, 344; co-operation with
New York local, I, 113; evolu-
tion. I, 335; Franklin Society,
I, 112; organise, I, 109.
See also, Strikes.
Typographical Society, Washington,
apprenticeship, I, 342; Duff
Green, I, 450; economic purpose,
I, 137; strike, I, 451; women
labour, I, 344.
Typographical Union, International,

apprenticeship, II, 83; boycott,
II, 317, 365; conditional mem-
bership, II, 58; conventions, II,
97, 319, 326; established, II,
58, 313; federation, II, 60, 61,
157; growth, II, 45, 1.7, 308,
313; Negro, II, 135, 311;
Northwestern Publishers' Asso-
ciation, II, 61; political action,

II, 318; strike fund, II, 59, 60.
See also, Strikes.

U

Unemployment, Chinese, II, 148,
262, 263; Civil War, II, 10, 13;
currency policies, II, 123;
hours of labour, I, 234; in 1829,
I, 170, 171; in 1837, I, 457, 458;
in 1857-1863, I, 488; II, 204;
in 1869, II, 123; in 1873,
II, 219; in 1877, II, 253, 257;
legal tender acts, 1862, II, 15;
organisation of Chicago unem-
ployed, II, 200; Parsons, A.
R., II, 389; riot of Tompkins
Square, II, 220; union employ-
ment offices, I, 587, 588; Weit-
ling's bank of exchange, I, 514.
Union Congress, Chicago as centre,

II, 272; Philadelphia, II, 270;
restrictions, II, 273, 278.
Union Society of Carpenters, I, 110.
Union Trade Society of Journeymen
Tailors, competition of women,
I, 344; organised, I, 337.
United Cabinet Makers, New York,
II, 208.

United German Benefit Society, I,
84.

United German Trades, type of city

federation, II, 313.
United Labor Party, conventions, II,

455, 456, 459; dwindles, II, 491;
in 1887 elections, II, 467; plat-
form, II, 460; single tax, II,
468; socialists, II, 457, 458;
Union Labor Party, II, 465.
United Workers of America, II, 222,
223, 234.

Universal Brotherhood, The, II, 196.
Unskilled, Condition, 1829, I, 171;

Conflict with skilled; cigar mak-
ers, II, 400, 401; District As-
sembly 49, II, 399; in shoe in-
dustry, II, 77; iron workers, II,
407; Knights and trade union-
ists, II, 396-398, 403, 404, 427.
Organisation: attitude, II, 323;

class hate, II, 374; failure, II,
427; Illinois quarrymen's
strike, II, 367; in 1884, 1885,
II, 357, 362; International La-
bor Union, II, 280, 302; unem-
ployed, II, 389, 390.
Riots: I, 412, 416, 417.

See also, Factory System; Indus-

trial Workers of the World;
Knights of Labor.

V

Van Buren, issues ten-hour order, I,
395.

Van Patten Phillip, II, 272–286.
Virginia, mechanics aided, I, 40, 43;

monopoly grants, I, 40, 43; tar-
iff, I, 42; unions, 1863, 1864, II,
19.
Vorbote, official organ, II, 228, 271;
on anarchism, II, 296; on co-
operation, II, 230; on green-
backism, II, 287; on Interna-
tional Labor Union, II, 280; on
militarism, II, 281; on trade
unionism, II, 230, 275, 283.

W

Wages, Conditions: banks, I, 459;
bread assize, I, 52, 53; cheap
labour, I, 347; Chinese labour,
II, 264, 265; combination to
raise, I, 140-143; contract work,
I, 67, 68; co-operation, II, 53;
depression, I, 456, 457, 614, 615;
II, 185, 361; employers' associa-
tions, II, 27, 28; free land, I,
527; growth of cities, II, 359;
in 1850, 1, 582; in 1854, I, 610,
611; merchant-capitalist, I,
339; monopoly, I, 219; piece
work, I, 67, 583, 584; prices, I,
150, 396, 415, 435, 600; II, 15,
110; regulation, I, 7, 50-52, 85,
86, 87, 126, 580, 583; scarcity
of labour, I, 128; strikes, I,
110, 111, 156, 363, 381-383, 395-
401, 418, 422, 432, 424n, 441,
599; II, 78, 178, 184, 186, 312,
362-364, 367, 368, 496; sunrise
to sunset day, I, 171, 172; tar-
iff, I, 443; ten-hour day, I, 311;
trade agreement, I, 607; trades'
union, I, 7, 358, 433; unionism,
modern, I, 575, 613; II, 18, 20,
177.

Occupations: apprentices, I, 592;
carpenters, I, 359; cigar mak-
ers, I, 621; cigar makers,
women, I, 343; construction
gangs, I, 415; cordwainers, I,
442; cotton operatives, I, 111;
engineers, locomotive, II, 62;
house painters, I, 608; labour-

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